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from lat. 87^ to 42* north, and from long.
lOOo to 114* west. It Is bounded on the
north by Idaho and Wyoming, on the east
by Colorado and Wyoming, on the south by
Arlsona, and on the west by Nevada. The
area la 84,990 square miles. The surface
Is largely mountainous and Includes part
of the Great Basin and all of the Great
Salt Lake. The region formed a nart of the
territory ceded by Mexico In 1848. Agri-
culture, mining and manufacture, are the
leading Industries. Probably no other state
In the Union has such a variety of re-
sources. Irrigation has been practiced from
the beginning and was once thought abso-
lutely necessary, but In later years arid
farming has achieved wonderful success.
The main products of the soil are wheat,
oats, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, com,
alfalfa and timothy. The yearly wool clip

turlng Industry, aside from the smelting,
milling and refining of ores, la the making
of beet sugar. Salt production Is also ex-
tensive, as is fruit and vegetable canning.
The mountains of Utah contain Inexhaust-
ible deposits of minerals of great variety;
some of them unique and peculiar to the
region. Silver, lead, coal and iron have
been mined for many years, and gold has
also been found ; but copper is the great
mining staple In Utah at the present time.

The first white settlements were made
by the Mormons In 1847-1848. The Terri-
tory of Utah was organised In 1850. Pre-
judice against these people and the polyg-
amous practices of some of them, kept
Utah out of the Union for many years,
though she possessed every qualification for
statehood and made repeated efforts to se-
cure it. After the Issuance by the Mormon
Church of Its manifesto discontinuing the
practice of polygamy a State Constitution
was framed prohibiting plural marriages,
and this Instrument heing approved at
Washington, the State was admitted Jan.
4, 1896. The Mormons still have a major-
ity in Utah, though In the leading cities
the Ctentile or non-Mormon element pre-

With the help of Irrigation, agrlcnltnre
Is the chief occupation of the people of
Utah. In 1906 there were 300 Incorpo-
rated Irrigation companies In the state.
The Federal Government project of irrl-

eLtlon Includes about 80.000 acres of Utah
nds. Land oflices are located at Salt
Lake City and Vernal. Statistics of agri-
culture reported to the Federal census
Bureau under date of April 15. 1910, placed
the number of farms In the State at 20,676,
comprising 8,897.699 acres, valued, with
stock and Improvements, at $150,795,201.
The average value of land per acre was
129.28 against $9.75 in 1900. The value

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Messages and Papers of the Presidents


of domestic animali, poultry, etc., was $28,-
781.601. Including 412,334 cattle, valued
at $8,948,702; 116,676 hones, $9,999,836;
2,277 mules, $167.497 ; 61,286 swjne, $446,-
653; 1,827,180 sheep, $8,634,736; poultry,
$327,908. The yield and value of field
crops was: Com, 8,000 acres, 280.000
bushels, $227,000; wheat, 225,000 acres,
6,025,000 bushels, $3,618,000; oats, 87,000
acres, 8,889,000 bushels, $1,828,000; rye,
6,000 acres, 78,000 bushels, $66,000; pota-
toes, 16.000 acres, 2.100,000 bushels, $1,-
786.000; hay. 880,000 acres, 950.000 tons,
$8,550,000. The State Is one of the largest
producers of copper. The coal production
was 2.617,809 short tons. The gold mined
In 1911 was 227.834 fine ounces, worth $4,-
709.747. and silver, 12.679,633 fine ounces,
$6,973,798. This places Utah first among
the states In the production of silver. The
report of the State treasurer for the bien-
nial period 1908-10 shows receipts of $6,-
157,126; expenditures. $6,163,220; balance
Nov. 80, 1910, $902,739.

The number of manufacturing establish-
ments in Utah having an annual output
valued at $500 or more at the beginning of
1915 was 1.110. The amount of capital
Invested was $71,653,000, giving employ-
ment to 17,129 persons, using material
valued at $62,234,000. and turning out fin-
ished goods worth $87,114,000. Salaries
and wages paid amounted to $13,696,000.


Admission of, into Union proclaimed|

Affairs in, correspondence regarding,

referred to, 3115, 3123.
Alleged rebellion in, under leadership
of Brigham Yonng, discussed,
2986, 3034.
Appropriation bill passed by legisla-
ture of, and vetoed, discussed and

recommendations regarding, 4984.
Brigham Young, first governor of,

Alleged rebellion under leadership
of. (See Alleged Bebellion in,

Bemoval of, and successor ap-
pointed, 2986, 3034.
IMi&culties with, terminated, 3018,

3034, 3179.
Extraordinary session of legislature of,

act authorizing, recommended, 4984.
Gilsonite or asphaltum in, disposition

of lands containing, discussed, 6168.
Government of, discussed by Presi-
Arthur, 4837.

Buchanan, 2985, 3014, 3024, 3034.

Fillmore, 2663.

Hayes, 4558.
Increase in numbers and influence

of non-Mormon population in, dis-

eussed, 5553.
Industrial home in, report of board

on, referred to, 5186.
Information regarding, transmitted,

Judiciary of, and administration of

laws in, discussed, 4162, 4204.

Land laws, extension of, oyer, rec-
ommended, 2623, 3037.
Land office in, recommended, 3037.
Lands in, set apart as public reser-
vation by proclamation, 6205.
Legal proceedings and condition of

^airs in, referred to, 3115.
Mormon Church in —

Commissioners appointed under
"act in reference to bigamy,"
etc., referred to, 4678, 4731,
4771, 4801, 4837, 4946.
Letter of president of, advising
Mormons to refrain from 'con-
tracting marriages forbidden by
law, referred to, 5553, 5803, 5942.
Mountain Meadow massacre in, re-
ferred to, 3123.
Peace restored in, 3179.
Polygamy in, discussed by Presi-
dent —
Arthur, 4644, 4731, 4771, 4837.
Buchanan, 2985.
Cleveland, 4946, 5379.
Garfield, 4601.

Grant, 4105, 4157, 4309, 4310.
Harrison, Benj., 5553, 5641.
Hayes, 4511, 4557.
Pardons granted persons guilty of
unlawful cohabitation in polyg-
amous marriage, 5803, 5942.
Proclamation regarding, 3024.
Recommendations regarding sup-
pression of, 2987.
Beferred to, 3013.
Termination of difficulties in, 3018,

3034, 3179.
Troops sent to suppress, 2986, 3035.
Threatened conflict between Federal
and Territorial authorities in, dis-
cussed, 4162.
XTklawful combinations in, proclama-
tion against, 5932.
Utab and Northern Ballway, agreement
with Shoshone and Bannock In-
dians for disposal of lands for use
of, 4655, 5187.
Failure of railroad to compensate
Indians, 1953.
Utah OommlBslon, referred to, 4678,

4731, 4771, 4801, 4837, 4946.
Utah Indians. (See Indian Tribes.)
Ute Oonunlssion, appropriation for,

recommended, 4672.
Ute Indians. (See Indian Tribes.)
Utrecht, Peace of. — A series of nine
treaties, concluded In 1713-14 between
the States that had taken part in the War
of the Spanish Succession. The treaties
were sljBrned at Utrecht, Rastatt. and
Baden, and provided for a general rear-
rangement of domain. Much of the terri-
tory parceled out and confirmed by these
treaties has been retained by the respec-
tive States to the present day.

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Encyclopedic Index

Van Burem

Vacuicies in Fablie Offices^ jpower of
President to make provisional ap-
pointments to fill, discussed, 3190.
VaUandighaiii Oase.— May 6, 1863, Clem-
ent L. Vallandlgbam, a lawyer and poli-
tician of Ohio, was arrested in accordance
with orders Issued by Gen. Bomslde, of
tt&e United States Army, commanding the
Department of Ohio. On the day following
tie was taken before a military commis-
sion, and subsequently tried, convicted and
Imprisoned for uttering opinions disloyal to
tlie Union. May 19 the President com-
muted this sentence to banishment. Val-
landigham applied to the Supreme Court
for a writ of certiorari to review the pro-
ceedings of the commission, by which he
claimed to haye been unlawfully convicted.
The Supreme Court, Justice Wayne deliv-
ering tne opinion, decided that it had no
power to review proceedings ordered by a

feneral officer of the United States Armv.
nstlces Nelson, Grier and Field concurred ;
Chief Justice Taney and Justice Miller were
not present.

'ValparaiflOy Chile; population (1895)
220,756; sailors of the Baltimore as-
saulted at. (See Baltimore, The.)
Tan Bnren, HarHn.— 1837-1841.
Thirteenth Administration — Democratic.
Vice-President— R, M. Johnson.
Secretary of State —

John Forsyth (continued).
Secretary of the Treasury —

Levi Woodbury (continued).
Secretary of War—

Joel R. Poinsett.
Secretary of the Navy —

Mahlon Dickerson (continued).

James K. Paulding.
Poetmaster-Oeneral —

Amos Kendall (continued).

John M. Nlles.
Attomey-Oeneral —

Benjamin F. Butler (continued).

Felix Grundy.

Henry D. Gilpin.
Martin Van Buren was elected by the
Democratic party In 1836. At the Demo-
cratic National Convention, held at Balti-
more, May 20, he was nominated on the
first ballot.

Opposition. — A rival faction of the party
nominated Hugh L. White, of Tennessee.
Several rival candidates were named by
States as National Republican or Whig can.
didates. Among these were William Hen-
ry Harrison, Daniel Webster and Willie
p. Mangum. Twenty-six states partici-
pated In the election, Arlcansas and Michi-
gan having been recently admitted.

Vote. — At the election held Nov. 8, the
popular vote was Van Buren, 762,678 ; Har-
rison, 548.007; White, 145,596; and Web-
ster, 42,247. The electoral vote, counted
Feb. 8, 1837, gave Van Buren, 170; Har-
rison, 73; White, 26; Webster. 14; and
Mangum, 11 — all of South Carolina.

Party AffiUation. — In his youth. Van
Buren was a seaious adherent of Jeffer-
son : he was elected to the State senate
of New Tork as a Clinton Republican ; but
In 1813 resumed friendly connections with
Madison's administration. He disentangled
the political complications that prevailed
during the "era of good feeling'* (1819-
1821) In New York and brought about the
election to the Senate of Rufus King, nn
old-school Federalist. Later, he became a
generous supporter of Jackson, but in all
of his political affiliations his conduct was
marked by conservatism and moderation.

Political Oomplewion of Oonaress.— In the
Twenty-fifth (Congress (18371839) the
Senate, of 52 members, was made up of
81 Democrats, 18 Whigs, and 8 Independ-
ents ; and the House, of 242 members, was
made up of 117 Democrats. 115 Whigs, and
10 Independents. In the Twenty-sixth Con-

gress (1839-1841) the Senate, of 52 mem-
ers, was composed of 22 Democrats, 28
Whlgs, and 2 Independents ; snd the House,
of 242 members, was made up of 103
Democrats, 132 Whlgs, 6 Independents, and
1 vacancy.

Finance. — A commercial panic began In
March, 1837, by the failure of Brlggs &
Co., of New Orleans. The panic reached
its height In May, when all the banks in
New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Balti-
more suspended specie payments. This so
much embarrassed the Government that
President Van Buren convened Congress in
special session In September. 1837, to con-
sider the situation. In his Special Message
(page 1541) he analyzes in detail the finan-
cial crisis and the causes which led to it.
He then unfolds his plan for the Institu-
tion of an Independent treasury for the
keeping and disbursing of Government
funds. It was the return to the system
in use in Washington's time and was de-
parted from, despite the earnest warnings
of Jefferson, when the United States Bank
was chartered for the deposit of Govern-
ment money. Congress was unwilling to
sanction the plan, but the President, with
unusual insistence, succeeded, near the
close of his term of office, in securing the
assent and cooperation to his sub-treasury
plan. The Whig Congress of 1842 repealed
the measure and deposited the funds in
selected private banks until 1846, when
the sub-treasury system was again adopt-
ed and has persisted to the present day.
In his Fourth Annual Message (page 1827)
the President gives a survey of tne fiscal
affairs of the country and says that *'lt
win serve to Illustrate more fully the prin-
ciples by which I have been guided In ref-
erence to two contested points in our public
policy which were earnest In their develop-
ment and have been more Important in
their consequences than any that have
arisen under our complicated and difficult,
yet admirable, system of government. I
allude to a national debt and a national
bank. . . . Coming into office a declared
enemy of both, I have earnestly endeav-
ored to prevent a resort to either."

Public Debt,— The public debt of the
United States during the administration of
President Van Buren stood as follows:
Jan. 1, 1838, $10,434,221.14; 1839. $3,573,-
343.42 ; 1840, $5,250,875.54 ; 1841, $13,594,-
the Ui
mary :
la t Ion,
mile. 8
in ciTCx


Foreign Policy. — It Is regarded as one of
the most creditable features of the Van
Buren administration that It was able, de-
spite the popular wish in some quarters,
to remain neutral during the rebellion in
Canada. The burning of the Caroline in
this connection caused the President to Is-
sue his proclamations of neutrality (pages
1698, 1699). In this case, as in all others.

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Messages and Papers of the Presidents

Van Boren, ICartlii— ConNsMetf.

the President conilitently followed the
coarse laid down In hit Inaunral Addreu
/-.— , 1637) where he eald : ^'We htre no
flltlon« and we disclaim all right, to

(page 1537) where he said :

disposition* and we disclaim an rignc, to

meddle in disputes, whether Internal or

foreign, that maj molest other countries,
regarding them in their actual state as so-
cial communities, and preserring a strict
neutralitj in all their controTersles.'*

The Democrats renominated Van Bnren
but he was defeated by Wm. H. Harrison.

Vui Borait ICartlii:

Annual messages of, 1590, 1700,
1746, 1819.

Banking system disenssed by, 1541,
1597, 1707.

Biographical sketch of, 1528.

Credit STStem, discussed bj. 1541.

Death of. announced and nonors to
be paid memory of, 3319, 8320.

Executive authori^ of, over public
moneys, discussed bj, 1541.

Expenses of Government, disenssed
b7, 1541, 1752, 1824.

Finances discussed by, 1541, 1596,
1686, 1706, 1751, 1757, 1789, 1822.

Fiscal operations of Government
should DC separated from those of
individuals. (See Subtreasury Sys-
tem, po9t,)

Foreign ' policy, discussed by, 1590,
1702, 1747, 1820.

Inaugural address of, 1530.

Large standing army unnecessary in
time of peace, 1607.

National and State banks discussed
by. 1641, 1707, 1757, 1828.

Northeastern boundaiy, correspond-
ence regarding. (See Northeastern

Portrait of, 1528.

Presents offered, by Imaum of Mus-
cat, declined, 1809.

Proclamations of —
Discriminating duties on vessels of

Greece suspended, 1539.
Extinguishment of Indian titles,

Extraordinanr session of —
Congress, 1538.
Senate, 1857.
Levying duties on vessels of Por-
tugal, 1589.
Neutrality in war in Canada, 1698,

Public money, views of, on custody
and distribution of, 1541.

Secretary of State, 1003.

Special session message of, 1541.

State of the Union, discussed by,
1590, 1700, 1746, 1819.

Subtreasury system discussed by,
1541, 1596, 1706, 1751, 1763, 1827.

Tariff discussed, 1752.

Veto messaffe of, act regarding distri-
bution of Madison papers, reasons
for applying pocket veto to, 1745.

VanooiiTW Idaiid: population (1901)
Agent sent to, referred to, 3068, 3072.
Boundary question regarding. (See
Northwestern Boundary.)
Vandalla, The, loss of, at Samoan Is-
lands, 5479.
Vandsrlillt^ Tke^ presented to United
States by Cornelius Vanderbilt,
recommendations regarding, 3288.
Bef erred to, 3585.

Vanainala.— Venesnela lies on the north
of the Booth American continent and is
bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea,
west by the Bepobllc of Colombia, east by
British Golana, and south by BraslL The
western boundary Is In dispute, the area
estimated by Venesoelan geographers (599,-
B88 sgnare miles) lying between 1* 40^ 8.-
12* 26' N. latitude and 59« 40'-78* 81' W.
longitude. Included in this area are orer
seventy islands off the coast, with a total
area of about 14,650 square miles, the
largest being Margarita, which is politically
associated with Tortuga, Cubagua and
Coche to form the newly constituted State
of Nneva Esparta. Margarita has an ar«a
of abouL400 square miles.

PhyicQl Ffatvrc*.— The Eastern Andes
from the southwest cross the border and
reach to the Caribbean Coast, where they
are prolonged by the Maritime Andes of
Venesuela to the Gulf of Parla on the
northeast. The main range is known as
the Sierra Nevada de Merlda, and con-
tains the highest peaks in the country In
Picacho de la Sierra (15.420 feet) and
Salado (18.878 feet), the maritime ranges
containing the Silla de Car&cas (8.531 feet).
Near the Braslllan border the Sierras Pa-
rlma and Pacaraima and on the eastern
border the Sierras de Rlncote and de Usu-
pamo enclose the republic with parallel
northward spurs, between which are val-
leys of the Orinoco tributaries. The
slopes of the mountains and foothills are
covered with dense forests, but the basin
of the Orinoco Is mainly llanos, or level
stretches of open prairie, with occasional

The principal river of Venesuela is the
Orinoco, exceeding 1,500 miles in length.
The Orinoco Is navigable for large steam-
ers for some 700 miles, and by smaller ves-
sels as far as the Malpnres Cataract, some
200 miles further up stream. The coastal
regions of Venesuela are much Indented and
contain many lagoons and lakes, of which
Maracaibo, with an area exceeding 7.000
square mllei^ Is the largest lake in Sooth

The climate Is tropical and except where
modified by altitude or tempered by sea
breeses Is unhealthy. Yellow fever is en-
demic at Caracas, and plague cases have
occurred there since 1008.

History.— Venesnela was visited by Co-
lumbus in 1498, and in 1499 by Alonso de
Ojeda and Amerigo Vespucci, the former
naming the Gulf of Maracaibo Venesuela,
or "Little Venice" (on account of the Indi-
an pile-built settlements on the coast and
shores of the lake), and the name was
afterwards extended to the whole of the
Orinoco basin. In 1550 the territory was
formed into the captaincy-general of Ca-
ricas. and the country remainder nnder
Spanish rule until the revolt under Simon
Bolivar, a native of Caricas, who defeated
the Spanish forces in the battles of Las-
tognanes (1813) and Carabobo (1821), and
thos secured the independence of the conn*

Digitized by


Encyclopedic Index


try. BollTftr wa« an nntlilnff hero In tbe
cause of independence, and throngh his ef-
forU (and those of his adjutant Sucre)
Yenesuela, Ecuador and Colombia (Upper
Pern) achieved their freedom from Spain,
while Peru waa enabled to esUblish iU in-
dependence in consequence of liis rietories.
He died in 1880, at the age of forty-seren,
and hl8 remains were re-interred at Cara-
cas In 1842. Venesuela formed part of the
Federal Republic at Colombia from 1822-
1830. since which time it has been inde-
pendent. There have been many revolutions
since 1846. particularly in 1840, 1868, 1880.
1801, 1000, and 1008. In 1854 President
Monagas liberated the African slaves, and
In 1864 President Falc6n divided the coun-
try into States and formed ttiem Into a
Federal Republic

Venezuelan gii««t<ofiw— Protection of , the
sovereignty of Venesuela by the United
States through the application of the Mon-
roe Doctrine has, on two notable occasions,
called for prompt and determined action
by our Presidents — cneveland In 1805, and
Roosevelt in 1002. (See Monroe Doctrine.)

The contention In 1805 was with Great
Britain over the boundary between Vene-
xuela and British Ghiiana. In July 1888.
President Cleveland laid a statement of

Diplomatically, the matter was skillfully
handled, and finally referred to arbitration,
and it was announced to the next Congress
that a general arbitration treaty with Great
Britain was under way. (See page 6154.)
The arbitral tribunal was appointed under
the treaty of February 2, 1807, and the
award was made October 8, 1800. The terms
of award were announced by President Mc-
Kinley in his third annual message, Decem-
ber 5. (See page 6880.)
^ The next Invocation of the traditional
doctrine by the United States In behalf of
Venesuela was during Roosevelt's Adminis-
tration. Debts due by the South American
Republic to citizens of Bngland, France,
(Germany, Italy, and other foreign countries,
were long over-due, and payment seemed re-
mote, if not hopeless. The creditors ap-
pealed to their respective governments for
redress. Sngland, (Germany and Italy
agreed upon what they termed a pacific
blockade for the forcible collection of the
claims. Operations began December 8, 1002,
and on the 0th four Venesuelan vessels were
seised and an ultimatum was sent to Presi-
dent CSastro. Upon its rejection, two forts
at Puerto Oabello and San Oarlos were bom-
barded by the aUies.

In his first message to 0>ngreB8, Decem-
ber 8, 1001, President Roosevelt said of the

President Cleveland laid a Bcatemeni; oi Monroe Doctrine (oaae 6664) that there

the dispute before the Senate CP««e 6204). SuS be ^ terWorlff aSJiidffement b|

President Harrison, in 1^ flratanM^ any non-American power it the expense of

message, expressed the hope that. the ques- -nV American nower on Amarioiin «oii

message, expressed the hope that the ques-
tion might be amicably adjusted in accord-
ance with the historic titles of the two
parties (Page 6471), but regretfully an-
nounced in his third annual message (Page
&616), that the friendly efforts^ of the
United States in that direction had proved
nna vailing.

Upon his return to the Presidency, Cleve-
land was again conflt>nted by the, question,
and in bis first message announced that the
controversy was still pending. (Page 5878.)
In the second message during hn second
term he declared his determination to bring
about arbitration — ^**a resort to which Great
Britain so conspicuously favors in prin-
ciple and respects in practice, and which la
eamestiy sought by her weaker adversary."
(Page 6058.)

In July, 1805, the American Ambassador
at London was instructed to communicate to
the British Gkyvernment the position of the
United States on the question. This took
the form of a protest as^inst the enlarge-
ment of the area of the British possessions

on the American continent, especially at the
expense of Venesuela without the latter';
consent, referring to the traditional and
established policy of this Ctovernment (Page
6064), and denying the right of Great
BriUin to establish an arbitrary line
through the territory in debate and submit
to arbitration only the portion lying on one
Bide of it

Great Britain's reply called forth a spe-
cial message from (Cleveland December 17,
1805 (Page 6087), in which he laid the
British reply before the Senate. The reoly
declared the Monroe Doctrine ^'Inapplicable
to the state of things in which we live at the
present day." (Page 6088.) Cleveland firmly
upheld the Monroe Doctrine, and proposed a
commission of his own to determine the
boundary line, and asked (Congress to appro-
priate money to carry out the terms, wha^
ever the consequences, which he Intimated
might be forclDle maintenance of his con-
tention, under the Monroe Doctrine. (Page

Mr. Cleveland'a attitude caused much ex-
cited comment throughout the country, bat
his position was stoutly backed by the peo-
ple and newspapers of all political parties.

any non-American power at the expense of
any American power on American soil.
* * * We do not guarantee any state
against punishment if It misconducts itself,
provided that punishment does not take the
form of the acquisition of territory by any
non- American power."

By diplomatic interviews, all the Powers
concerned, except Germany, were brought to
a state of wiUingness to arbitrate. In the
case of Germany, President Roosevelt found
it necessary to intimate that Admiral Dewey,
In command of the fleet, would prevent
forcible occupation of the venesuelan ports.
At the same time the President informed the
German Ambassador that in event the Em-
peror ahould consent to arbitration the

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