United States. President's Commission on Immigrati.

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HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION

ON

IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION




SEPTEMBER 30, OCTOBER 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 14, 15, 17, 27, 28, 29, 1952



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES



82d CongTess\ COMMITTEE PRINT

2a Session J



HEARINGS



BEFORE THE



ti.S PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION

V



ON



IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION




SEPTEMBER 30, OCTOBER 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 14, 15, 17, 27, 28, 29, 1952



Pi-inted for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES



UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
25356 WASHINGTON : 1952




V



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PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Philip B. Perlman, Chairman

Earl G. Harrison, Vice Chairman

Msgr. John O'Grady

Rev. Thaddeus F. Gullixson

Clarence E. Pickett

Adrian S. Fisher

Thomas C. Finucane

Harry N. Rosenfield, Executive Director



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REQUEST FOR TRANSMITTAL



House of Representatives,

Committee on the Judiciary,
Washington, D. C, October ^3, 1952.

Hon. Philip B. Peklman,

Chairman, Pi''esident\s C omniission on
Lininigration and Naturalization,

Executive Office, Washington, D. O.
Dear Mr. Perlman : I am informed that the President's Commis-
sion on Immigration and Naturalization has held hearings in a
number of cities and has collected a great deal of information con-
cerning the problems of-immigration and naturalization.

Since the subject pf immigration and naturalization requires con-
tinuous congressictffal study, it would be very helpful if this commit-
tee could have^e transcript of your hearings available for its study
and use, and/for distribution to the Members of Congress.

If this p^ord is available, will you please transmit it to me so that
I may be able to take the necessary steps in order to have it printed
for the use of the committee and Congress.
Sincerely yours,

Emanuel Celler, Chairman.



REPLY TO REQUEST

President's Commission on
Immigration and Naturalization,

ExEcuTTVTE Office,
Washington, October 27, 1952.

Hon. Emanuel Celler,

House of Representatives,

Washington, D. C.

Dear Congressman Celler : Pursuant to the request in your letter
of October 23, 1952, we shall be happy to make available to you a
copy of the transcript of the hearings held by this Commission. We
shall transmit the record to you as soon as the notes are transcribed.

The Commission held 30 sessions of hearings in 11 cities scattered
across the entire country. These hearings were scheduled as a means
of obtaining some appraisal of representative and responsible views
on this subject. The Commission was amazed, and pleased, at the
enormous and active interest of the American people in the subject of
immigration and naturalization policy.

Every effort was made to obtain the opinions of all people who
might have something to contribute to the Commission's considera-
tion. All shades of opinion and j)oints of views were sought and heard.
The response was very heavy, and the record will include the testimony
and statements of some 600 persons and organizations.

This record, we believe, includes some very valuable information, a
goodly proportion of which has not hitherto been available in dis-
cussions of immigration and naturalization. It is of great help to
the Commission in performing its duties. We hope that this material
will be useful to your committee, to the Congress, and to the country.
Sincerely yours,

Philip B. Perlman, Chairman.



CONTENTS



Sess^ions:

New York, N. Y.:

First: September 30, 1952, morning session.

Second: September 30, 1952, evening session.

Third: October 1, 1952, morning session.

Fourth: October 1, 1952, evening session.
Boston, Mass.:

Fifth: October 2, 1952, morning session.

Sixth: October 2, 1952, evening session.
Cleveland, Ohio:

Seventh: October 6, 1952, morning session.

Eiglith: October 6, 1952, evening session.
Detroit, Mich.:

Ninth: October 7, 1952, morning session.

Tenth: October 7, 1952, evening session.
Chicago, 111.:

Eleventh: October 8, 1952, morning session.

Twelfth: October 8, 1952, evening session.

Thirteenth: October 9, 1952, morning session.

Fourteenth: October 9, 1952, evening session.
St. Paul, Minn.:

Fifteenth: October 10, 1952, morning session.

Sixteenth: October 10, 1952, evening session.
St. Louis, Mo.:

Seventeenth: October 11, 1952, morning session.

Eighteenth: October 11, 1952, evening session.
San Francisco, Calif.:

Nineteenth: October 14, 1952, morning session.

Twentieth: October 14, 1952, evening session.
Los Angeles, Calif.:

Twenty-first: October 15, 1952, morning session.

Twenty-second: October 15, 1952, evening session.
Atlanta, Ga.:

Twent.y-third: October 17, 1952, morning session.

Twentj'-fourth: October 17, 1952, evening session.
Washington, D. C:

Twenty-fifth: October 27, 1952, morning session.

Twenty-sixth: October 27, 1952, evening session.

Twenty-seventh: October 28, 1952, morning session.

Twenty-eighth: October 28, 1952, evening session.

Thenty-ninth: October 29, 1952, mornings session.

Thirtieth: October 29, 1952, evening session.
Appendix: Special studies.
Indexes :

Persons heard or who submitted statements by session and order of appearance.
Organizations rei)resented by persons heard or by submitted statements.
Persons heard or who submitted statements by alphabetical arrangement

of names.
Subject matter.

(Page numbers may be obtained from indexes)



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I



HEARINGS BEFORE THE

PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION

AND NATURALIZATION



TUESDAY, OCTOBER 14, 1952

nineteenth session

San Francisco, Calif.

The President's Commission on Immigration and Naturalization
met at 9 : 30 a. m., pursuant to adjournment, in Civic Center Building^
San Francisco, Calif., Hon. Philip B. Perlman, Chairman, presiding.

Present : Chairman Philip B. Perlman and the following Commis-
sioners: Msgr. John O'Grady, Thomas G. Finucane, Rev. Thaddeus
F. Gullixson.

Also i^resent : Harry N. Rosenfield, executive director.

The Chairman. The Commission will come to order.

The first witness who will be heard this morning is Mr. Lloyd E.-
McMurray.

STATEMENTS OF LLOYD E. McMURRAY, CHEIS MENSALVAS,
GEOEGE VALDES, AND VINCENT PILIEN, EEPEESENTING THE
INTEENATIONAL LONGSHOEEMEN'S AND WAEEHOUSEMEN'S
UNION AND THE NATIONAL UNION OF MAEINE COOKS AND
STEWAEDS

Mr. McMuRRAY. I am Lloyd E. McMurray, 240 Montgomery Street,.
San Francisco. i

I am appearing here, Mr. Chairman and members of the Commis-
sion, on behalf of the International Longshoremen's and Warehouse-
men's Union and on behalf of the National Union of Marine Cooks
and Stewards.

The ILWU is a union of about 80,000 members spread over the en-
tire west coast and including Alaska and including also about 30,000
members in the Hawaiian Islands who are the organized workers in
the sugar and pineapple plantations there. Of the 30,000 ILWU
people in Hawaii, a great many of them are aliens; approximately
half of them are Filipino-Americans.

Of our local unions on the mainland here there are the fishermen
in San Pedro, which is the largest fishing port in the United States.
A great many are people of Yugoslav extraction. In the warehouse
division of the union there are many aliens up and down the coast. In
Alaska we have one union of 80,000 ])ersons composed of Fi]ii)inos — •
that is local 37 — the members of which spend their time partly in agri-
cultural industries in California and part of their time in Alaska
salmon canning during the spring and summer months. So that this

989



990 COIMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

union has very vital interest in the immigration and naturalization
laws.

Some of its members are so directly affected, but its interest also
stems from the fact that it is a union which has successfully organized
workers of all national origins and races and all colors without any
attention whatever to any differences among them.

They have been organized successfully by this union for the first
time ; for example, in Hawaii, where the basic wage was raised from
less than 50 cents to $1.02. The highest agricultural workers are mem-
bers of this union in Hawaii. They are successful there because they
followed a principle that the immigration law is designed to subvert,
in our opinion. This union has, as a part of its constitution, article
3, the objects of the organization. The first objective is to unite
into one organization, regardless of race, religion, political affiliation,
or nationality, all workers in the jurisdiction of this nationality. This
union has had a special experience with the immigration law, as Harry
Bridges, its leader, has been the subject of persecution of the immigra-
tion services for many years.

In the case of Harry Bridges it is longer ; it has been for 18 years,
and it still continues. I think that it is impossible in the time al-
lowed here for us to state anything more than the general objections
that we have to this immigration law as it now stands or as it will
be when the McCarran-Walter Act goes into effect.

The first major objection that we have is to erase his character —
the fact that it is based upon a principle tliat this union has found to
be contrary to its own successful experience and, of course, which
this union feels is quite contrary to the idea of American democracy.

The second objection it has is that this law as it now stands con-
tinues the trend to give enormous power to the Immigration Service
and particularly in the McCarran-Walter Act. The effect of what-
ever restrictions may be in the law it seems to us to be practically nega-
tive by the fact that at every turn the Attorney General is given dis-
cretion to do something other than what the law seems to require or
authorizes to do.

The third major objection is that this law puts a restriction on
movement of our people and all people. It sets up internal passports,
particularly by registration requirement, which sets up an enormous
blacklist of aliens, a central blacklist wdiich had been unknown in
this country, which was certainly characteristic of Fascists before
the war. It has effect on international relations of a union whose
welfare is vitally connected on the west coast with world trade.

We think that this immigi^ation law is at variance with American
policy on extending trade. We think that it is vitally necessary that
trade be extended, particularly in the Pacific area, and the peoples of
the Pacific areas cannot help but be insulted by the attitude of the
United States when it passes this statute, the McCarran-Walter Act.

Now we have one union, as I said, which is particularly affected by
this. That is local 37, the Alaska fishermen's or canneries workers
section of the international, and we have Mr. Chris Mensalvas, the
president of that union, who is here to testify before you, about the
way in which that union is affected by the Immigration Service and
by the McCarran-Walter Act.

I should like to present Mr. Mensalvas.



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATIOIv AND NATURALIZATION 991

Tlie CirAiRMAN. You may do so.

A[r. Mensalvas. 1 am Chris Mensalvas, 213 Main, Seattle, Wash.
I am president of local 37 of the International Longshoremen's and
Warehousemen's Union.

Mr. Chairman, for the record, I would also state that I have here
with me in the room two of my colleagues elected by the union, Mr.
George Valdes and Mr. Vincent Pilien.

The Chairman. Will you tell us something about the composition of
your union ?

Mr, Valdes. Our union is composed of 80 percent Filipino-Ameri-
cans, and the remaining 20 percent consists of Negro-Americans, Mexi-
cans, Puerto Ricans, Chinese, Japanese, and Hawaiians, and so forth.
These workers are engaged in the canned-salmon industry about 2 to
4 months during the summer period, and the rest of the year they are
engaged in the agi'icultural crops in the State of California, especially.

Now the 80 percent Filipino-Americans came to this country as
j)ermanent residents, and they have reached the peak of immigration
in 1934, when some 75,000 of the Filipino-Americans came to this
country and they were recruited — we were recruited — by the Alaska
salmon industry and the growers and farmers of California to work in
these particular industries as early as 1925,

Now, our membership, in the nature of their employment as transient
workers moving from California to Alaska and back, have developed
a very high degree of efficiency for these industries, so that in World
War II the California farmers and the Alaska salmon industry were
able to secure the permanent status for these men, although some 20,000
of the Filipino-Americans were, of course, inducted into service and
serving the Armed Forces of the United States.

Also, because of their employment, we believe that because of their
employment the implementation of the McCarran-Walter Act is detri-
mental to their w^elfare. Firstly, I would state here because of our
organization we were able to improve and secure higher wages for our
membership from $25 a month to $250 a inonth in the canneries in
Alaska, and also in agriculture from 15 cents an hour back in 1929
and 1930, to about $1 an hour up to the present time.

Now, we were delegated by our membership to present our views
here in opposition to the Walter-McCarran Act for the following rea-
sons: Firstly, with regard to the Walter-McCarran Act, we have
noticed in it especially Mr. John P. Boyd, of the Immigration Service
in Seattle, Wash., has from the time harassed our union and our mem-
bership ever since 1948 or 1949 up to the present time when Mr. Boyd
arrested some of our leaders and rank and file of some of our members
during the time of union negotiations with Alaska salmon industry
and also during the National Labor Board elections.

Secondly, that we are opposed to the implementation of the Walter-
McCarran Act because that law itself, if it is going to be applied, will
greatly interfere with the normal procedure of union business.

For instance, our membership would elect officers of our union to
visit the Territory of Alaska. They would feel insecure under the
Walter-McCarran Act of being able to come back to the United States
in spite of the fact that they are permanent residents in the United
States.

No. 2 is that the Walter-McCarran Act deprives the right of these
workers the right of employment. We believe that, after working for



-992 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

.25 to 30 years both in the Alaska sahnon industry and in the Cali-
fornia agriculture, we certainly have the right to maintain and to
have these jobs that we have had for the last 25 years. The Walter-
McCarran Act will take this right away from us.

Commissioner Finucane. How will it do that?

Mr. Valdes. Well, according to the statement of Mr. Boyd, the im-
migration man in the Northwest, he stated that all citizens that will go
to Alaska and work can go, but they wull not be permitted to come
back. In other words, we will be keeping in the Territory of Alaska
for the rest of the year these people, and they v\'ould never be able to
come back to our formal pursuit of occupation here in California.

Mr. E.0SENFIELD. Docs that relate to your union onlj^ or also to
•others ?

Mr. Valdes. I think to other unions also.

Commissioner Finucane. Do you happen to have a copy of Mr.
Boyd's statement ?

Mr. Valdes. No ; I haven't a copy here now. "We could obtain that,
iiowever, and forward it to the Commission.

Mr. Rosenfield. Will you, please ?

Mr. Valdes. I will.

Another reason why our membership is opposed to the Walter-
McCarran Act is that the act itself will create a very, very unfavorable
reaction against the agencies of the Government of the United States,
which is the Immigration and Naturalization Service, by the Filipino
people back in the Philippines. Now I mention this because the
Philippine Government today has a trade agreement, known as the
trade agreement of 1946, with the United States Government, thereby
defining the reciprocity of quality of opportunity for both the Amer-
ican people and the Filipino peoples to earn a living. American
citizens going to the Philippines are given the opportunity and un-
limited right to earn a living. They are allowed to go to the Philip-
pines in unlimited numbers, whereas, on the other hand, the Philip-
pines is only allowed a quota of 100 a year to come to the United States,
and it is our opinion that the Walter-McCarran Act is, by depriving
the rights of our people, the Philippine people or Filipino-Americans,
the right to pursue their occupations in California or elsewhere, par-
ticularly in the Territory of Alaska. Well, that is unjust and unfair
as far as our people are concerned.

Commissioner CGrady. What section are you referring to ?

Mr. Valdes. It is because of section 212 (d) 7, the section which
makes the Territories essentially foreign for this purpose.

Another reason, Mr. Chairman, why we oppose the Walter-McCar-
ran Act is the fact that it is depriving our people the right to pursue
their occupation they have had for the last 25 years, is that it will
subject these people to public charity in the future, and we understand
that under the new law people under public charge or under public
welfare would be subject to deportation, and certainly it is our opinion
that this will deprive the right of our people to do that and then
subject them to deportation.

Mr. Mensalvas. If I may, I should like to present Mr. Eddie
Tankin, of the National Marine Cooks and Stewards. I think we have
about fi minutes left.

The Chairman. Can't one person make the statement ?



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 993

Mr. Mensalvas. These are two separate unions.

The Chairman. It doesn't add much to our knowledge to have
repetition from three different people. We have a very crowded
schedule, and this business of dividing it up and presenting it and
repeating the same argument is not very helpful to us.

Wliat matter is he going to introduce ?

Mr. Mensai.vas. The particuhir provisions of the law that relate to
seamen as opposed to other aliens. It is an extension of the law that
has ah-eady been in effect, but it is worse than it was before, so we
should like to present our opposition to those particular provisions of
the laAv by INIr. Tankin or by myself, whichever you prefer.

The Chairman. We have no preference except that it would make
it easier if one person would state the opposition the unions have to
the different provisions of the act instead of having it broken up.

Mr. Mensalvas. If you woidd like, I would say there are certain
provisions of the McCarran- Walter Act which apply particularly to
seamen and distinguish between alien seamen and other aliens in a
way whicli we think is wrong. It is detrimental to the shipping in-
dustry and to the unions, particularly.

Commissioner O'Grady. What sections are you referring to ?

Mr. Mensalvas. Sections 232, 233, 234, and 235, 236, and 237 of the
act, and to the sections on chapter 6 of title II, I believe it is, on the
control of alien crewmen. Under this statute now, alien seamen who
come to or into the United States may be admitted to the United States
by an immigration officer for a period not to exceed 29 days, but this
permission to remain in the United States may be revoked at any
time by the immigration officer, and the alien may be imprisoned with-
out a warrant; that is, without a warrant and without any charge
against him. He may be deported without any hearing, without any
of the process that is provided with regard to deportation hearings
for other aliens. He may be required to remain aboard the ship
or he may be taken to the detention quarters of the Immigration Serv-
ice by any immigration officer who wants to examine him about his
right to be here or about anything material to the implementation of
this act or the conduct of the Service. He may not be paid off in the
United States without the permission of the Attorney General.

Now there are a great many alien seamen who have been sailing on
American vessels for years. They form a substantial segment of the
American merchant marine, particularly on this west coast. They
form a substantial portion of the union that I am speaking of, the
National Union of Marine Cooks and Stewards, which mans the
stewards department of all west coast vessels; and these seamen, under
the new provisions of this act, would not be able to be paid off at
the end of a voyage and then take another ship out unless the Attorney
General approved. This is a departure from the way in which this
statute has been operating and which the Immigration Service has
been operating in the past. It means virtually the end of shipping
for alien seamen who have been shipping on American sliips since
they began doing that during the war when they were particularly
welcome here.

May I say we have many other objections to this statute. There
is no time to state them now. We would like an opportunity on behalf
of both of these unions to present a written statement which would



994 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

jn-esent in detail our objections to the act and to the practice of the
Immigration Service.

The Chairman. We would be glad to have it if you can let us have
it in the near future and send it to Washington at our address there,
and then we will make it a part of this record. We would like to have
it in detail.

Mr. Mensalvas. I will prepare that and have it to you before the
end of October. I understand you have hearings scheduled for most
of October.

Thank you.

The Chairman. Thank you.

(There follow two statements submitted by Mr. McMurray on be-
half of the National Union of Marine Cooks and Stewards and the
International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union and local
37, ILWU:)

Statement of Inteknationai, Longshoremen's and Waeehousemen's Union and

Local 37 ILWU

INTRODUCTION

This document is in the nature of a statement, argument, or brief submitted
by the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union and local 37,
ILWU, one of its affiliated locals. The President's Commission kindly agreed at
its hearing in San Francisco on October 14, 1952, to receive a written statement
in addition to the oral testimony given by these unions.

The International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union is an organiza-
tion of approximately 80,000 members on the west coast of the United States,
Alaska, and Hawaii. Its divisions include longshoremen, warehousemen, fisher-
men, sugar and pineapple workers, and Alaska fish cannery workers. Among
the membership there are many aliens. In Hawaii approximately twelve to
fifteen thousand of the 30,000 members of the union in the islands are Filipinos
or aliens of Asiatic origin. In California and the Pacific Northwest are many
Filipino members who earn their living partly in California agriculture and
partly in the Alaska fish canneries.

Since most of its membership is concerned in one way or another with inter-
national trade, the members of this imion have a vital interest in all matters
which affect the relations of the United States and foreign countries, particu-
larly in the Asia-Pacific area. To the extent that the immigration laws hamper
a thriving international trade and produce bad relations with friendly foreign
nations, those laws are inconsistent with the best interests of the ILWU. Fur-
thermore, the large number of naturalized citizens in the union means that
there is an interest in fair play for aliens that arises naturally among the foreign-
born, even though they are no longer aliens. Finally, this union has been
founded and has prospered upon the principle of equality without regard to race,
color or creed. Such a policy alone has made it possible for this union to
organize the many divergent groups of Hawaiian workers and many workers
on the mainland in occupations historically dominated by foreign-born persons.
The racist character of the McCarran-Walter Act and the discriminatory prac-
tices of the Immigration and Naturalization Service are inconsistent with the
policies and procedures which this union has found effective in the United States.
They are inconsistent with the tenents of government which this union has
sought to observe and expand.

For many different points of view, therefore, the International Longshore-
men's and Wai^ehousemen's Union has a deep interest in our immigration laws


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