United States. President's Commission on Immigrati.

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^' 'Id sST} COMMITTEE PRINT



HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION

ON

IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION




SEPTEMBER 30, OCTOBER 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 14, 15, 17, 27, 28, 29, 1952



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES



82d Congress"! COMMITTEE PRINT

2d Session J



HEARINGS



BEFORE THE



US PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION

V



ON



IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION




SEPTEMBER 30, OCTOBER 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 14, 15, 17, 27, 28, 29, 1952



Pi'inted for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES



UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
25356 "WASHINGTON : 1952



P : I r-i r i r



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PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Philip B. Peblman, Chairman

Eael G. Haerison, Vice Chairman

Msgr. John O'Gkady

Rev. Thaddeus F. Gtillixson

Claeence E. Pickett

Adrian S. Fisher

Thomas C. Finucane

Harry N. Rosenfield, Executive Director



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REQUEST FOR TRANSMITTAL



House of Eepresentatives,

Committee on the Judiciary,
Washi7igton, D. C, October 23, 1952.

Hon. Phiup B. Perlman,

Chairman^ President'' s C ommission on
Immigration and Naturalization^

Executive Oiflce, Washington, D. C.
Dear Mr. Perlman : I am informed that tlie President's Commis-
sion on Immigration and Naturalization has held hearings in a
number of cities and has collected a great deal of information con-
cerning the problems of immigration and naturalization.

Since the subject qI immigration and naturalization requires con-
tinuous congressiQHTiil study, it would be very helpful if this commit-
tee could have^e transcript of your hearings available for its study
and use, and-'for distribution to the Members of Congress.

If this p^cord is available, will you please transmit it to me so that
I may^Jare able to take the necessary steps in order to have it printed
for the use of the committee and Congress.
Sincerely yours,

Emanuel Celler, Chairman.



REPLY TO REQUEST

President's Commission on
Immigration and Naturalization,

ExEcuTi\"E Office,
Washington, October £7, 1952.

Hon. Emanuel Celler,

House of Representatives,

Washington, D. G.

Dear Congressman Celler : Pursuant to the request in your letter
of October 23, 1952, we shall be happy to make available to you a
copy of the transcript of the hearings held by this Commission. We
shall transmit the record to you as soon as the notes are transcribed.

The Commission held 30 sessions of hearings in 11 cities scattered
across the entire country. These hearings were scheduled as a means
of obtaining some appraisal of representative and responsible views
on this subject. The Commission was amazed, and pleased, at the
enormous and active interest of the American people in the subject of
immigration and naturalization policy.

Every effort was made to obtain the opinions of all people who
might have something to contribute to the Commission's considera-
tion. All shades of opinion and points of views were sought and heard.
The response was very heavy, and the record will include the testimony
and statements of some 600 persons and organizations.

This record, we believe, includes some very valuable information, a
goodly proportion of which has not hitherto been available in dis-
cussions of immigration and naturalization. It is of great help to
the Commission in performing its duties. We hope that this material
will be useful to your committee, to the Congress, and to the country.
Sincerely yours,

Philip B. Perlman, Chairman.



CONTENTS



Sessions:

New York, N. Y.:

First: Septeniber 30, 1952, morning session.
Second: Septeniber 30, 1952, evening session.
Third: October 1, 1952, morning session.
Fourth: October 1, 1952, evening session.
Boston, Mass.:

Fifth: October 2, 1952, morning session.
Sixtli: October 2, 1952, evening session.
Cleveland, OJiio:

Seventli: October 6, 1952, morning session.
Eiglith- October 6, 1952, evening session.
Detroit, Mich.:

Ninth: October 7, 1952, morning session.
Tenth: October 7, 1952, evening session.
Chicago, HI.:

Eleventh: October 8, 1952, morning session.
Tvielfth: October 8, 1952, evening session.
Thirteenth: October 9, 1952, morning session.
Fourteenth: October 9, 1952, evening session.
St. Paul, Minn.:

Fifteenth: October 10, 1952, morning session.
Sixteenth: October 10, 1952, evening session.'
St. Louis, Mo.:

Seventeenth: October 11, 1952, morning session.
Eighteenth: October 11, 1952, evening session,
ban Francisco, Cahf.:

Nineteenth: October 14, 1952, morning session.
Twentieth: October 14, 1952, evening session
Los Angeles, Calif.:

Twenty-first: October 15, 1952, morning session.
Twenty-second: October 15, 1952, evening session.
Atlanta, Ga.:

Twenty-third: October 17, 1952, morning session
Twenty-fourth: October 17, 1952, evening session.
Washington, D. C:

Twenty-fifth: October 27, 1952, morning session
Twenty-sixth: October 27, 1952, evening session.
Twenty-seventh: October 28, 1952, morning session
Twenty-eighth: October 28, 1952, evening session.
Thenty-ninth: October 29, 1952, mornings session.
Thirtieth: October 29, 1952, evening session.
Appendix: Special studies.
Indexes:

Persons heard or who submitted statements by session and order of aijpearance
Organizations represented by persons heard or by submitted statements
i'ersons heard or who submitted statements by alphabetical arrangement

of names. "^

Subject matter.

(Page numbers may be obtained from indexes)



APPENDIX: SPECIAL STUDIES



MEMORANDUM BY OSCAR HANDLIN, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF HIS-
TORY. HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CONCP^RNINC THE BACKGROUND OF
THE NATIONAL-ORIGIN QUOTA SYSTEM

I. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF NATION Al.-OIllCilXS QUOTA

This nu'inoraiKlniii deals with one of the I'undameiitnl assumiitions that hiy
b.^hliid the iiiuiiij'ratioii legislation of 1921-24, and that animates the McCarran-
\\ alter Act of this year. That assumiition, embodied in the national-origins
quota, is that the national origins of immigrants is a reliable indication of their
capacity for Americanization. Generally, tliis assumption takes the form of
dge to
Roosevelt. Tulv 26, 1908, Selections From the Correspondence of Theodore Roosevelt and
Henrv Cabot Lodge. 1884-1918. (N. Y., 1925) II, p. 307.

IE Report, I. pp. 1.3-15.

"Report, XIX, pp. 11-12.

^" See, for example, the accounts of the ability to learn English, below.



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1843

and the like — do not contain the materials for a proper comparison of old and
new. Hut in the suniiliary, the Conuuission followed the procedure of presentinjc
the introJluctioii and conclusion of each individual report, tof,'ether with its own
interpretive connnents tiiat supply the .jud^nuent of the inferiority of the new
inunij^M-ants. Those comments spring from its own a priori assumption, not from
its evidence — whatever that was wortii ; sometimes indeed tliey run altogether
against its evidence.'*

IV. ANALYSIS OF THE IMMItiRATION COMMISSION BI.POKT

The suhstaiice of the report falls into a number of general categories. Volumes
I and II are sunnnary volumes. Volume III, a statistical survey of inunigrutiou



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