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24, 227

20, 697


1956


25


Australia - -


30


Austria . ... ..


1955
1964
1964
1964
1958
1961


18


Bulgaria. .... ... ... ..


22


China (White)


16


Chinese racial .....


30




16


Danzig


50




3


Egypt




34


Estonia ....


2146


65


Finland _ ..... .


5






1


Germany . .




10


Greece . . . .


2014
1989


78


Hungary . ..


40


India




In India ....... ..


6,320

1,501

4,730

7,008

4,050

32, 107

9,104

2, 895

11, 946

42, 265

710

16, 381

4,394

4,217

166, 244

14, 871

23, 807

6,208

2.113

623

8.874

697

46. 292

56, 068




84




ioo'

100
100

5,677
236
100
386

3,153
100

2,377
100
100

6,524
440
291
252
100
100
226
100

2,798
938




60


Iran. _. ._ _ _. . .


1956


49


Iraq . ......


70


Israel . .......... ....


1954


41


Italy


6


Latvia .. ......


2274


80


Lebanon . . ............ ........


29


Lithuania .. ...


2090


60


Netherlands . .... . .


13


New Zealand . .




7


Norway.. .. ... . .




6


Palestine .......




44


Philippines ..... ........ ...


1954
2000


42


Poland..


48


Portugal . .........


34


Rumania . ........... ......


2019
1956


108


Spain

Syria ......


26
22


Trieste


1958
1964


8


Turkey

Union of South Africa ... .....


45

7


U. S. S. R


1980
2014


30




90






Total




877, 047















COMiVnSSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1901
Reduction of quotas by sec. 19 (c) , Iimnigratlon Act of 1917



Country


Present
annual
quota


11946


1947


1948


1949


1950


1951


1952


1953


Numbers

charged

to future

years


Afghanistan


100
100
100
100

1,413

1,304
100
100
105

2,874
100

1.181
100
116
569

3,086

25, 957

65, 721

310

869

100

100

100

100

17,853

100

5,677
100
236
100
100
386
100
100

3, 153
100

2,377
100
100

6,524
440
291
100
100
252

3,314

1,707
100
100
100
226
100

2,798
938


1
2

4

"56"

23

1

4

1

55

29

44

- - -f

46
35
535
364
12
52


"2
16

50

20

2

3

37

30

10

78

3

26

36

53

253

295

240

29


1
1

3
3

27

21

12

1

4

17

46

8

288

311

143

29


2

25

19

8

1

11

52

6

8

22

2

10

19

21

96

163

153

10

1

14

2

2

11






2

6

2

42

56

21

7

6

52

47

4

32

'"'13

54

46

136

206

78

25

3

30

10

"21'

4

123

50

18

2

11
2
2

84
1

78
5

29
132

78

67






Albania - -


2

1

22

1

7

'1
37

''26"
4

31
25
23
173
65


......

43

58
14

1
22
52
21

4
251

4

7

17

38

176

209

108

24


4




Arabian Peninsula




Austr.ilia


21

42

8

8

16

49

28

3

3

10

13

13

35

74

83

78

64




Austria -




Belgium






1


China


13




503


Czechoslovakia - -


22


Danzig




Denmark




Egypt






21


Finland..




France. -..




Germany -




Great Britain




Greece -


549




36


Iceland




India... -


_.. - .


5


12


15

""""9

3

169

2


20
1
3

13

1

237

21

14
6
1
3
1

"""23"

6

39

8

45

65

46

24

1


14
3

7

8

2

292

50
1

11






5


Iraq -




1
21




Ireland


42


41




Israel -




Italy.


1,311


500


212
4
14


294

1
7






89


Latvia


31


23


13


Lebanon.




Liberia.


3

22


1

19


"17"


2
6


1






S


7


Luxemb urg














1
42

1
36

3
36

"""17"






Netherlands.. -


47

'"92"
2

""194"

1

33


92

2

154

10

3

171

112

83


2
2
31
127
10
39


30
1
51
2
50
69
25
45


10
5
14
6
38
70
38
29




New Zealand . - .




Norway ..


"*


Palestine




Philippines


66


Poland


150


Portugal




Rumania .. .. . .


67


Samoa




Saudi Arabia












1
42
21

7
16






Spain


20
46
16


209
30
10
22


66

24

9

8


40

20

1

4


28
14
4
4


37
11
6
6
1
1
9
3
12
18


46
2


76


Sweden




Switzerland -




Syria


3




Thailand




Trieste












6
28

5

52
10


3
67

1
31
49




Turkey ...^


7

""98"
42


140
13

122
36


43

1

15

50


40

"""23"
22


j-
35


88


Union of South Africa




U. S. S. R


24


Yugoslavia .


51






Total


152, 377


3,273


2,981


1,652


1,392


833


1,506


1,780


1,360


1,781





• No reductions previous to 1946.

Note.— Public Law 863, 80th Congress, approved July 1, 1948, limits sec. 19 (c) reductions to 50 percent
of annual quota.



1902 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION
Reduction of quotas by special acts



Country


Present
annual
quota


1947


1948


1949


1950


1951


1952


1953


Numbers
charged
to future

years


Australia -


100

1,413
100
100
105

2,874

1,181
100
116
569

3,086

25, 957

65, 721

310

869

100

100

100

100

17, 853

100

5,677
100
100
236
100
386
100

3,153
100

2,377
100
100

6, 524
440
291
252

3,314

1,707
100
226
100

2,798
938






1


....„


1
4
1
3
5

12
2
1
1
3
5
4
3

15
9


2
5


3
2




Austria . _-




1


1


Bulgaria - _




China - _






2
11

8


1

7
11


6
2
3
5
1
2
2

3-

2
9
3


2
3
3
3

7


1




1
1


1
3


31


Czechoslovakia... .




Denmark




Egypt . -








1

......

2

1
......

3
1
1




Estonia .. _ . .






1

2

......

3
1
2




Finland - ..-






2
1
11




France ..


1
4
7


3
1
5




Germany




Great Britain




Greece ..


9
4


4


Hungary . .








Iceland ... _.








India








1
2
3
2
1
71
2


3
1


2

1




Iran .._










Iraq












Ireland .
















Israel _. .-.










'"34"

8


1
44


1


Italy. _._


4


8


1
1


12

4

1
1




Japan




Jordan . .- .










Latvia






i


2
2

1








Lebanon .






2


2




Lithuania ...






1


1
1

1




Luxemburg












Netherlands .


2




1


8
1
1


4
1
2
4
4
4


2




New Zealand...




Norway . ... ..,


..


1


5


1






Palestine






Philippines . . .




4
10


11

8


8

U

8

8

66


12
12


6


Poland ...


4


1




Portugal




Rumania.. .






4
17


3

44


4
63


1
82


2


Spain




2
1


43


Sweden . .




Switzerland ... . .






2
1
5
1
10
3


1






Syria














Turkey.


1






1


5


10


3


Union of South Africa .








U. S. S. R - . .






2


5

1


7


9
5




Yugoslavia


1






I






Total


150, 173


26


27


83


133


289


192


233


92







COJVIMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1903
Reduction of quotas by sec. 4, Displaced Persons Act, as amended



Country


Present
annual
quota


1952


1953


Numbers

charged

to future

years




100

1,413

100

100

105

2,874

100

116

569

25, 957

310

869

100

100

236

386

100

3,153

100

6,524

291

3,314

2,798

938






2








3


Bulgaria






6


China ..- - .






19


Chinese -... ... ......






43








281


Egypt




1




Estonia ......


32




1







Germany


3




Greece .. .. . ... . ..


1


Hungary






230


Iraq




7
5




Israel. . . . . . . . - .


8




6


Lithuania






8


Monaco .. . . ....... . ..


1
1












Palestine


12




Poland . - .


659


Rumania






88






1




U. S. S. R .


24


Yugoslavia .






33










Total


50, 653


3


29


1,443







INFORMATION PROVIDP^D BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
STATE CONCERNING IMMIGRATION LAWS AND POLICIES OF AUS-
TRALIA, CANADA, NEW ZEALAND, SOUTH AFRICA, THE UNITED
KINGDOM, KENYA AND TANGANYIKA, NORTHERN RHODESIA, SOUTH-
ERN RHODESIA, PERU, AND CHILE

Department of State;
Wa)i]iiu(/ton, Octoher 2S, 1952.
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield,

E.vecutire Director, President's Commission on
Immigration and Naturalization, Wa.^hington.
r)EAR IMr. Rosexfield : I refer to your letter of October 3 to Mr. Herniaii
Pollack, Bureau of European Affairs, and to my several telephone conversations
with Mr. Frederick J. Mann, in connection with tlie desire of the Commission
to obtain certain information concerning the immigration laws and policies of
of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the Union of
South Africa.

I enclose memorandums prepared by officers of this office concerning Australian,
Canadian, New Zeahmd, and South African inimigrati(m laws and policies. The
memorandum on Canada has attached to it a copy of the Canadian Immigration
Act and Regulations. The memorandum on Australia encloses a copy of a dis-
patch from the American Embassy at Canberra as well as a copy of a statistical
bulletin issued in January Vd~)2 by the Australian Department of Immigration at
Canberra.

Tlie British Embassy did not have Ihe desired information on hand and conse-
quently, as I have informed Mr. Mann, the Department of State has telegrai)hed
to the American Embassy in London to recpiest it to ol)tain and send the infor-
mation as quickly as iiossii)le. As soon as it is received here, we shall see that
it is transmitted promptly to the Commission.

I trust that the enclosed memorandums and the attachments will meet the needs
of the Commission. If you find any deficiencies, please let me know and we
shall be glad to try to remedy them.
Sincerely yours,

Andrew B. Foster,

Deputy Director,
Office of British Commoitir( altfi and Northern European Affairs.



1904 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Australian Immigration Policy

immigration legislation

There have been 16 successive Australian immigration acts, the last con-
solidated reprint being that issued after the 1940 amendment entitled "Austral-
ian Immigration Act 1001-40." This comprises the basic act and the first 13
amendments, and is the legislation now in force. Two minor amendments (1948
and 1949) have been passed since that time.

From the point of view of comparative legislation, the most significant part
is section III, concerning prohibited immigrants. The excluded categories in-
clude :

Persons not possessed of a certificate of health ;
Idiots, imbeciles, and feeble-minded :

Persons infected with tuberculosis or other communicaVile diseases:
Persons likely to become a public charge ;

Persons advocating the forcible overthrow of the Commonwealth Gov-
ernment, "or any other civilized government" or belonging to organizations
advocating the same (1920 amendment) :
Persons who fail the dictation test (see below) ;

Any person declared by the Minister to be, in his opinion, and on the basis
of information received from another government through official channels,
to be undesirable as a resident or visitor ;

Persons convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude or a sentence of a
year or more in prison (including prostitutes and procurers).
The so-called white Australia policy is not embodied in statutory form but
is an aspect of administrative policy. Asiatics or other colored persons are
not granted landing i>ermits (or immigration visas, which now replace the former
landing permit). Under special agreements with certain Asiatic governments,
Asiatics can be admitted on a temporary basis as students, bona fide merchants,
or tourists.

The necessary statutory authority for the exclusion of Asiatics is found in
the so-called dictation test, under which an immigration inspector can require
the immigrant to write a 50-word statement in any language. Basque or Al-
banian, for instance, can be counted on to stinnp even the most erudite oriental.
There have been suggestions from time to time for the inauguration of a
quota system as being less offensive to oriental susceptibilities, but nothing has
come of it. The Australian Government has endeavored — with .«;ome success —
to placate resentment in India and Indonesia by explaining that their exclusion
policy is based on economic grounds, rather than racial pre.iudice.

Further details as to immigration legislation and procedure may be found
in the Australian Official Yearbook, available at the Library of Congress. I am
endeavoring to find in the Department a copy of the consolidated Immigration
Act through 1940, which could be supplied to the President's commission.

ASSISTED IMMIGRATION SCHEME

Since the negotiation of the free and assisted-pas.sage agreement with the
United Kingdom in March 1945, Australian Governments have been engaged in a
vigorous effort to build up their population through attracting immigrants.
The National Government expanded the scheme after it came into office in
December 1949, and aimed at an annual intake of 200,000, including both assisted
and fare-paying migrants. This target was never i-eached, but the avei'age
intake over the past 3 years has been over 150,000. which, combined with
natural increase, brought a 3^4 -percent annual rate of growth in the population.
This proved too great a strain on the economy, and last year the program
was reduced to a target of 150,000. In July of this year there was a further
reduction to an annual rate of 80,000. The Government announced that the cut
would be a temporary one, and it has been investigating the possibility of inter-
national loan financing for immigrant-absorbing development pro.iects in order
that an expanded immigration program can be resumed.

A description of Australia's immigration policy and of the assisted immigra-
tion scheme is to be found on pages 576-585 of the latest (1951) edition of the
Official Yearbook. The attached Statistical Bulletin of the Department of Immi-
gration, Canberra, gives a full break-down of immigrants according to nationality,
occupation, and geographic distribution in Australia. Two despatches from
Canberra, 58 of July 28, 1952. and 95 of August 18, 1952, give further information
on the immigration scheme, including the reasons for the recent cuts and official



COMMISSION ON IMIVIIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1905

statements by the Minister of Immigration. Despatch 95, moreover, includes
the latest available statistical information on Australian inuuigration. These
copies may be retained by the Commission.



Foreign Service Dispatch 58

JULT 28, 1952.
From : Amembassy, Canberra.
To : The Department of State, Washington.
Reference: Cerp: Department's instruction of May 21, 1952: Section D — 3 (h),

developments affecting immigration program.
Subject : Australian intake of immigrants to be halved in 1953.

The Minister for Immigration, Mr. H. E. Holt, announced on July 24. that the
Federal Government had decided to restrict the number of inmiigrants in cal-
endar year 1953 to 80,000 — about one-half the average intake during each of the
past 4 years. This is a decision made by the Federal Cabinet, based on its find-
ings in a review of the financial and economic situation during budget talks
earlier in the week. Copy of Mr. Holt's announcement is attached.

The Sydney Morning Herald comments that the Commonwealth's decision to
cut the immigration program is a "notable defeat" for the Minister of Immigra-
tion. Mr. Holt has consistently opposed any major reduction in the program, but
is said not to have been greatly surprised when the Cabinet failed to support him.
The Federal Budget, to be presented to Parliament on August 6, is expected to
be subtantially reduced with regard to allocations for immigration in 1952-53,
resulting in some curtailment of intake in the remaining months of 1952.

Mr. Holt left for Europe on July 24, where he reportedly will confer with the
Italian Government on desired adjustments in the Australian-Italian immigration
agreement. He will also have talks with representatives of the West German
Republic on the proposed German immigration agreement which will now be
drastically cut or held in abeyance for a year or so. In Austria, he is expected to
be faced with appeals to take large numbers of refugees from iron-curtain coun-
tries, the press says.

In his fight to retain a larger program, Mr. Holt is reported to have suggested
to cabinet that the present policy of bringing in single, imskilled immigrants
would be revised, and skilled men with families would be brought in instead. He
argued that this would increase demand for products from local industries and
at the same time not flood the labor market. But the Ministers are said to have
been strongly influenced by the pi'esent situation at Bonegilla camp (New South
Wales), where there are 2,300 unskilled Italian immigrants whose placement in
either industry or agriculture has been delayed. (These Italians recently gained
public attention through a threat of demonstration against the Government's
failure to place them in self-supporting jobs; a nearby army post was alerted.)
Rather than having unskilled immigrants compete with Australians for jobs, and
also as a means of cutting federal expenditure, the Ministers agreed to reduce the
intake of new settlers during the next IS months. The budget allocation for
immigration in 1951-52 was fA20,295,000. This included both departmental
expenditure and capital works required for the immigration program.

Richard W. Byrd,
Counselor of Emhassi/,
(For the Ambassador).

Intake of New Settlers — Restriction
Statement by the Minister for Immigration, Hon. H. E. Holt, M. P.

The Government has decided to restrict the intake of new settlers in 1953 to
a total of 80,000. This will be approximately half the average annual intake
of the last 4 years. We have made this decision arising out of the general
review of our financial and economic situation which Cabinet has been making
in connection with the budget.

This decision might be regarded as a "breather" to enable us to digest the
more comfortably the very substantial intake of the postwar years. The reduc-
tion will operate while we are forming a clearer picture of the shape the economy
is likely to take after we have passed through the present difficult stage. Our
national requirements of security and development, which have dictated a
program of large-scale migration, remain.



1906 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

We believe, however, that the time has arrived for us to absorb our gains.
Our intake of migrants in recent years, particularly since a big defense program
became necessary, has been a good deal larger than v^-e would have arranged
had we been able to assure ourselves that favorable opportunities and conditions
would continue indehnitely. We felt, however, that we had to seize the advan-
tageous conditions existing for migration from the United Kingdom and Europe
which might not be soon repeated.

What the United States was able to do for herself by way of population build-
ing over a long span of years in the more leisurely nineteenth century, we
have felt compelled by the threats apparent in this twentieth century to do
more quickly.

The stresses of modern immigration are not always fully realized. Today,
it is expected of governments by the new settlers, and indeed by the citizens
of the country to which they come, that standards of accommodation, employ-
ment, wage rates, and living conditions generally shall be kept high. This is
in marked contrast with the demands made by migration on other countries
in earlier periods. It is remarkable that we in Australia, with our limited
resources and remotene.s-s from the counti'ies whence our migrants come, should
have managed so well.

The fact is that by the end of this year something approaching 700,000 new
settlers will have been absorbed. This result is a tribute both to a very
efficient body of public officers, who have devoted themselves enthusiastically
to their job of nation building, and it is a tribute also to the good sense and
warm friendliness shown by the Australian people to the new settlers, irrespective
of their country of origin.

A revision of the program has become necessary both in the interests of the
economy and of the migrants already here. It would not be fair to our own
citizens" or to potential migrants to encourage them to come immediately to
Australia unless employment is assured and they have good prospects of satis-
factory settlement here.

In addition to a reduced program for 195.3, there will be some curtailment of
intake for the remaining months of this year. While this is subject to existing
commitments, action has already been taken to reduce the arrival of certain
types of workers. The new program will be so drawn as to insure a balanced
intake from different countries.

It is with real regret that we have felt obliged to curtail temporarily our flow.
Our immigration achievements for the last 4 years have been such as to give
Australia justifiable pride. Not only have we opened up a happier and better
life for some hundreds of thousands of people, but the new settlers we have
brought to this country have helped greatly with essential production during a
period when the community's demands greatly exceeded supply.

They have provided a labor force flexible as to composition, location, and indus-
try. They have given us the needed workers where shortages in basic industries
and services were restricting prospects of expansion. Today we have coal, steel,
timber, and building materials in good supply. Our railways and other essential
utilities have been staffed for efficient operation. Our construction projects have
been supplied with the labor to meet their requirements. Immigration has pro-
vided the workers, otherwise not available, for such defense projects as the
Woomera long-range weapon sciieme, the construction of service establishments,
and other works of defense signiflcance. It enabled us during the years of man-
power shortage to give the seasonal rural industries the work force needed for
their harvests and siabsequent processing.

The fact that we now reduce our pace to consolidate our gains Implies no lack
of enthusiasm for continued migration, nor any slackening of our recognition of
the national value from population building in terms of security, production, and
cultural progress. While we can fairly claim this job has been well done, it is by
no means flnished. We must retain the good will of the countries with which we
already have migration agreements, and we should maintain the interest of pros-
pective migrants. They should not be made to feel that our doors are being
permanently shut to them.

While in Europe and tlie United Kingrom over the next few weeks, I propose
to explain to the governments concerned the reasons behind our latest decision.
I shall discuss with them adjustments affecting them which the decision will
have made necessary.

Canberra, July 24, 1952.



COALMIiSSlOX ON IMMIGKATIOX AND NATURALIZATION 1907

OCTORER 20, 19r)2.
("ANADI.W 1m MlCUAlId.N LAWS AKU I'OLICIES

Lc(/i.sl(iti)i mid inhniiii.strdtion. — Iininigration to Canada is controllod by the
terms of the Inimii-ration Act and by the reguhitions and orders made under au-
thority of th(> provisions of that act. The act is iJurposely tiexibh' and does mit
define tlie classes or categories of persons achnissible to Canada as immigrants.
Such definitions aiv given in regulations made niuh^r the act l)y Order in (Council.
Tlie act does, liowever. detin(> certain prohibited classes, including persons suffer-
ing from some forms of mental or physical ailment, criminals, advocates of tlie
use of force or violence against organized government, spies, illiterates, and
others. I'ersons within these prohibited classes cannot be admitted to Canada as
immigrants except by act of Parliament.

Under the Inmiigration Act and regulations, the categories of persons admis-
sible to Canada as immigrants may be readily summarized. The first and most-
favored grotip includes I'.ritish sul)jects from the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northei'u Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, and Soutli Africa; citi-
zens of Ireland; and native-born citizens of tlie United States and France enter-
ing Canada directly from those countries. Such persons are admissible if they
can satisfy the inmiigration officers at the port of entry that they are in good
physical and mental health; they are of good character; and they are not liljely
to become a public c-harge.

The second general category of adnTissible persons consists of persons who



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