United States. President's Commission on Immigrati.

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satisfy the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration that they are suitable immi-
grants having regard to the climatic, social, educational, industi'ial, labor, or
other conditions or requirements of Canada ; and are not undesirable owing to
their peculiar customs, habits, modes of life, metliods of holding property, or
because of their probable inability to become readily adapted and integrated
into the life of a Canadian community and to assume the duties of Canadian
citizenship within a reasonable time after their entry.

Also admissible are persons who, having entered Canada as nonimmigi-ants,
enlisted in tlie Canadian Armed Forces and, liaving served in sucli forces, have
been honorably discharged.

With the exception of a limited number from India, Pakistan, and Ceylon, the
only persons of Asiatic racial origin who are admissible to Canada are the wives
and the unmarried children under 18 years of age of Canadian citizens. B!y
agreements of I'Xtl with India and Pakistan, 100 persons of each country are now
eligible annually f()r entry as immigrants. P.y agreement of 1952, 50 immigrants
from Ceylon are eligible annually.

The responsibility for all immigration matters under the provisions of the
Immigration Act rests upon tlie Minister of Citizenship and Immigration. The
Immigration Branch, (me of tlie four branches comprising the Department of
Citizenship and Immigration, administers this act. Headquarters of the Immi-
gration Branch is at Ottawa.

A primary olxlective of administration is to assist immigrants to become
quickly and satisfactorily settled in tlie (^anadian community. In the case of
group movements the Canadian Government, and international organizations
such as IKO and PICMME assist in preparing the immigrant tor his new life
prior to arrival in Canada. Upon arrival these immigi'ants are taken to the
localities in wliicli employment or settlement has been arranged for them, and
from this point they, and of course all other immigrants who come in on tlieir
ow^n, become primarily the responsibility of the provincial rather than the Fed-
eral authorities. However, through tlie work of the Settlement Service, Immi-
gration Branch, and the Canadian Citizenship Branch of the Department of
CitiziMisliip and Immigration and the National Employment Service of the De-
partment of Labor, the Federal (Jovernmenl continues its interest in them.
Liaison is maintained lietwei'ii the Federal Government and the provincial author-
ities and private (jrganizat ions by the Citizeiisliii) Branch with a view to coor-
dinating the efforts in this field, filling gaps and eliminating duplication.

To ensure efficient administration and effective .supervision, the Canadian
Field Service stalTs in Canada and overseas operate under the direction of the
Commissioner of Immigration. The Canadian Field Service is made up of five
districts — Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western, and Pacific — each under the super-
visi(m of a superintendent. Tliere are 2!>.'i ports of entry along tlie Camidian-
United States liorder. and on tlie Atlantit' and Pacific sealmards. and tli(> adniis-


sibility of evei'y person who enters Canada is established by an immigration
officer at one of these ports. The Canadian Field Service also inclndes inland
offices located at strategic points thronghont the country whose staffs investigate
applications for the admission of immigrants and conduct deportation proceedings.

The Overseas Service functions very much along the same lines as its coun-
terpart (the Canadian Field Service) in Canada. The offices abroad come under
a superintendent located at London, England, who reports to the Commissioner
of Immigration at Ottawa, Ontario. Immigration offices in the United Kingdom
are located at London, Liverpool, Glasgow, and Belfast. To facilitate compli-
ance with immigration medical requirements, a roster of some 500 approved
British medical practitioners makes it possible for British immigrants to undergo
medical examination within a short distance of their ijlace of residence. An
immigraton office is also located at Dublin, Ireland.

For the past 2.5 years, a system of preliminary examination of immigrants
from continental Europe has been in eifect. This examination is intended to
establish, before they embark, the admissibility of persons wishing to settle in
Canada in order to avoid the hardship that would ensue from rejection at the
Canadian port of entry and subsequent deportation. At present, immigration
offices are in operation at Paris, Brussels, The Hague, Stockholm, Berne, Rome,
and Athens. In other cities on the continent diplomatic representatives of
Canada deal with immigration matters.

The immigration problem in occupied territory, namely, Germany and Austria,
is a particularly difficult one. Most of^the prospective immigrants to be ex-
amined are displaced persons and refugees, a large number of whom are in
camps scattered all over the occupied territories and unable to proceed to
examination points. Canadian Government immigration missions are located
at Karlsruhe, Germany, and Salzburg, Austria. Itinerant immigration teams
have been operating from these missions since March 1947.

Policy. — In the early part of the twentieth century the Canadian policy was to
increase the population rapidly through immigration. In the period 1903-14
over 100,000 immigrants entered annually. In 1911-13 over 1,100,000 immigrants
were landed and settled. This large increase took place at a period when the
total population was but 7,200,000 (1911).

In 1931 the applicability of the Immigration Act of 1910, as revised in 1927,
was greatly limited. Immigration fell off sharply during the depression years
with all general immigration prohibited. During the period 1932-35, the average
number of immigrants per year was about 13,000.

In the war years, 1939-45, immigration remained prohibited except for special
cases. In 1946, a new policy was adopted. That policy was one of greatly en-
larged selective immigration whose goal was to enlarge Canada's population
and to increase its economic capabilities. In 1947 Prime Minister Mackenzie
King stated : "The government will seek by legislation, regulation, and vigorous
administration to insure the careful selection and permanent settlement of such
numbers of immigrants as can advantageously be absorbed in our national

The Government policy since that date has been to stimulate immigration.
In addition to sending immigration teams abroad, the Canadian Government
has contributed toward passage money, extended repayable passage loans, and
taken energetic steps to settle inmiigrants. In this endeavor it has been aided
by the Provinces, notably Ontario which has secured jobs for immigrants and
assisted them in obtaining passage.

Canadian immigration policy has continued to be selective. The Canadian
Government, as stated in a Department of Citizenship and Immigration pub-
lication, "prefers the readily assimilable type — identified by race or language
with one or another of the two races in Canada."

The policy has been to encourage immigration from the United Kingdom and
the United States. After this group come preferred immigrants from Scan-
danavia, the Netherlands, and Germany as the Canadians believe that it is this
group which most readily learns English. Settlers from southern and eastern
Europe "while desirable from a purely economic point of view are less readily
assimilated." states the publication.

Immigration each year is given a target goal. In accordance with the policy
of advantageous absorbtion, the goal varies from year to year in response to
economic conditions.

In 1951 Canada took in 194,000 immigrants, the highest total in 38 years.
In the first 8 months of 1952, 126,023 immigrants have entered. A total of
150.000 to 160,000 for the year is exi^ected. In both 1951 and 1952 the immigra-


tion target has been 150,000. No precise target for 1953 has been projected
as yet. It is expected that the same selective process will be contiuiied.

In addition to seeliiug immigrants from .selected countries, Canada seeks
specialized immigrants. Notal)le in this policy has been tlie large numbers of
Dutcli farmers which have entered Caiuida since April l'J47 through tiie coopera-
tion of the Canadian and Netherlands (lovernments. Experiments with the
large-scale immigration of Italian farm workers have not proved successful and
have been dropped.

In 1951, 114,780 of the 194,391 immigrants were workers. This number
amounted to 2 percent of the Canadian labor force. Included were 33,682
skilled craftsmen, 31,407 semiskilled and unskilled woi-kers, 25.9S0 farm workers,
and G,5.")l domestics. I'resent estimates indicate a comparal)le trend in 1952.

The Canadian policy of selective immigration has on the whole been success-
ful. Careful attempts have been made to assimilate the immigrants and to
prevent tiie creation of unassimilable groups such as the Doukhobors of British
Columbia. Criticism arose in 1951 of the large numbers of immigrants admitted
during the winter months at the peak of the seasonal unemployment period.
This year the government intends to cut immigration during the winter months
to prevent a repetition of both the criticism and the difficulty of placing im-
migrants during winter months.

Immigration, selected years

1910 286. 839

1915 36. 665

1920 138, 824

1925 84, 907

1930 104, 806

1935 11, 476

1940 11, 324

1945 ^ 22, 722

1946 71, 719

1947 64, 127

1948 125, 414

1949 95, 217

1950 73, 912

1951 194, 391

1952 (8 months) 126,023

Immigration by area









51, 408
38, 747
46, 057
22, 201
13, 427



5, 482
17, 439
45, 431

3, 209
10. 458
47. 833
35, 626
92, 507

71 719

1947 .

64. 127

1948 -


1949 .

95, 217



1952 (7 months)


1 194. .391

114 744

• Largest number admitted in 38 years, 114,786 were workers, including the following:

Skilled workers

Semiskilled and unskilled workers

Farm workers -


Total .

' Including from United States.

33, 682


25, 980



Summary Notes on Immioratiox Laws and Policies of New Zealand

The statutes and regulations relating to the restriction of immigration into
New Zealand are the following:

Immigration Restriction Act, 1908.

Immigration Restriction Amendment Act, 1910.

Immigration Restriction Amendment Act, 1920.

Immigration Restriction AmcMidnient Act, 1923.

Finance Act (No. 3), 1944, part II.

Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act, 1919.

Immigration Restriction Regulations 19.'>0, and amendments Nos. 1-3.
The Customs Department is charged witli the administration of all matters
coming within the .scope of the inunigration restriction legislation. Ii-respective
of nationality or race, the following classes of persons are prohibited from land-
ing in New Zealand :


(a) Any idiot ov insane person.

(&) Any ijerson suffering from a contagious disease wliieli is loathsome or

{(■) Any person arriving in New Zealand within '1 years after termination of a
period of imprisonment in respect of any offense which, if committed in New
Zealand, would be punishable by death or imprisonment for 2 years or upward.

(d) Any person who is considered by the Attorney General to be disaffected
or disloyal or of such a character that his presence in New Zealand would be
injurious to the peace, order, and good government of New Zealand.

(c) Every person of the age of 15 years or over who, on arrival, refuses or
neglects to make the I'equired declaration and who, in the case of an alien, re-
fuses or neglects to take an oath (or make an affirmation) of obedience.

(/) Every person who is required to obtain a permit to enter New Zealand and
who is not at the time of arrival in possession of a permit.

Traditionally, it lias been the policy in New Zealand to encourage to a maxi-
mum the flow of British migrants whenever the need to expand the population of
the country has arisen. Under the immigration restriction acts, persons of
British birth and parentage, who are of good health, are permitted to settle in
New Zealand without restriction. All other persons must first obtain a permit
which may be issued or withheld at his discretion by the IMinister of Immigration.
In practice, no permits are granted to persons who are not of the Caucasian race.
After the war it was generally felt that the country needed a larger population,
and it became Government policy to stimulate the llow of immigrants.

The first step in 1!)4(> was the decision to embark on a selective policy of assisted
immigration from the United Kingdom, the policy to be developed in accordance
with the needs of New Zealand. This scheme, the free and assisted passage
scheme, was commenced in July 1947. It was confined initially to single British
migrants between the ages of 20 and 3") years. Ex-service personnel received
free fares, while civilians initially were required to contribute flO toward the
cost of their fares conditional upon an undertaking being given to remain in
approved employment for a period of at least 2 years. -In the first place only a
limited range of most urgently essential occupations were provided for. but this
.scheme has been steadily widened initil, for single selectees, almost any type of
productive and servicing work is now covered.

For a few occupatioTis the age level for acceptance was later reduced to IS years
of age (e. g., trainees for hospitals).

In April 1948 provision was made under the nomination scheme whereby any
relative, friend, or employer could nominate for a free or assisted passage any
applicant otherwise suitable and eligible for selection under the main scheme.
The essential requirement is that the nominator in New Zealand must be able
to guarantee that he can arrange accommodation for the nominee on arrival in
New Zealand.

In May 1950, the requirement of a contribution of £10 was abolished, the
position now being that free fares are granted to all selectees under this scheme.
At the same time the upper age limit for eligibility was lifted from 35 to 45 years
of age: thirdly, provision was made for extending free passages to certain
categories of married British migrants with iip to two children ; these categories
included mainl.v building and construction workers and other allied tradesmen,
and, in addition, othei- essential productive and servicing workers nominated by
friends, relatives, or employers in New Zealand who can arrange accommo(lation
on arrival.

From its inception in 1947 to Jiuie 30. 1951. 9.049 persons have arrived in New
Zealand under the free (and assisted) passage scheme for British migrants.
These comprise 5,214 males and 3.287 females and. in addition, as dependents,
239 wives and 309 children.

In addition to the assisted passage scheme, the New Zealand Government
has allocated berths from the available immigration quota on iiassenger ships
from the United Kingdom to a number of selected British migrants who pay
their own passages to New Zealand. All adults (other than wives) in such
cases have engaged in skilled essential work and are required to have accom-
modation assured to them before embarkation.

Up to June 30, 1951, 5,580 men and women and children arrived in New Zea-
land under such sponsored passages.

Child migration scheme

Under this scheme, British children between the ages of 5 and 17 years whose
parents or guardians wish them to have the opportunities which New Zealand
can offer, are eligible for free passages. The children are placed with foster
parents approved by the Superintendent of Child Welfare in New Zealand.


The first jji-oiip aniviMl in Xi'w Zcalaiul in June 104!). To June 30, 1951, 281
such fhiklreii had arrived.

European settlers from displacetl-iwrsoii.'i eaiuijs in Europe

A further aspect of New Zeahiud's inunijiration policy was its agreement
after the war to take a numher of European settlers from disphiced-persons
camps in Europe. The first draft of 041 settlers arrived in .lune 1940, the second,
nunibeiiuff 9."1, in October 1950, the third, of 890, in ^lay 1951, a fourth draft,
comprising 012 .settlers arrived during August 1951, and a final draft of 500
toward the end of 1951. Apart from the above, persons in New Zealand may
nominate friends and relatives remaining in displaced-persons cami)S for pas-
sages to New Zealand ; the persons nominating in New Zealand are, in fact, in
many cases former displaced persons who have become new settlers. Several
small drafts have alretidy arrived in New Zealand under tliis latter scheme.

The Dutch migration scheme

A migration agreement between the Netherlands and New Zealand Govern-
ments was concluded in October 1050. In terms of this agi-oement, up to 2,000
per.sons will l)e accepted as new settlers in any 1 year — 1,200 male and 800 female
workers. To be eligible, applicants must be unmarried persons who liave attained
the age of IS years, but not i-eac^hed 30 years of age at the time of application.

Target goals for assisted immigration

The target set for assisted immigration was 7,500 persons per annum for 1951
and 1952 with the intention that it should thereafter be raised to 10,000 persons
per annum. The 7,500 rate was computed on the following expectation of yield:

(i) 2,000 single persons from the United Kingdom.

(ii) 1,000 families from the United Kingdom, totaling .3,500 persons.

(iii) 2,000 non-British persons from friendly western countries, principally

It was announced last month, however, that New Zealand is to reduce her
quota of English and Dutch immigrants nest year, as a result of shipping diffi-
culties and inadequate housing. The number of assisted British settlers will be
reduced from 7.500 to 5,000, and the number of assisted Dutch immigrants will
be cut down to 1.500. Prefex-ence will be given to skilled workers.

Tlie Minister of Immigration, Mr. Sullivan, said the reduction in the Dutch
immigration program has been made necessary largely because too high. a pro-
portion of Dutch settlers have been in the unskilled group, for whom there are
fewer opportunities at present. Mr. Sullivan said it is proposed, therefore, to
restrict the selection of Dutch settlers under the assisted-passage scheme to
single men who are fully experienced farm workers, or skilled building or
engineering tradesmen, and to single women and a small number of unskilled
workers. Entry permits will be granted to the same number of unassisted Dutch
Immigrants, who come into the same occupational groups.


The welfare of all immigrants, whether British or European, is believed to
receive every consideration by tlie Government. The Department of Labor and
Employment, which is concerned with all administration arising fi-om immigra-
tion matters, has 25 district offices throughout the Dominion. Its oflicers are
available at all times to advise new settlers on any problems which may arise.

Immigration welfare committees

These have been set up in all of the above 25 centers, the function of the com-
mittees being the coordination of welfare activities in respect of all new settlers.
The committees are nongovernmental, while various organizations aflBliated to
the National Council of Women are represented on them. These committees
take an active interest in welfare matters.

Protection of interests

The interests of all immigrants are protected in that they are allowed the
same rights, privileges, wage rates, etc. (sub.1ect to certain residential qualifica-
tions), as are full citizens.

Figures for permanent arrivals and permanent departures in each of the past
10 years are given in the annex. The present population of New Zealand was
reported a few weeks ago to have passed the figure of 2,000,000.

Sources: Official New Zealand Yearbook and other oflicial publications.




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Online LibraryUnited States. President's Commission on ImmigratiHearings → online text (page 12 of 35)