United States. President's Commission on Immigrati.

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Peru, tax exemptions, military service exemptions, etc., to entice prospective
immigrants. Premiums were offered to Peruvian agents who were successful in
bringing immigrants to Peruvian shores.

This liberal policy has been described as a failure. Numbers of immigrants
have not flocked to Peru. Of those who came, the majority were orientals.
Most of the immigrants did not remain as agricultural workers on the haciendas,
as originally planned ; and the montana of northeastern Peru x-emains a vast,
rich, unsettled area.

The last important national influx of immigrants to Peru was that of the
Japanese, from 1897 to 19.30. The social unrest caused by the coming of the
Japanese resulted in the passage of the supreme decree of June 26, 1936. This
decree was aimed at halting oriental immigration in general and Japanese in
particular. The thinking at the time of the passing of this decree is reflected
in the book, "Derecho Internacional Publico," by Alberto ULLOA, Foreign
Minister at that time, who wrote alluding to the decree : "The increase of
Japanese immigration and the activities developed by these immigrants have
created social unrest during recent years in Peru because their conditions and
methods of working have produced pernicious competition for the Peruvian
workers and businessmen. These activities are marked by strong Japanese
nationalistic characteristics. The social imrest is principally reflected among
the popular classes because of the tendency of the Japanese immigrant to
monopolize small industries and the occupations of workers and artisans."

The decree of 1936 was implemented by the supreme decree to regulate im-
migration, dated May 15, 1937. This latter decree is the basic document, with
slight modifications, which governs immigration to Peru today.

I. SUPREME DECREE OP MAY 15, 1937

The change from a liberal to a restrictive policy of immigration was high-
lighted by the passage of the supreme decree of May 15, 1937. For the first
time in Peruvian immigration legislation a quota system was established : The
number of immigrants that may enter Peru may not exceed 0.002 percent of
the total population ; and in any case may not exceed 16,000 persons of each
nationality. In actuality, the quota system is operative only with regard to
Chinese, Japanese, and any other oriental immigration applicants. Oriental
immigi-ation has been effectively stopped ; quota restrictions for other na-
tionalities have not been adhered to.

Peruvian employees and laborers must comprise at least 80 percent of the total
work force of any commercial, industrial, or agricultural enterprise. The num-



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1927

bov of foreign ooinnicrcial and imlustriiil enterprises may not exceed 20 percent
of the total of such enterprises.

The following classes of persons are not admissible to Peru : unaccompanied
children under 10 years of age ; the penniless ; vagabonds and gypsies ; those who
suffer from insanity; alcoholics, epileptics, tuberculars. syphilities. lepers, and
those with contagious diseases; paralytics, the blind and deaf, unaccompanied;
drug addicts; those who deal in white slavery; those who traffic in pornographic
and obscene material ; Communists, anarchists, and nihilists, and those who pro-
fess doctrines or belong to parties or sects advocating the destruction of organ-
ized social and political order : and criminals.

Persons who wish to come as immigrants must first deposit 2,000 soles (1 sol
equaled U. S. $0.25 in 1937) per family member as guaranty of return passage
in the event that employment is not obtained within DO days. (This provision
was rescinded bv the supreme decree of July 10, 1946.)

A National Council for Immigration was established as a consultative body
regarding immigration problems. This organization met irregularly and accom-
plished little.

II. POSTWAR lAlMIGRATlON POLICY

Shortly after World War II the Peruvian Government made several efforts to
ihcreaseimmigration to Peru while retaining the decree of 1937. The National
Council for Immigration was reconstituted to study the problem seriously. A
commission was sent to Europe to encourage immigration to Peru. Attempts
were made to discover statistically what kind, how many, and which nationalities
of specialists and technicians were needed and desired by Peruvian industry.

By the supreme decree of December 12, 1947, the Peruvian Government rei'erted
to special concessions for attracting immigrants in national groups. This decree
contracted to give 1.5.000 hectares of montafia to the Societa por Azioni "Italo
Peruviana Agricola Industriales," known as "S. A. I. P. A. I." Special provisions
as to import duties for the new colonists were allowed. The Peruvian Govern-
ment promised to pay 10,000 soles (1 sol equaled U. S. .$0.07, 1952) to each family
consisting of four persons. S. A. I. P. A. I. was to bring groups of Italian immi-
grants to the concession. The declared motive for the decree is noteworthy : "The
essential bases for effective colonization depend upon the selection of the immi-
grant, his adaptability, race, and religion; cession of land; donation of habita-
tion, animals, and tools: accessibility of the land," etc.

To date, only some 35 Italian families have arrived, and the experiment does
not appear to be successful.

III. IMMIGRATION STATISTICS

Peruvian statistics are for the most part incomplete. Recently published
statistics show that there are now approximately 60,000 foreigners residing per-
manently in Peru, of which I2.72S are Japanese and 9,546 are Chinese.

Statistics obtained from the Peruvian Foreign Office regarding the number of
immigrants who have come to Peru between 1945 and July 1952 indicate a total
of 15,235. There is no annual breakdown available. Of the total of 15,235 immi-
grants, 1,927 arrived during the period February 24, 1948, to March 28, 1949,
under the auspices of IRO. By subtracting the number of displaced persons set-
tled in Peru by IRO from the total number of immigrants, the total number of
normal immigrants is 13,308. This last total divided by 7V> years, the period
under consideration, results in an average annual immigration of 1.764 persons.

It is possible to estimate the actual number of immigrants who came to Peru
for each of the years 1945-49. The total number of persons entering Peru for
each of these years was as follows :

1945 : 62,841

1946 75,353

1947 121,193

1948 179,756

1949 200,311

By using the coefficient of 1 percent, estimated by the Peruvian Ministry of
Finance to be the percentage reflecting the number of persons who are immi-



1928 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

grants among the total number of arrivals, normal immigration on an annual

basis would be :

Number of

Year : immigran ts

1945 628

1946 753

1947 1,211

1948 ' 1, 788

1949 2,003

1 From tlie total arrivals in 1948 the 1,927 immigrants settled by IRO were subtracted.

IV. PRESENT OUTLOOK REGARDING IMMIGRATION TO PERU

Present Peruvian attitude toward general immigration to Peru is negative.
The office within tlie Foreign Ministry which was charged with immigration
policy has been disbanded. The Peruvian ofticial in Italy who was studying the
possibilities of Italian immigration to Peru is being recalled.

On the other hand, Peru remains interested in settling the vast montaiia region.
Rich forests, plentiful land which must first be cleared of its luxuriant jungle
growth, and a bearable climate are the attractions of the montaiia. The type of
immigrant that Peru would most like to receive is a European peasant and his
family, of the Catholic religion, imbued with the pioneer spirit. However, until
roads or a railroad is put through to the region so that markets are available to
the producers in the montana and until housing and a standard of living that the
average European immigrant would consider minimum can be assured, immigra-
tion to Peru in large numbers is unlikely.

Chile

November 24, 1952.
Foreign Service Despatch No. 543.
From : American Embassy, Santiago, Chile.
To : The Department of State, AVashington (for ARA).
Reference : Department's OM, October 6, 1952.

Subject: Administration — ARA: Report on Chilean Immigration Laws and
policies.

The Chileiui (jovernment's early efforts, after gaining independence, to foster
a 'system of planned immigration, which would supplement a small annual volun-
tary immigration, met with limited success. It was hoped to induce experienced
European farmers to settle in the southern part of Chile by offering them free
grants of land but it soon became apparent that a large portion of the desirable
areas had been snatched up by opportunists who secretly negotiated with the
Indians in the hope of making huge profits in the resale of the land. Also, a
relatively few families owned and tenaciously held on to huge estates in the
central and most desirable sections of the country. These lands came into their
possession as a result of royal grants made during the colonial period. This
state of affairs tended to discourage immigrant farmers and, to this day, this
condition has not permitted the development of medium-sized farms, while small
holdings are being continuously subdivided.

The Government made repeated efforts to encourage experienced agriculturists
to immigrate to Chile. In 1845, as a result of a law passed to facilitate coloni-
zation in the south, a group of German inunigrants, attracted by offers of land,
were brought to Chile and successfully established at Osorno. The President
of Chile was voted increased powers in 1851 to grant state-owned lands to immi-
grant-settlers.

In 1S72. the National Society for Agriculture, whose membership consisted of
the coinitry's biggest landholders, was given the title of "General Immigration
Office" and charged with promoting the immigration of farmers.

In 18S2, the Government appointed a general agent for European colonization
and sent him abroad to facilitate the immigration of laborers. The Government
also created the positi(m of inspector general of colonization and he had the
responsibility of receiving and settling these immigrants.

About this time, the Governjnent, becoming increasingly aware of the country's
mineral wealth and the opportunities for industi'ialization, tried to promote
the inunigration of Europeans with capital and technical know-how. As early as
1S24. to those in a position to set up industrial workshops, the Government
offered grants of land, tax concessions, and exemptions from military service.

The civil war of 1891 sharply reduced immigration until the year 181)5, when
the Government once again pursued its program of planned immigration. A



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1929

law was passt'd rcducinji sfu and rail fares to assist iiniiii«rants lioldiiit: ollicial
work cMiiitrai'ts. In lUO."). innnigration aj^oncics were estalilislu'd in Geneva and
Hamburg, and selected inuniRrants were jiranted such additional benefits as free
transiM)rtati(iM of machinery and eciuipnient and temporary free room and board.
With such inducements, Chile .succeeded in j;;etting 22,000 useful immigrants
between l!»(i.". and liHO.

The First W(uid War and its economic after effects tended to cut down innni-
gration. I >urini;- the world-wide depression of the thirties, which hit the country
hard. Chile's policy of unrestricted inunigration changed and became based on
tlie principle that the country had most to gain from a limited and selective
inunigration. Thus. Chilean firms were given maximum (piotas of foreign em-
ployees that could he taken on contract, and the policy of granting free land to
colonists was restricte{) approximately 2,.S00 persons immigrated to Chile under this
program, and the (government assisted them by provi. They show
that, with a new emphasis on planned immigration beginiung in 1882, immi-
gration swelled from yearly averages of mostly less than 100 to a 7-year ( 1882-88)
average of almost 1,400 a year. In 1889 and 1890, immigrants poiired in at
the aniuial rate of 10,700. Although the next 15-year period to 1906 showed a
sharp drop in immigration from this extremely high 2-year figure, a relatively
high rate of 800 immigrants annually was maintained. In 1907, inunigration
again rose sharply, and continued high to 1925, interrupted only by World War
I. After a decade of rising and falling, arrivals of foreigners showed a slight
ri.se to the beginning of World War II. Few immigrants arrived in the period
1940—43 but after 1940 a steep rise began and has continued. It is estimated
that in the period from 1850 to 1950 a little over 200,W)0 settlers came to Chile.
Enclosure No. 3 is a comparative table showing the numbers of foreigners, by
nationality, resident in the country in 1895, 1920, and 1949.

In the past 30 years, the Government has iiermitted a relatively large immigra-
tion of Arabs and Eastern Europeans. It is officially reported that in 1949 there
were residing in Chile some 0,300 Arabs and approximately 14.(X)0 Eastern Eu-
ropeans, many of whom ar;^ refugees. Surprisingly, there were also resident
.some 1,800 Chinese and over 5



Online LibraryUnited States. President's Commission on ImmigratiHearings → online text (page 15 of 35)