United States. President's Commission on Immigrati.

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1869

1882

1885


"IZZIII 2,466
1, 837


1, 114


1854

1856 _ .


1897

1898


970

564


1857




1886


905


1899

1900

1901


548


1858




1887


808


93G


1859




1888


805


1. 449


1860




1889


10, 413


1902

1905

1906


S64


1861

1862




1890

1891


11,001

318


293

1,442



Source : Politiea, legislariC^n y eontrol de la immigraci/m en Chile y otros Estados Ameri-
canos (The Policy, Legislation, and Control of Immigration in Chile and other American
countries), by Eliana Bucclii I'onsa, Santiago. 10."9.



1932 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION
Enclosure No. 2. — Movements of foreigners in Chile, 1908-.'fS



Year


Arrivals


Depar-
tures


Differences


Year


Arrivals


Depar-
tures


Differ-
ences


1908


25, 775
19, 014
25, 788

24, 845
27,645
35, 393
47, 147
17,326

25, 878
30, 076
17, 953
15,658
22, 122
21,926
19, 528
21,998
37,054
32, 255
27,060
23, 683
22, 395


12, 750
15,867
16,798
23, 841
15,482
28, 248
21,054
10,408
24, 919
19,009
19, 438
15,124
18,391
15,072
15,489
17, 283
29, 166
25, 234
26, 837
24, 282
21,667


+13,016

+3,147

+8, 990

+1,004

+12, 163

+7,145

+26, 093

+6,918

+959

+11,067

-1,485

+534

+3, 731

+6, 854

+4, 039

+4,715

+7, 888

+7, 021

+223

-599

+728


1929


37,988
39, 860
29, 195
25, 151

25, 396

26, 550
31. 524
35, 313
40, 085
48,221
54,486
46,368
49,790
53,649
72,164
68, 250
84, 729

121,888
122, 542
121, 334


33, 356
37, 860
29, 888

25, 878
23, 671

26, 901
29, 536
32, 032
36, 821

44, 751
47,960

45, 576
52, 511
55, 796
73, 276
66, 909
84, 425

116,373
115,599
106, 627


+4, 632


1909


1930-


+1,410


1910

1911 -

1912


1931

1932

1933


-693

-728
+1,725


1913


1934.- -.-

1935

1936


-351


1914..._ - -

1915


+1 , 988
+3. 281


1916


.1937.- _-_


+3,264


1917-


1938

1939 .-


+3, 470


1918


+6, 526


1919


1940


+792


1920-


1941

1942 .


-2, 721


1921


-2,147


1922


1913


-1,112


1923


1944


+1,341


1924

1925


1915 - . -.-


+304


1946


+5,515


1926


1947


+6, 943


1927


1948


+14, 707


1928











Souicp: Direccion General de Estadlstica.

Enclosure No. 3. — Foreigners resident in Chile



Nationalities



Germans

Arabs

Argentines

Austro-Hungarians -

Belgians

Bolivians

Brazilians

Canadians

Cubans

Colombians

Costa Ricans

Czechs

Chinese

Danes

E cuadorians

Slavs

Spaniards

North Americans.-.

French

Greeks

Dutch

Hungarians

British

Italians



Annual census



1895 1920 1949



7,560



7,507
1,550

278



999
241
421



8,494
745

8,266
137



6,838
7,797



8,950
1,849
7,362
1,573

387
15, 552

290



1,954
337
711

1,354
25, 962

1,908

7,215
522
492



7,220
12, 358



20,052



8,405
788
452

5,606
568
194
358
988
155

1,150

1,799
316

1,096



26, 757
4,440
4,074
736
908
1,560
4,639
14, 098



Nationalities



Japanese

Lebanese

Mexicans ..

Norwegians. _ _

.Palestinians

Panamanians

Paraguayans

Peruvians J

Poles

Portuguese

Rumanians

Russians

Serbs

Syrians -.

Swedes

Swiss...

Turks

Uruguayans

Yougosla vs - - .

Venezuelans

Other nationalities-
Total



Annual census



1895 1920 1949



123
221



15, 999
'"'"237'
""'234'



211

1,653

76

186



259



79, 056



183

319

1,164



12,991

181

403

144

1,320

1,432

1,204

242

1,677

1,282

407



717



120, 436



526

908

352

199

3,855

263

149

4, 060

2,055

219

1,644

1,823



1,590
285

1,423
451
691

4,666
565

1,186



124, 049



Note.— No group of less than 100 is specified.

Source: Direccion General de Estadlstica and Direccion General de Identiflcaeiou y Pasaportes
(Identification and Passport Office).



COMMISSION OX IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1933



KNCi.osruK No. 4. — AiKilii-si.s of iniinif/nition in Chile ii f) to Jdiiudii/ ll)')l) loidcr
the convention irith the International h'efiit/ec ihyimization: A. Clasnification
of immii/riints aeeonlinij to se.r, ai/c, nationaliti/, religion, profcssiov, or occu-
pation; 1. Sex and aye





Arrivals


Total






1948


1949


Janu-
ary
1950


Percentages


Adult men -


487
428
33
85
148


439
348


290
124


1,216

900

33

313

260


44.7


Adult women


33.0




1


Children of 2 to 15


177
94


51

18


\ 22.3




1






Total


1,181


1,053


483


2,722


100.0







Source: Direccion General de Trabajo, Servicio Social.

Enclosube No. 5. — Nationalities





Arrivals




Nationalities


1948


1949


January
1950


Total








3

2

2

5

46

4

g-
115

8

43"

18

7

""'"214'


3


Germans _ _




2

1


4




13


14




9


Bulgarians




7

71

5

12

26

186
25
15

220
55
82
68

216


12


Czechs .- V . .- -.- -




117




17


26


F.stnriians


12


Greeks .. .- ... . ..


17


49


Hungarians


301


Letts


56

18
281

34
229

38
200

79
199


89


Lithuanians... . .


33


Poles


544


Rumanians . . .. . .


107




318


Ukrainians... . ...


106


Yugoslavs ...


630

79


Stateless persons


67


10


276






Total


1,181


1,058


483


2,722







Source: Direccion General de Trabajo, Servicio Social.

Enclosure No. 6. — Religions



Creeds


Arrivals


Creeds


■ Arrivals


1948


1949


1948


1949


Christians:


437

194

317

99

56


239

15

554

122

111

3

3




29




Orthodox


Mohammedans ...


11






49






Grand total




Greek Catholics. ..


1,181


1,053








Lutherans.




Baptists












Total


1,103


1,047









Source: Direccion General de Trabajo, Servicio Social.



1934 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTIVIENT OF
STATE CONCERNING THE PRESENT EMIGRATION POLICIES OF
U. S. S. R., POLAND, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, HUNGARY, RUMANIA, BUL-
GARIA, AND YUGOSLAVIA

Department of State,
WashiiifftoH, October SO, 1952.
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield,

Executive Director, President's Commission on Immigration and
Naturalis:ation, Executive Office, Washington 25, D. C.
My Dear RIr. Rosenfield : Reference is made to your letter of October 10, 1952,
in which you request a statement by this Department on tlie present emigration
policies of the U. S. S. R., Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria,
and Yugoslavia. In accordance with your request, there is summarized below
such information in this regard as is available to the Department of State at
this time :

1. V. 8. 8. R.

Under Soviet law no person living in the Soviet Union may depart from that
country without an exit visa issued by the Soviet Government. Over the course
of the years preceding World War II and innnediately thereafter, a few Soviet
citizens were allowed to leave the Soviet Union for the purpose of immigrating
to the United States. It is possible that similar small groups left the Soviet
Union for other countries. Those immigrating to the United States consisted,
in practically all cases, of persons who were closely related to American citizens
or who had claim to American citizenship. No Soviet citizen has been given
permission to leave the Soviet Union for the purpose of travel to the United States
for other than official reasons since October 1947.

At the present time the immigration to the United States of persons chargeable
to the Soviet quota consists of individuals who were born in the former Russian
Empire or in the U. S. S. R. but who are now living beyond the borders of the
Soviet Union. For the most part this group represents persons who fled the
Soviet Union and who have been living abroad for a number of years.

There is attached, as of possible further interest, a statement prepared by the
American Embassy in Moscow in June 1949 which discusses the Soviet exit visa
policy as it applies to all persons living in territory controlled by the Soviet
Government. The formalities connected with obtaining a Soviet exit visa are
described in this memorandum.

2. Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria

The Soviet-dominated govei*nments of Eastern Europe maintain highly restric-
tive emigration policies. Citizens of these countries are not permitted to
emigrate freely and, to depart legally, they must obtain both passports and exit
permits. In Poland the issuance of passports and exit permits is within the
jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Security ; in Czechoslovakia, the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs ; and in Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria, the Ministry of
Interior.

In most of the few instances where individual citizens of these countries have
been permitted to emigrate, they have been persons over 60 years of age who have
no political past or especial significance, who are regarded as an economic
burden rather than asset to the state, and whose departure is therefore con-
sidered hannless to these regimes from a propaganda and other points of view.
Most of these individuals are close relatives of persons who have previously
emigrated from Eastern Europe and settled abroad.

Apart from the occasional individual cases of aged persons, the governments
of the above-named countries have permitted some Jewish emigration. The
volume of such emigration has varied considerably from time to time and from
country to country. The Jewish emigration has taken place under arrange-
ments negotiated with the Soviet satellite governments by international Jewish
organizations or the Israeli Government and has usually involved the payment
of subsidies or other material concessions to the satellite regimes. The desti-
nation of most of the Jewish emigrants has, of course, been Israel.

It may be noted further that the Bulgarian Government has permitted about
one-fourth of the ethnic Turkish minority in Bulgaria to emigrate to Turkey
and that the Rumanian Government has allowed many members of the ethnic
Greek population in Rumania to go to Greece. However, the movement of these
elements, as in the case of Jews, has been more in the nature of group migration
than of normal emigration by individuals.



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1935

3. Yugoslavia

Althoiiij;b Yugoslav emigration policy, in its basic pattei-n, has been similar
to the iMilicies of the Soviet satellite governments, there is some evi(l(>nce in
recent practice of the relaxation of Yugoslav restrictions in this field. Several
hundreds of dual nationals (Yugoslav-American), who have wished to emigrate,
have been permitted to leave Yugoslavia, and there is reason to believe that the
Yugoslav Government may take further action in the near future to ameliorate
its hitherto restrictive emigration policy.

Immigration to the United States of p(>rsons chargeable to the respective quotas
of the Soviet satellite countries and to the Yugoslav quota consists almost entirely
at the present time of nationals of those countries who, thougli born there, fled
abroad to escape Nazi or Communist persecution and have been residing in
Western Europe or elsewhere throughout the world.
Sincerely yours,

Watavoeth Barrour,
Director, Office of Eastern European Affairs.

Im'oumatiox Concikning Soviet Exit Visas

Under Soviet law no person living in the Soviet Union may depart from the
country without the permission of the Soviet Government in the form of an exit
visa. This regulation applies not only to Soviet citizens but to foreigners as well,
including diplomatic personnel. Except in the case of diplomatic personnel and
other representatives of foreign governments who receive their visas through
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Moscow, applications for such visas must be
made in the administrative center nearest the applicant's place of residence to
the appropriate office of the militsiva, or police, which in the Soviet Union is
an agency of the Central Government, being a branch of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs or MVD.

Such visas are issued with comparative readiness to foreigners who recently
arrived in the Soviet Union with passports properly visaed by Soviet officials
abroad, though even such persons may frequently experience considerable delays.
For many years, however, it has been pxtremely difficult, and for the past 2
years virtually impossible, for all other persons to obtain exit visas. In the case
of those who may be claimed by any possible interpretation of Soviet law to be
Soviet citizens, it is safe to say that the present Soviet policy is to issue no exit
visas for travel to the United States for any reason, however compelling, except
the official business of the Soviet Government. No Soviet citizen whose request
for an American visa was not officially sponsored by the Soviet Government
has received a Soviet exit visa for travel to the United States since October 1947.

There are now on record with the Embassy the cases of approximately 5,500
persons who at some time since 1940 (in almost all cases, at least 3 years ago)
have informed the Embassy of their desire to travel to the United States. The
great majoi'ity of these persons were neither residents nor citizens of the Soviet
Union before 1939, but acquired Soviet citizenship automatically as residents
of territories annexed during or since the recent war. Of this group approxi-
mately 2,000 have presented claims to American citizenship ; about 3,500 have no
such claim but are applying for American immigration visas.

To the Embassy's knowledge, only 76 of these 3,500 non-American citizens
have succeeded in departing from the U. S. S. R. since 1940, and of these 76
at least 41 were not Soviet citizens but citizens of other countries or of no
country at all, 33 of them were given exit visas not for travel to the United
States but for repatriation to Iceland as Polish citizens under a Soviet-Polish
agreement. However, even this slow rate of departure has been checked since
1947. In that year exit visas were issued to Soviet citizens in this group in
only three cases, all exceptional. Two of these cases involved the American-
born widows of prominent Soviet citizens and the alien minor child of one ; the
third, the alien nnnor child of an American-citizen mother who was also the
widow of a Soviet citizen. Since that year no Soviet citizen in this group has
received an exit visa, and only one other non-American citizen has been able to
immigrate to the United States from the Soviet Union.

Of about 350 Soviet wives of American citizens who have applied for permission
to depart from the Soviet Union to join their husbands, not one has received
a visa since August 194G. Ninety-seven of this group are the wives of veterans,
and the great majority of them were already married when they became Soviet
citizens in the manner indicated above. In connection with the problem of
obtaining exit visas for fiancees of American citizens it should be noted that



1936 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

a decree of the Soviet Government published on February 15, 1947, forbids
Soviet citizens to marry foreigners.

Of the approximately 2,000 claimants to American citizenship mentioned
above, the Embassy and the Department of State have been able to verify
the claims of about 600. The claims of approximately 250 more are now before
the Department of State for decision and about 100 others have proved not
to be American citizens or to have lost their citizenship. The majority of the
remainder probably have valid claims, but the Embassy has had difficulty in
collecting sufficient information in many cases to justify decision, usually because
after receiving an applicant's initial letter the Embassy has been unable to
communicate with him further. In many such cases the Embassy's letters re-
main unanswered or are returned undelivered. In a few cases the returned
letters indicate the applicant's departure from the U. S. S. R. to Poland or some
other country, perhaps as a Polish citizen under the agreement mentioned above ;
in other cases, merely that his whereabouts are not known. In still other cases,
letters from applicants have indicated that they had not received the Embassy's
letters or that they had written eai-lier letters which did not reach the Embassy.
In such circumstances the figures given above are necessarily inexact, but there
are in all probability between 1,800 and 1,900 persons still residing in the Soviet
Union who have valid or potentially valid claims to American citizenship and
desire to return to the United States but cannot obtain the permission of the
Soviet Government to do so.

The great majority of these persons are dual nationals ; that is, while their
claims to American citizenship are valid, they are at the same time considered
by the Soviet Government to be Soviet citizens. The Soviet Government, how-
ever, does not admit the possibility that one of its citizens can at the .same time
possess the citizenship of another country, and such persons are considered
under Soviet law to be Soviet citizens only. Like other Soviet citizens they
have been seldom in the past and never in recent years permitted to leave the
country for personal or family reasons. Since 1940 only 17 such persons have
received exit visas ; since December 1946, none.

Under a strict interpretation of the appropriate Soviet laws, only i>ersons
who actually possessed the citizenship of the country whose territory was an-
nexed became Soviet citizens ; a foreigner living on that territory did not.
Some of the persons mentioned above were actually citizens of the country in
question. Many were born in the United States of foreign parents and thus
acquired the right of their parents' citizenship at birth as well as to that of the
United States. However, all such persons were not necessarily citizens of those
countries. Prewar Poland, for example, had a law which forbade such persons
to claim both citizenships at once ; but it did not insist in most cases that they
keep their Polish citizenship if they had a right to, and wished to claim, another
citizenship. Such persons if they came to Poland on American passiwrts were
considered to be American, and not Polish, citizens, and others who had lived
as Polish citizens were allowed to leave the country on American passports and
were then no longer Polish citizens.

The Soviet authorities themselves at first recognized that many such persons
were not Soviet citizens and issued them residence permits identifying them as
foreigners or as persons with no citizenship. Up to 1947 such i)ersons were often
allowed to leave the country. In 1948. however, only 3 of more than 50 American
citizens not previously claimed as Soviet citizens were able to leave. None
have left so far in 1949. Of the rest, many who obtained American passports
and tried to obtain exit visas have had their residence permits and their pass-
ports taken away and have been declared Soviet citizens. Since it is a serious
offense in the Soviet Union to live Avithout proix^r documents, these persons face
the threat of fine, imprisonment, or worse, if they then insist on their American
citizenship and refu.se to accept Soviet passports.

In this way the Soviet Government has claimed as its citizens because of
alleged former Polish citizenship, per.sons who still had in their possession Polish
documents identifying them as foreigners, children whose fathers had lost Polish
citizenship by American naturalization before the children's birth, and women
who had lost their claim to Polish citizenship by the American naturalization
of their husbands. Poland is taken only as an example since the Soviet position
is the .same in connection with the other countries part or all of whose prewar
territory has been annexed by the Soviet Union. In general, the Soviet Govern-
ment appears to interpret the laws of these countries to mean that they, like
the Soviet I^nion. regarded their citizenship as obligatory and compulsory for
all who had any possible claim to it and emigration to another country as an
attempt to escape one's duties to the state.



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRVTION AND NATURALIZATION 1937

It should also be noted in most cnses even those Anierican citizens who are
also clearly Soviet citizens under Soviet law acquired Soviet citizenship through
no choice of their own. Soviet agieeuients with Poland and Czechoslovakia by
which certain people had a choice of citizenship were limited by the ijersons'
"nationalitv." a term which in the Soviet Union refers not to citizenship but to
racial or ethnic origin. In the case of Poland, for instance, this right was open
to persons of Polish or Jewish nationality only. Those of Russian or Ukrainian
nationalitv were allowed no choice.

Some persons recognized by the Soviet Government as American citizens have
been given e:xit visas only to have their wives and children who were Soviet
citizens refused permission to accompany them or join them later.

The Soviet Government refuses to admit that the Embassy can have any
legitimate interest in persons considered to be Soviet citizens. When the Em-
bassy has requested the issuance of exit visas to such persons, the Soviet Min-
istry of Foreign Affairs has replied merely that as Soviet citizens they might
apply for visas under the regulations established for Soviet citizens, in other
words, that the matter was none of the Embassy's business. Since such requests
not only do not help the persons involved but may also attract to them the un-
favorable attention of the Soviet authorities the Embassy has ceased presenting
direct requests to the Soviet Government in recent months except in the cases of
persons who, in the Embassy's opinion, cannot legally be regarded as Soviet citi-
zens. In most cases the best that can be done for all others is to provide them,
for presentation to the local authorities, with certificates of their status, and of
the desire and ability of their relatives to care for them in the United States,
and to inform them of the necessary procedure in applying for exit visas. The
Soviet authorities still allow such applications, though they are often made
difficult by requests for numerous documents or other technicalities. A final
decision however, may take a year or more, and, as indicated above, the appli-
cants do not get visas.

Even in the cases of persons who, on the basis of all evidence available to the
Embassy, cannot legally be considered to be Soviet citizens, the Embassy's
efforts, as shown above, have had little effect. The facts of the persons citi-
zenship are frequently incorrectly stated by the Soviet authorities, and even
when the actual facts are iwinted out, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has never
changed a decision that a person was a Soviet citizen, once that decision had been
communicated to the Embassy.

In such circumstances the decision as to a person's departure from the Soviet
Union obviously rests with the Soviet Government and not with the Embassy,
nor is it noticeably influenced by the Embassy's efforts or by such humanitarian
factors as tragic family separations. None of the few who have left in recent
years had received more help from the Embassy than many others who failed to
obtain exit visas. The two widows of Soviet citizens who obtained exit visas
in 1947, for example, did so without the Embassy's help. The alien child of an
American mother who received a visa in the same year, had been the subject
of strong representations on the Embassy's part, but all the Embassy's efforts in
another similar case, including a personal approach by the Ambassador to one of
the Deputy Foreign Ministers, have had no effect. The one non-American
citizen mentioned above as receiving an exit visa since 1947 was a boy who had
lost both his parents in a German concenti'ation camp and had no living relatives
except in the United States. However, many others whose cases are equally-
appealing, and one whose case is virtually identical, have received as much
help from the Embassy as this boy and have not received visas. For example,
in the cases of 18 children with both parents, or the only surviving parent, in
the United States, the only effect of the Embassy's efforts, including a personal
appeal by Ambassador Smith to Mr. Vyshinsky, the then Deputy Foreign Min-
ister, has been that a number of them have been declared to be Soviet citizens.
The Embassy sympathizes deeply with American citizens separated from



Online LibraryUnited States. President's Commission on ImmigratiHearings → online text (page 16 of 35)