United States. President's Commission on Immigrati.

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18H>-1!)10. and volume XXXIX, an analysis of legal provisions, are noncoutro-
versial. Vt)lume XL, a study of innnigration in otlier countries, is not considered
in this memorandum.

The critical material in the other volumes falls into inne general categories:
1. A dictionary of races. Volume V sunnnarized in I, 20S) ft".
L'. Immigration conditions in Europe (Causes for lOmigralion). Volume IV,

sununarized in volume I, lG5ff.
li. Economic Effects of Inmiigratinn (industry, agriculture, cities). Volumes
VI-XXVIII, summarized in volume I, 285 ff.

4. Education and Illiteracy. Volumes XXIX-XXXIII, summarized in volume

III, 1 fC.

5. Charity and Immigration. Volumes XXXIV-XXXV, summarized in volume

II, 87 ff.

6. Immigration and Crime. Volume XXXVI, summarized in volume II, ino ff.

7. Imnngration and Vice. Volume XXXVII, summarized in volume II, 323 fl\

8. Immigration and Insanity. Volume II, 223 ff. Complete report.

9. Immigration and Bodily Form. Volume XXXVIII, summarized in Volume

III, 501 ff.

Each of these categories maj' most profitably be discussed individually.

1. The dictionary of races

In considering the monumental dictionary of races compiled by the Conuni.ssion
it is necessary to take account of the views of race held by its expei't, J. W.
Jeuks, and by the anthropologist Daniel Folkmar, who was charged with the
responsibility of preparing that section of the report. Neither man consciously
accepted the notion that tlie races of men were divided b.v purely biological
distinctions ; such a notion could not have I)een applied to differentiate among
the masses of immigrants." But both agreed that there was innate, ineradicable
race distinctions that separated groups of men from one another and they
agreed as to the general necessity of classifying these races to know which were
fittest, most worthy of survival. The imujediate problem was to ascertain
"whether there may not be certain races that are inferior to other races * * *
to discover some test to show whether some may be better fitted for American
citizenship than others." "°

The inti'oduction to the Dictionary of Races explained that while mankind
may he divided into five divisions "upon physical or somatogical groiuuls" the
subdivisions of tliese into particular races is made "largely upon a linguistic
basis." According to the dictionary, this linguistic basis of classification was
not only practical, in the sense thai immigi-ant inspectors coidd readily deter-
mine the language spoken, but it also had "the sanction of law in Immigration
statistics and in the census of foreign countries." "

Yet, in practice, the dictionary concerned itself with nuich more than a
classification by language. Through it runs a persistent, though not a con-
sistent, tendency to determine race by physical types, to diffei'entiate the old
from the new immigrants racially, and to indicate the superiority of the former
to the latter.



" Spp, for example, tlie rtistnission of oriiiiinalit.v below; and on niiioiii/ation, below.

^' "While it is well to find a classification b.v physical characteristics insisted upon in
the able works of Rijiley, Deniker. and others, it is manifestly impracticable to use such
a classification in immigration work." Report, I, ]). 211.

2" See J. W. .Tenks, The Racial Prol)lem in Immigration, National Conference of Cliarities
and Correction. ProceedinKs. XXXVI (1009), 217: .7. W. .Tenks, Principles of I'oliiics
(N. Y., 1909), 31; Daniel Folkmar, Lecons d'anthropolo.;;ie philosophi(|ue (Paris, 1900).
pp. 140 fP.

21 Report, I, p. 211.



1844 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

(a) The hioloywal soiirtes of race. — Althim-xh the dictionary presniuably rests
upon a linsrnistic basis, it often considers liio'.ojiical inheritance the critical ele-
ment in determining racial affiliation. The following exami>les will ill'^strate.

Thus the Finns, it is stated, linguisticall.v belong to the Finno-Tartaric race,
along with the Hungarians. Turks, and Japanese. But tlie western Finns who
actually came to the United States, though they speak tlie same langiuiice. are
descended from "the blondest of Teutons, Swedes * * *."

The Armenians linguistically "are more nearly related to the Aryans of
Fnrope than to their Asiatic neighbors." but "are related pliysically to the
Tni'ks, although they exceed these * * * jj^ fj^p remarkable shortness and
heii^ht of their heads. The flattening of the back of the head * * * cjin only
be compared to the flattened occiput of the Malay."

Although "English has been the medium of interco\n-se for genei'atins." Mie
()!)) were skilled laborers, and the percentage
in earlier periods was probably smaller still." The weakness of the claim that
there was a correlation between the old immigration and skilled labor and be-
tween the new and unskilled has already been shown above (p. 18). Starting
with this misapprehension the committee proceeds to draw from its material
far-reaching conclusions as to the effect of the new immigration upon: (a) Na-
tive and old immigration labor, (b) unionization, (e) industrial methods, id)
new industries, and (e) luiemployment and depressions.

(o) Effects of the new immigration upon native and old immigrant labor. — •
The Commission wished to demonstrate the adverse effects of the new immigra-
ti(m up(m the existing labor supply. x\t one point it actually suggested that the
new inunigration diminished the volume of the old and reduced the native birth
rate. But it did not push that suggestion far.

Instead it argued that in many industries the new immigrants pushed out the
old labor force. It could not, however, explain this racial displacement by the
mere willingness of newcomers t(t work at lower wages, for the Comiuission



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