United States. President's Commission on Immigrati.

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in net investment. At the pistwar rate of net capital !U'cunnil:ition, we would
reach a level sufficient to maintain the long-term growth in per capita productive
v.-ealth iit the end of the seventh year of the 9-year period.



1976 COMMISSION ON IMAIIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Technical Note — Calci'lation of Net Changes in Invested Weat.th, 1919-51

The bench mark for this calcnhition of the productive wealth of the United
States was Estimated National Wealth for 1922 of the Bureau of the Census.
The estimate of total national wealth was reduced to exclude personal property,
including personal motor vehicles. Annual net changes in the stock were com-
puted in the following maimer :

The Department Of Commerce annual estimate of gross private domestic
investment was reduced by estimated depreciation and accidental damage to
fixed capital. N(>t foreign investment was then added to give annual chanires in
net private investment.

For the pnlilic sector, annual purchases by government (Federal and State
and local) from business were reduced by 25 percent (estimated nondurables
purchases) and the total depreciated at an annual rate of 10 percent, except
in the war years, 1942-45, when an annual depreciation rate of 25 percent was
used. Government construction was then added, and depreciated at a 2-i)ercent
annual rate. This provided estimates of net annual changes in capital formation
for the period 1929-51.

Very little data on capital accumulation are available for the years previous
to 1929. For the government sector. Kuznets" estimates of net changes in govern-
ment construction were used.' All other government expenditures, availal)le
also from Kuznets but only as a single all-inclusive figure, were reduced by
roughly 60 percent, the proportion assumed, from available data for subsequent
years, to be the proportion expended on services and nondurables. The depi'ecia-
tiou rates of 2 percent for construction and 10 percent for all other government
also applied for these years.

Kuznets provides an estimate for gross private investment for the years 1919-29,
but no estimates of depreciation. An examination of 1929 and subsequent years
indicated that depreciation was a relatively stalde quantity, depending as it does
upon the stock of goods, ratlier than year-to-year changes. The 1929 level of
depreciation and accidental damage as a constant for each year back to 1919 was
therefore assumed.

Based upon an inspection of trends from 1929 to 1951, Department of Com-
merce price deflators for gross private domestic investment, 1919-51, were
assumed to apply to government capital accumulation as well.



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
LABOR CONCERNING METHOD USED BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR
STATISTICS FOR ESTIMATINCi ADDITIONS TO THE LABOR FORCE
IN 1955 A^D 1960 RESULTING FROM ASSUMED LEVELS OF NET
IMMIGRATION

Office Memokandum

NOVEXtKER 7, 1952.
To: Mr. Boris S. Yane, President's Commission on Inuiiigration and Naturaliza-
tion.
From: Charles D. Stewart.

Subject: Method used li.v the I>ureau of Labor Statistics for estimating additions
to the labor force in 1955 and 19()0 resulting from assumed levels of net
imnugration.
Following is the brief explanation which you requested for the use of the
Executive Director of the Commission. We suggest that it be considered a tech-
nical note on table 1 accompanying the statement made by the Conunissiouer of
I^abor Statistics before the Commission on October 27, 1952.

Method used hi/ Bureau of Lahor 8tnti.sties for estimating additions to the labor
force in 19.i.'> and IdHO resultiiirj from assumed levels of net ininiigration
The net additions to the labor force resulting from assumed levels of net immi-
gration were computed in two basic steps :



1 Kuznets. Simon, National Product Since 1869. National Bureau of Economic Research,
New York, 1946. ^ .



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1977

1. The number of iiniiii^iaiiis uinltT each assumption \v;i.s distributed into
r»-year age groups of men and women. This was done on the l)asis of the age-sex
distribution of innuigrants used by flie United States r>urean of tlie Census in
mailing tlie jiopubition projections published in P-2r», No. 4',], Illustrative Projec-
tions of the Population of the United States. V.)~A\ to IIMJO. Tlie matter of aging
and mortality was partially talcen into account by apj)lying .l-year death rates
to the innuigrants in li).").". to estimate ilie number surviving to be 5 years older in
JIX'.O. For simplicity in computation, it was assinned that there were no deatlis
within the period V.)7>l\-~C> among those admitted during that period and no deaths
ill the period IDo.VtiO to pei'sons admitted during those years. Tliis procedure
does not materially affect tiie results, as can he seen from the fact that only 20,000
dearbs would (itciir in the o yi'ais between i:).") and l!)(i() among the tjO0,O0')
immigrants aihiiitted by I!).") under the assumption of 200,000 ijer year.

2. Projected labor force participation rates for lOo.") and lOiiO, by age group,
for men and womm over 14 years were apitlied to the immigrant jiopulation in
lliese age grouiis and the resulting labor force in each age was summed to obtain
the total for immigrants 14 years and ovtn'. This step assumes that the rates
of labor force participation for immigrants is tiic same in each ag(^ as for the
United States population as a whole.

I.ditor frnc( ixiificii'dtioii rate fur iiimiif/rdiits in /.''.;.7 diid UKU)

1 !»".."»:

Based on population 14 years and over 59.4

Base intfM-national situation with rognrd to the coiistruftion of
the atomic Ixmih. Fermi was in Italy. Ilahii was in Germany. Niels Bohr was
in Deiuiiark. Five or six of the most imixniant men on the Manhattan project
are IIun,:,'arians who had worked in llunjiary in this field. The basic work of
Cliadwick in Euiiland was fnndamiMital to the development."

"Now, we j;ral)Iied them all- not the men, hut we j:rahbed some of the men,
as many as Hitler and Mussolini lioiiored us by sendinji; here, hut we grabbed
their ideas, and we made the bomb. I think it can be shown that there is some
Japanese scientilic influence behind the bomb as well." — Statement by Dr. Robert
.M. Ilutchins, chancelor of the I'niversity of Chicago. January 25, 194(5 (hearings
before the Special Committee ou Atomic Energy, U. S. Senate, T'Jth Cong., 2d
sess., on S. 1717, pt. 2, p. 120).

"From the days when the refugee (hi Pouts first settled here, at the invitation
of Thomas .Jefferson, to the arrival of those great refugee scientists who i)layed
so i>i'eeminent a role in the coiupiest of tlie atom, Einstein and Fernii aiul their
many distinguish(>d collaborators, we have been not only safeguarding liberty
but en.ioying its rich fruits. I hope that day will never come when the thinking
of scientists is so hedged about with petty i-estrictions that, as happened in Ger-
n'.any and Italy, foreign scientists will not want to come here and our own
scientists will not want to stay."— Statement of Hon. Harold L. Ickes, Secretary
of the Interior, January 2^5, 1946 (liearings before the Special Committee on
Atomic Energy, U. S. Senate, 79th Cong., 2d sess., on S. 1717, pt. I, p. 01).

"Sucli towering scientific figures as Niels Bohr of Denmark and Sir James
Chadwick of (Treat I'.ritain, together with dozens of associates from almost all
countries except Ilussia, came to the Ignited States during the war, participated
intimately in the Maidiattan District project, rendered priceless service, and
returned to their native lands when hostilities ended. E(]ually notable figures from
abroad — Enrico Fermi of Italy, and Hungarian-born Leo Szilard, for example —
shared in our atonnc effort, and established permanent American residence fol-
lowing the war." — Joint Comnuttee on Atomic Energy, Investigation Into the
Fnited States Atomic Energy Commission, Eighty-tirst Congress, first session,
Senate Report No. 11(19. October 1?., 1949, page S.

"The development of the atomic bomb itself was the result of the working
together of men of science and technology in Great Britain, Canada, the United
States." — Remarks by David E. Lilienthal, Chairman, United States Atomic
Energy Commission, at preview supper for opening of the atomic-energy exhibit
at the Golden Jubilee lOxposition, New York City, August 21, 194S.

"Mr. Johnson. Dr. Oppenlieimer, this work has been done by a great many
noted scientists?

"Dr. Oppenheimer. Yes, sir.

"Mr. Johnson. I think you ought to put into the record, if you know, who the
men are who received the Nobel prize, who worked on this project.

"The Cn.\iRMAN. Dr. Oppenheimer is one of them.

"Dr. Oppenheimer. No, I am not, but there are many of my friends who are.
There is the great Danish scientist. Bore [Sic]. He contributed enormously. Sir
James Chadwick, an English scientist: Dr. Compton, Dr. Lawrence, Dr. Anderson
of the Institute of Technology. I am forgetting many important names. There
are many." — Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer. (Hearings before the Committee on Mili-
tary Affairs, House of Representatives, 79th Cong., 1st sess. on H. R. 4280, p. 120.)

"Professor Oliphant and his team from Birmingham LTniversity were moved to
Berkeley to work with Pi-ofessor Lawrence's group engaged in research on the
electromagnetic isotope .separation i)roject. They were joined by other physi-
cists from Britain including Professor Massey of University College, London, Dr.
H. W. Skinner of Bi'istol University, Dr. Allibcme and Dr. Wilkins(m who worked
partly at Berkeley and partly at the electro-magntic separati(Ui plant itself.
Dr. Emeleus of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. P. Baxter and others were trans-
ferred to the electro-magnetic plant."

"Dr. Frisch from the Liverpool nuclear physics groui) and Dr. Bretscher from
the corresponding Cambridge section, together with some members of their teams,
were moved into the great American T. A. Research establishment at Los
Alamos * * *"

''They were joined, at that time or later, b.v a number of other British scien-
tists including Professor Peierls and Dr. Penny, of Imiierial College. London
I'nivei-sity. Prof. Sir Geoffi-ey Taylor paid several visits to the establishment." —
Smyth. H. D., x\tomic Energy for ^Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton
Univer.sity Press, 1945, page 286.
25.".r.6— 52 125



1980 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

"The announcement of the hypothesis of fission and its experimental confirma-
tion took place in January 1939. There was immediate interest in the possible
military use of the lar.s^e amounts of energy release in fission. The early efforts
both at restricting publication and at getting Government support were stimu-
lated largely by a small group of foreign-born physicists centering on L. Szilard
and including E. Wigner, E. Teller. V. F. Weisskopf and E. Fermi." — Smyth,
H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton Uni-
versity Press, 1945, page 45.

"The new tools at Brekeley, the Argonne, Oak Ridge, Brookhaven, and in
many university laboratories will soon be serving men like Lawrence, Fermi,
Seaborg, Compton, Rabi, Oppenheimer, Speddlng, Sinn [sic], Alvarez, and their
brilliant associates, and new discoveries as dazzling as those which have been
made will be forthcoming." — Remarks of Lewis. L. Strauss, member. United
States Atomic Energy Commission, before the University of New Hampshire,
October 9, 1948.

"For it was only in 1896 that Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radio-
activity, and the subsequent work of Einstein, Rutherford, Bohr, Millikan, Fermi,
Compton, Lawrence, and many others in the galaxy of lirilliant men and women,
has exposed the atom and its nucleus to our intellectual contemplation." — Re-
marks by Lewis L. Strauss, member United States Atomic Energy Commission,
before the New York Academy of Medicine, October 30, 1947.

"Civilian scientists of many nations, pressing zealously for new knowledge in
the normal way of scientists, step by step had come to the discovery of nuclear
fission (splitting the atom) just before the outbreak of World War n * * *
The war put an urgency into it that greatly increased the pace. The research
and experiments were under wartime wraps. The work came to be concentrated
in the United States. Anti-Fascist scientists who had fled Europe played a
tremendous role." — Remarks of W. W. Waymack, member. United States Atomic
Energv Commission, before the Illinois AVelfare Association, Chicago, November
20, 1947.

"Even a casual look at the background must make clear as crystal to anyone
the fact that the release of atomic energy, and all that comes with it, is the
result of a world-wide search for knowledge which liegan farther back than
we can probe and which in later stages, was thoroughly international. Any look
at the record that is more tlian casual will reveal that many more of the
major contributions to the basic knowledge required were made by scientists
of other nations. American contributions were fine ; there is no need to de-
precate them. But to miss the point that more of the basic discoveries came
from abroad would be dangerously unrealistic — "dangerously" because it would
obscure the fact that up to now America has depended heavily on the rest of the
world in basic scientific research. It would obsure the fact that we are today
dependent for further advance upon a comparative few."^ — Remarks of Com-
missioner W. W. Waymack, T'^nited States Atomic Energy Commission, before the
Council on World Affairs. Cleveland, Ohio, April 2, 1948.

"Anti-Nazi scientists, some of them in America, stimulating and cooperating
with American scientists, educated President Roosevelt as to tlie bomb possi-
ilnlity * * * On December 2, 1942, right here in the IMiddle West, in a room
under the stands of Stagg Field at the L^niversity of Chicago, with the partici-
pation of an international band of scientists and of American scientists from
many sections * * * the first nuclear chain reaction in history was dem-
onstrated." — Remarks of Commissioner W. W. Waymack, United, States Atomic
Energy Commiasion, the State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, June 11,
1948.

AlUbone, T. E. (England)

"Professor Oliphant and liis team from Birmingham University were moved
to Berkeley to work with Professor La^vrence's group engaged in research on
the electromagnetic isotope separation project. They were joined by other
physicists from Britain including Professor Massey of University College, Lon-
don, Dr. H. W. Skinner of Bristol Universitjr, Dr. Allibone and Dr. Wilkinson
who worked partly at Berkeley and partly at the electromagnetic separation
plant itself. Dr. Emeleus of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. F. Baxter and
others were transferred to the electromagnetic plant."

"Dr. Frisch from the Liverpool nuclear physics group and Dr. Bretscher from
the corresponding Cambridge section, together with some members of their
teams, were moved into the great American T. A. Research Estal)lishment at
Los Alamos * * *"



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1981

"They were joined, at that time or later, by a number of other British scien-
tists iiK'ludiutf Professor Peierls aiul Dr. Penny, of Imperial College, London
University. Prof. Sir Geoffrey Taylor paid several visits to the establishment."
— Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy f' Military Purposes, Princeton, N. J., Princeton
University Press 1945, page 28G.

Baxter, J. W. {Great Britain)

"Professor Oliphaut and his team from Birmingham University were moved
to Berkeley to work with Professor Lawrence's group engaged in research on
the electromagnetic isotoim separation project. They were joined by other
phvsicists from Britain including Professor Massey, of University College, Lon-
don, Dr. H. W. Skinner, of Bristol University, Dr. Allibone and Dr. Wilkinson
who worked partly at Berkeley and partly at the electromagnetic separation
plant itself. Dr. Enieleus, of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. W. Baxter and
others were transferred to the electromagnetic plant."— Smyth, H. D., Atomio
Enemy for Military rurposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press 1945,
page 286.
Bethe, Hans A. (Germany, 1906)

"There were two considerations that gave unusual importance to the work
of the Theoretical Physics Division under H. Bethe. The first of these was the
necessity for effecting simultaneous development of everything from the funda-
mental materials to the method of putting them to use — all despite the virtual
unavailability of the principal materials (U-2;)5 and plutonium) and the complete
novelty of the processes The second consideration was the impossibility of
producing (as for experimental purposes) a 'small-scale' atomic explosion by
making use of only a small amount of fissionable material. (No explosion occurs
at all unless the mass of the fissionable material exceeds the critical mass.)
Thus it was necessary to proceed from data obtained in experiments on infini-
tesimal quantities of materials and to combine it with the available theories as
accurately as possible in order to make estimates as to what would happen in
the bomb. Only in this way was it possible to make sensible plans for other
parts of the project, and to make decisions on design and construction without
waiting for elaborate experiments on large quantities of material. * * *
The determination of the critical size of the bomb was one of the main problems
of the Theoretical Physics Division." — Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Militai'y
Purposes, Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 214.

"For example, Dr. Bethe and Dr. Teller in the area of fundamental and
analytical nuclear considerations. The fact that men of their caliber were
willing to give their time and found it worth while to give their time * * *." —
Dr. Mervin J. Kelly, executive vice president. Bell Laboratories, Inc. (Investi-
gation into the United States Atomic Energy Project. Hearings before the Joint
CJonnuittee on Atomic Energy, Congress of the United States, Slst Cong., 1st sess.,
pt. 20, p. 812.)

Bohr, Niels {Denmark)

•'For it was only in 1896 that Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radio-
activity, and the subsequent work of Einstein, Rutherford, Bohr, Millikan, Fermi,
Compton, Lawrence, and many others in the galaxy of brilliant men and women,
has exposed the atom and its nucleus to our intellectual contemplation." —
Remarks of Lewis L. Strauss, member of the United States Atomic Energy Cora-
mission, before the New York Academy of Medicine. October 30, 1947.

"The participants included a large number of the pioneer explorers of the
nucleus of the atom who later played a major part in the development of the
atomic bomb. Among them wei'e Drs. Bohr, Fermi, I. I. Rabi * * *." —
Lawrence, W. L., Dawn Over Zero, New York, Knopf, 1947, page 44.

"* * * Lise Meitner, was forced to fiee Berlin for her life. She had been
engaged with two colleagues in an experiment at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
anrl had to leave before it was completed. * * * Subsequently, safe in Copen-
hagen, she was able to complete her computations and made a report of them.
The i-esult of the experiment showed that the nucleus of the atom of uranium
had been split. Miss Meitner concluded that huge amounts of energy nuist have
been released in such a fission and she computed it to be 200 million electron volts.

"This was the report which the Nobel Laureate, Niels Bohr, brought to his
friends in America in January 19;'>9. From that message grew our atomic
energy enterprise * * *. "-^Remarks of Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss,
United States Atomic Energy Commission, at the California Institute of Tech-
nology associates dinner, Los Angeles, Calif., November 8, 1949.



1982 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

"Mr. Johnson. Dr. Oppenheimer, this work has been done by a great many
noted scientists?

"Dr. Oppenheimer. Yes, sir.

"Mr. Johnson. I think you ought to put in the record, if you know, who the men
are who received the Nobel prize, who worlced on this project.

"The Chairman. Dr. Oppenheimer is one of them.

"Dr. Oppenheimer. No, I am not, but tliere are many of my friends who are.



Online LibraryUnited States. President's Commission on ImmigratiHearings → online text (page 23 of 35)