United States. President's Commission on Immigrati.

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There is the great Danish scientist. Bore [sic]. He contributed enormously.
Sir James Chadwick, an English scientist ; Dr. Coiupton, Dr. Lawrence, Dr. Ander-
son, of the Institute of Technology. I am forgetting many important names.
There are many." — Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer (hearings before the Committee on
Military Affairs, House of Representatives. H. R. 4280, An Act for the Develop-
ment and Control of Atomic Energy, October 9, 18, 1945, 79th Cong., 1st sess.,
p. 129.)

"In the winter of 1938-39, Bohr was working with Einstein at the Institute
for Advanced Study, in Princeton, N. J., and it was through his presence there
that he was able to help set the Allies on the path to the manufacture of the atomic
bomb."- — Current Biography, 1945. New York, H. W. Wilson Co.

"Such towering scientific figures as Niels Bohr, of Denmark, and Sir James
Chadwick, of Great Britain, together with dozens of associates from almost all
countries except Russia, came to the United States during the war, participated
intimately in the Manhattan District project, rendered priceless service, and
returned to their native lands when hostilities ended. Equally notable figures
from abroad — Enrico Fermi, of Italy, and Hungarian-born Leo Szilard, for
example — shared in our atomic effort and established permanent American
residence following the war." — Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Investigation
Into the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Senate Report No. 1169,
October 13, 1949, Eighty-first Congress, first session, page 8.

Breit, Gregory (Russia)

"The theory of the absorption of neutrons at, and in the vicinity of, the
resonance peaks was worked out by G. Bi-eit and E. P. Wigner in the United
States in 1936, and the resulting Breit-Wigner formula, as it is called, has formed
the basis of the interpretation of neutron cross sections." — Glasstone, S. Source-
book on Atomic Energy, New York, D. Van Nostrand, 1950, page 313.

"The third initial objective of the metallurgical project was to obtain theo-
retical and experimental data on a 'fast neutron' reaction, such as would be
required in an atomic bomb. This aspect of the work was initially planned and
coordinted by G. Breit, of the University of Wisconsin, and later continued by
J. R. Oppenheimer, of the University of California." — Smyth, H. D., Atomic
Energy for Military Purposes, Princeton, N. J., I'rincetou University Press, 1945,
page 103.

Bretscher, E. {Switzerland)

"Dr. Frisch, from the Liverpool nuclear-physics group, and Dr. Bretscher, from
the corresponding Cambridge section, together with some members of their teams,
were moved into the great American T. A. research establishment at Los Alamos
* * *." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic Enei'gy for Military Purposes. Princeton,
N. J., Princeton University Press. 1945, page 286.

Chad^cick, 8ir James (Great Britain)

"Such towering scientific figures as Niels Bohr, of Denmark, and Sir James
Chadwick, of Gi-eat Britain, together with dozens of associates from almost all
countries except Russia, came to the United States during the war, participated
intimately in the Manhattan District project, rendered priceless service, and
returned to their native lands when hostilities ended. Equally notable figures
from abroad — Enrico Fermi, of Italy, and Hungarian-born Leo Szilard, for exam-
ple — shared our atomic effort and established permanent American residence
following the war." — Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Investigation into the
United States Atomic Energy Commission. Senate Report No. 1169, October 13,
1949. Eighty-first Congress, first session, page 8.

"Mr. Johnson. Dr. Oppenheimer, this work has been done by a great many
noted scientists?

Dr. Oppenheimer. Yes, sir.

Mr. Johnson. I think you ought to put into the record, if you know, who the
men are who received the Nobel Prize, who worked on this project.

The Chairman. Dr. Oppenheimer is one of them.



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1983

Dr. Oppenheimer. No, I am not, but there are many of my friends who are.
There is the great Danish scientist, Bore (sic) He contributed enormously.
Sir James Chadwick, an Knglisli scientist ; Dr. Compton, Dr. Lawrence, Dr. Ander-
son, of the Institute of Technology. I am forgetting many important names.
There are many." — Dr. J. R. Oppenlieimer (hearings before tlie Committee on
Military Affairs, House of Representatives. H. R. 4280, an act for tlie Develop-
ment and Control of Atomic Energy, October 9, IS, 1945. Seventy-ninth Congress,
first sesson, p. 129.)

"Chadwick was the head of a British delegation which contributed materially
to the success of the laboratory [Los Alamos]." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy
for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press. 1945. Page
214.
Dehyc, Pet a- {Ncthcrlatids)

"Chancellor Arthur H. Compton of Washington University, who was one of
the oustanding contributors to work on the atomic bomb, received the Nobel
Prize in physics in 1927 because of his- explanation of the inelastic scattering
of light quanta by free electrons. Simultaneously, Peter Debye, now chairman
of the Department of Chemistry at Cornell but then a Dutch citizen and pro-
fessor at the University of Utrecht, was announcing the same conclusions based
on parallel researches. American physicists speak understandingly of 'the
Compton effect': their colleagues in the Netherlands mean precisely the same
thing when they speak of 'the Debye effect.' " — Gellhorn. W. Security, Loyalty,
and Science. Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell University Press, 1950, page 14.

Einstein, A. (Germany)

"It bears repeating that the men who stimulated this country's interest in
attempting to use the Hahn-Strassman discovery of the tissionability of uranium
were Enrico Fermi, who won the Nobel Prize in physics when he was a pro-
fessor in his native Italy, and Albert Einstein, Leo Szilard, and Eugene P.
Wigner, all of whom were mature scientists before they were American citi-
zens." — Gellhorn, W. Security, Loyalty, and Science. Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell
University Press, 1950, page 13.

"From the days when the refugee du Ponts first settled here, at the invita-
tion of Thomas Jefferson, to the arrival of those great refugee scientists who
played so preeminent a role in the conquest of the atom, Einstein and Fermi
and their many distinguished collaborators, we have been not only safeguarding
liberty but enjoying its rich fruits. I hope that day will never come when the
thinking of scientists is so hedged about with petty restrictions that, as hap-
pened in Germany and Italy, foreign scientists will not want to come here and
our own scientists will not want to stay." — Statement of Hon. Harold L. Ickes,
Secretary of the Interior, January 23, 1946 (hearings before the Special Com-
mittee on Atomic Energy, United States Senate on S. 1717, a bill for the develop-
ment and control of Atomic Energy, pt. I, 79th Cong., 2d sess., p. 91).

"For it was only in ISOO that Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radio-
activity, and the siibsequent work of Einstein, Rutherford, Bohr, Millikan, Fermi,
Compton, Lawrence, and many others in the galaxy of brilliant men and women,
has exposed the atom and its nucleus" to our intellectual contemplation." — Re-
marks of Lewis L. Strauss, member of the United States' Atomic Energy Com-
mission, before the New York Academy of INIedicine, October 30, 1947.

Emelens, K. G. {Great Britain)

"Professor Oliphant and his team from Birmingham University were moved
to Berkeley to work with Professor Lawrence's group in research on the elec-
tromagnetic isotope separation project. They were joined by other physicists
from Britain including Professor Massey of University College, London, Dr. H. W.
Skinner of Bristol University, Dr. Allibone, and Dr. Wilkinson who worked
partly at Berkeley and partly at the electromagnetic separation plant itself.
Dr. Emeleus of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. P. Baxter, and others were trans-
ferred to the Electromagnetic plant."— Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Mili-
tary Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 2S6,

Failla, Gioacehino (Italy)

Member, Advisory Committee on Biology and Medicine, USAEC.

Fermi, E. (Italy)

"The new tools at Berkeley, the Argonne, Oak Ridge, Brookhaven, and in
many university laboratories will soon be serving men like Lawrence, Fermi,
Seaborg, Compton, Rabi, Oppenheimer, Spedding, Sinn [sicj, Alvarez, and their



1984 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

brilliant associates ; and new discoveries as dazzling as those which have been
made will be forthcoming." — Remarks of Lewis L. Strauss, member, United
States Atomic Energy Commission before the University of New Hampshire,
October 9, 1948.

"It bears repeating that the men who stimulated this coimtry's interest in
attempting to use the Hahn-Strassman discovery of the fissionability of uranium
were Enrico Fermi, who had won the Nabel Prize in ph.vsics when he was a
professor in his native Italy, and Albert Einstein, Leo Szilard, and Eugene P.
Wigner, all of whom were mature scientists before they were American citi-
zens." — Gellhorn, W. Security, Loyalty, and Science. Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell
University Press, 1950, page 13.

"The participants included a large number of the pioneer explorers of the
nucleus of the atom who later played a ma.ior part in the development of the
atomic bomb. Among them were Drs. Bohr, Fermi, I. I. Rabi. * * *" —
Lawrence, W. L. Dawn Over Zero. New York, Knopf, 1947, page 44.

"Such towering scientitic figures as Niels Bohr of Denmark and Sir James
Chadwick of Great Britain, together with dozens of associates from almost all
countries except Russia, came to the United States during the war, participated
intimately in the JNIanhattan District pro.iect, rendered priceless service, and
returned to their native lands when hostilities ended. Equally notable figures
from abroad — Enrico Fermi of Italy and Hungarian-born Leo Szilard, for
example — shared in our atomic effort and established permanent American resi-
dence following the war." — Joint Committee on Atomic Energj\ Investigation
into the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Senate Report No. 1169,
October 13, 1949. Eighty-first Congress, first session, page 8.

"For it was only in 1896 that Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radio-
activity, and the subsequent work of Einstein, Rutherford. Bohr, Millikan,
Fermi, Compton, Lawrence, and many others in the galaxy of brilliant men and
women, lias exposed the atom and its nucleus to our intellectual contempla-
tion." — Remarks of Lewis L. Strauss, member. United States Atomic Energy
Commission, before the New York Academy of Medicine, October 30, 1947.

"The announcement of the hypothesis of fission and its experimental confirma-
tion took place in January 1939. There was immediate interest in the possible
military use of the large amounts of energy released in fission. The early
efforts both at restricting publication and at getting Government support were
stimulated largely by a small group of foreign-liorn physicists centering on L.
Szilard and including E. Wigner, E. Teller. V. F. Weisskopf, and E. Fermi. —
Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purpose. Princeton, N. J., Princeton
University Press, 1945, page 45.

"From the days when the refugee du Ponts first settled here, at the invitation
of Thomas Jefferson, to the arrival of those great refugee scientists who played
so preeminent a role in the conquest of the atom, Einstein and Fermi and their
many distinguished collaboratoi'S, we have been not only safeguarding liberty
but enjoying its rich fruits. I hope that day will never come when the thinking
of scientists is so hedged about with petty restrictions that, as happened in
Germany and Italy, foreign scientists will not want to come here and our own
scientists will not want to stay."- — Statement of Hon. Harold L. Ickes, S'^cre-
tary of the Interior, January 23, 1946 (hearing before the Special Committee
on Atomic Energy, United States Senate on S. 1717, a bill for the development
and control of atomic energy, p. I, 79th Cong., 2d sess, page 91).

"In May of this year [1945], 2 months before the test in New Mexico showed
conclusively that the atomic bomb would work. Secretary Stimson, with the
approval of the President, appointed an interim committee to recommend legis-
lation that would insure that this discovery would be controlled and developed
in the best interests of the people of this country * * *."

"The members w^re also aided by the advice and experience of eminent
scientists who had rendered invaluable service in the atomic bomb project. —
Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer, Dr. E. O. Lawrence, Dr. Enrico Fermi, and Dr. Arthur
H. Compton."— Statement of the Honorable Robert P. Patterson, Secretary of
War, October 9, 19-15 (hearings before the Pommittee on Military Affairs, House of
Representatives. 79th Cong., 1st sess., on H. R. 4280, pages 4-5).

"Dr. GuNN. On March 17, 1939, there was a discussion at Navy Department,
with both Navy and Army officers present, and scientists of the Naval Research
Laboratory, of which I was one. A meeting was held, at which Professor Fermi
and Professor Pegram, of Columbia University, were present. Fermi was known
to me as a highly comnetent phvsicist, unexcitahle, conservative.

"The Chairman (Senator MeMahon). You had great confidence in Fermi?

"Dr. GuNN. We think very highly of Fermi. He was an experimenter in



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1985

nuclear physics, and an oufstaiuling exponent at that time." — Hearings before
the Sijecial Committee on Atomic Energy. United States Senate. Senate Reso-
hition 171), a resolution creating a Si)ecial Committee To Investigate Problems Re-
lating to the Development, Use, and Control of Atomic Energy, part '6, page 3G6,
Seventy-ninth Congress, first session (Dr. Ross Unnn, technical adviser to the
Naval Administraticm of the Naval Iteseareh Laboratory).

' These men have long been associated with research on, and the development
of, the atomic bomb. Dr. Oppenheimer was in charge of the work in New
Mexico on the perfection of the bomb itself. Dr. Fermi, who received the Nobel
Prize for physics in IJWS for bis work on the neutron and other nuclear ]ihe-
uomena, has work closely closely with Dr. Oppenheimer throughout the proj-
ect. * * * Because of the importance of their work on the bomb project,
it occurred to me that you and your committee would surely be interested in
having the views of these * * * scientists." — ^llobert P. Patterson, Secre-
tary of War, in a letter to Andrew J. May, Chairman, Military Affairs Commit-
tee, House of Representatives, dated October 12, 1945 (hearings before the
Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives H. R. 4280, an act
for the Development and Control of Atomic Energy, October 9, 18, 1945. 79th
Cong., 1st sess., pp. 100-107).

"Self-exiled Italian physicist, consultant to the Argonne National Laboratory
and i)rofessor of physics at the University of Chicago, received the Nobel Prize
in 1038. He was cited by the War Department as the first man to achieve nuclear
chain reaction. During the war he was associate director of the Los Alamos
Laboratory. Fermi was born in Rome and was professor of theoretical physics
at the University of Rome from 1927 to 1938, when he left the country because
of opposition to fascism. He was the first to systematize the science of physics
in Italy. Mr. Fermi studied at the University of Pisa, Italy, from 1918 to 1922,
and has honorary dt^grees from the Universities of Utrecht and Heidelberg.
Before cominir to Cliicago with the Metallurgical Laboratory, Fermi woi-ked at
Columbia University." — Robinson. G. O. The Oak Ridge Story. Kingsport,
Tenn., Soutliern Publishers, Inc., 1950, page 177.

Fowler, R. H. {Great Britain)

"He arrived in Ottawa in late July 1940. He had just been in the TTnited
States as a member of the Tizard mission sent out from the United Kingdom
to enlist Americnn collaboration in radar development and other war research.
Fowler reported that experiments with uranium and carbon, similar in purpose
to the work in Ottawa, although somewhat different in methods were already
well advanced in the United States. A visit to Dr. L. J. Briggs at the Bureau
of Standards in Washington and to Professor Peagram's laboratory in Columbia
led to an exchange of technical information related to the Ottawa experiments
during the following year before the United States entered the war.

"* * * development of methods for the production of plutonium, in an
atomic-energy reactor containimr natural uranium * * *, -p^^^ \(\ea had
been considered in the United Kinadom for some time and had been mentioned
by Professor Fowler during a visit to the United States as early as January
1941.''^ — Laurence, George C. Canada's^Participation in Atomic Energy Develop-
ment. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 3, 326 (November 1947).

Gnmnu\ Grorfjc ( Riis.tia)

"The fi'-st experiments on nuclear transmutation were naturally carried out
with swift alpha particles because of their availability, but the wave-mechanical
calculations made by G. Gamow in 1928 suggested that other charged pai'ticles
might be more effective. He showed that not only was the energy barrier lower,
but the probability of penetrating it and reaching an atomic nucleus also in-
creased, as the charire and mass of the incident particle decreased" (p. 218).

"* * * an atomic nucleus has been compared in its behavior to a drop of
liquid. This analogy appears to have been suggested by G. Gamow in 19.'',0. and
it has been employed by nuclear physicists from time to time" (p. 3."8). — Glas-
stone, S. Sourcebook on Atomic Energy. New York, D. Van Nostrand, 1950.

"George Gamow. nuclear physicist, is known for his scientific studies as well
as for his books for the general public. He has made studies in the field of
theoretical physics, particularly in the anplication of nuclear reactions to the
evolution of stars: and he has (as of 19.~1) written and illustrated eight books,
the popular style of which has attracted laymen readers. In 1934, after lectur-
ing at European and .\merican iniiversities, he joined the faculty of the George
Washington University as professor of theoretical physics" (p. 10).



1986 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

"During and after World War II Gamow, who was giv^en American citizenship
in 1940, served as consultant to several Navy and Air Force boards, to the Los
Alamos Scientific Laboratory, to Johns Hopkins University on Army and Navy
contract work, and to the Rand Corp. on Air Force contract work" (p. 12). —
Current Biography. New York, H. W. Wilson Co., October 1951.

Gianque, William F. (Canada)

"The 1949 Nobel prize for chemistry was awarded to Dr. William F. Giauque
'for his contribution to chemical thermodynamics, especially for his investiga-
tions of the properties of substances at extremely low temperatures.' Giauque
has been associated with the University of California for more than 30 years, as
student, instructor, and professor of chemistry." — Current Biography. New
York. H. W. Wilson Co., 1950.

"The discovery * * * [1929] by F. W. Giauque and H. L. Johnston, in
the United States, that atmospheric oxygen is a mixture of three isotopes, showed
that (physical) atomic weights obtained by the mass spectrograph could not be
identified with the chemical values, as explained above." — Glasstone, S. Source-
book on Atomic Energy. New York, D. Van Nostrand Co., 1950, page 19G.

Von Grosse, A. (Russia)

"Urey and A. Von Grosse had already been considering the concentration of
heavy water by means of a catalytic exchange reaction between hydrogen gas
and liquid water."— Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. Prince-
ton. N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 69.

"The most effective catalyst of this type [for the production of heavy water]
was discovered by H. S. Taylor at Princeton University, while a second, less
active catalyst was discovered by A. von Grosse." — Smyth. H. D. Atomic Energy
for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945,
page 169.

Henne, A. L. (Bclf/ium)

"As in the plutonium problem, so here also, there were many questions of cor-
rosion, etc., to be investigated. New coolants and lubricants were developed by
A. L. Henne and his associates, by G. H. Cady, by W. T. Miller and his coworkers,
by E. T. McBee and his associates, and by scientists of various corporations
including Hooker Electrochemical Co., the du I'ont Co., and the Harshaw Chemi-
cal Co." — Smyth, II. D. Atomic Energy for INIilitary Purposes. Princeton, N. J.,
Princeton University Press, 1945, pages 182-183.

Kingdon, K. H. (Jamaica, British West Indies)

"By using the electromagnetic technique, A. O. Nier at the University of Minne-
sota, and K. H. Kingdon and H. C. Pollock, at the General Electric Laboratories,
Schenectady, N. Y., were able in 1940 to obtain sufficient ui'anium 235 to provide
the answer- to a vital problem in connection with the utilization of nuclear
energy." — Glasstone. S. Soui-cebook on Atonuc Energv. New York, D. Van
Nostrand, 1950, pages 204-205.

Kistiakotvsky, George B. (Russia, 1900)

"For administrative purposes the scientific staff at Los Alamos was arranged
in seven divisions, which have been rearranged at various times. During the
spring of 1945 the divisions were: * * * Explosives Division under G. B.
Kistiakowsky * * *" (p. 213).

"In and around the shelter were some twenty-odd people concerned with last-
minute arrangements. Included were Dr. Oppenheimer. the Director who had
borne the great scientific burden of developing the weapon from the raw materials
made in Tennessee and Washington, and a dozen of his key assistants, Dr. Kistia-
kowsky * * *"(p. 2.52). — Smyth. H. D. Atonuc Energy for Military Purposes.
Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945.

"The last men to inspect the tower with its cosmic bomb (at Alamogordo) were
Dr. Bainbridge, Dr. Kistiakowsky, and Lt. Howard C. Bush * * *" — Law-
rence, W. L. Dawn Over Zero. New York. Knoi)f, 1947, page 191. Member,
Advisory Committee on Chemistry, U. S. A. E. C.

Lattes, Cesare M. G. (Brazil)

"The Brazilian ph.ysicist C. M. G. Lattes, working in collaboration with scien-
tist Eugene Gardner of the University of California, succeeded in 1948, in a
sense, in producing matter from pure energy * * *

"On February 12, 1948, * * * Lattes" arrived in Berkeley, Calif. ; he had
been granted a Rockefeller Foundation national research fellowship as consultant



coiMMissiox OX nr:MinR\Tiox axd naturalization 1987

at the T'nivorsity of California Radiation Laboratory. Thore the Brazilian
began work with Dr. Eusene Gardner * * * Workin'j; on an Atomic Energy
Commission contract, Lattes and Gardner combined their techniques * * *

"When announced by University of California laboratory director E. O.
Lawrence on March i'>, 194S. the discovery [production of mesons] was hailed as
a 'momentous achievement'; the AEC research (lir(>ctor, Dr. James B. Fisk,
called it 'of overwhelmin.i: importance for the handle it provides in workin,;; to
understand fundamental forces.' The producticm of mesous, it was pointed out,
might be regarded as developing matter from energy." — Curi'ent Biography.
New York. H. W. Wilson Co., 1940.

"Prof. Henry DeW. Smyth of Princeton, now a member of the Atomic Energy
Commission, tells an illuminating anecdote involving a brilliant young Brazilian,
C. M. G. Lattes, who, still in his twenties, has been appointed to a professorship
at the University of Sao Paulo. Dr. Lattes studied at Sao Paulo and subse-
quently at the University of Bristol. Then he went to Berkeley to visit the
lladiation Laboratory of the University of California. r>y applying work he had
previously done in connection with the tracks of mesons produced by cosmic
rays, the Brazilian scientist quickly discovered that mesons, the forces which
hold the particles of the atomic nucleus together, were being produced arti-
ficially by the big cyclotron at Berkeley. Until that time the California physicists
had been unaware that the cyclotron had been manufacturing mesons for months,
though this has subsequently been described as one of the most Important events
in physics since the war." — Gellhorn, W. Security. Loyalty, and Science.
Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell University Press, 1950, pages 13-14.

Lanrifscn, Charles C. (Denmark, 1892)

"A more rugged form of electroscope was devised by C. C. Lauritsen * * *



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