United States. President's Commission on Immigrati.

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Iminisrant Farmers and Their Children (New York, 1929), pp. 62-73.

^' National Comnii.'iision on Law Observance and Enforcement, Report on Crime and the
Foreign Born (Washington. 19.31), III. p. 399 ff. See, to the same effect, E. H. Sutherland,
Principles of Criminology (3d ed., Philadelphia. 19.39), p. 123 ff.

s"' Earnest A. Hooton, Crime and the Man (Cambridge, 1939), p. 252.

"* See in general, H. E. Barnes and N. K. Teeters, New Horizons in Criminology (New
York, 1947), pp, 182 ff.

°» I. W. Halpern. .1. N. Stanislaus, and Bernard Botein, A Statistical Study of the
Distribution of Adult and .Juvenile Delinquents in the Boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn,
New York City (New York, 1934), pp. 103 ff.

' See in general, Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck. Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency (New
York. 1950) ; and Thorsten Sellin, Culture Conflict and Crime (New York, Social "Science
Bulletin No. 41, 1938), p. 81.

= Benjamin Malzberg, Social and Biological Aspects of Mental Disease (Utica, 1940),
p. Ifi3.

^ Malzberg, Mental Disease, p. 203.



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1861

(liffcrenc'es reflect some sort of ethnic piedilection or whether they reflect the
coiittiljiitins: social environment would be ilitticult to say in the absence of any
convincini,' theory as to the causes of alcoholism. In terras of future policy,
perhaps the most' that can be said is that the immigrants as a whole do not add
to the burden of the problem, althouuh si}«'citic groups among them may. But
tiiose groups can by no means be correlated with tbe old and new immigrations.

~. Insanitij

On the basis of summary i-ates of commitments or of hrst astion-
naire any printed or other material which, in your opinion, will assist the
Commissifm (attach extra sheets, if necessary) :

.XTTACHKn

(d) Visa Handbook including manual and regulations.

(h) Example of advisory opinion from Department to a field iiost.



1866 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

(c) Information sheets.

(r/) Report of visa training course.

(f) Hypothetical cases used in training.

(/) Analysis of exclusion clause.

([/) OMV correcting error in correspondence.

(/(.) Visa Circular No. 18, March 8, 1949, methods and standards in appraising
visa work.

(i) Performance-rating record card.
13. What are the percentages of visa officers who are :

(a) FSO's: 109, 30- percent.

(b) FSS: 257, 70 percent.

(Signed) Robert F. Woodwaed.

(Signature ; type name.)
Submitted by : Robert F. Woodward, Chief.

Division of Foreign Service Personnel.
(Title.)
Date of submittal to Commission : Octol)er 81, 1952.



Ansirer to question .'/ of Questionnaire of President's Coinniission on Immigration

and Naturalisation

QUALIFICATIONS

Personal

1. Must possess attitudes and personal characteristics which create good pub-
lic relations with both successiul and unsuccessful visa applicants ;

2. Ability to exercise good .iudgment, impartiality, and flexibility in inter-
iUffeting^and applying immigration laws ;

3. Moral standards and personal integrity which preclude risk of decisions
which are influenced by pressures or offers of bribes ;

4. Must be a representative American who will create a favorable impression
of the United States Government with visa applicants and the public ;

5. Must possess insight and understanding, and exercise patience and courtesy
in dealings with visa applicants and the pul)lic ;

6. Must have a sincere desire to protect the interests of the United States.

Education, experience, training, and abilities

1. Visa officers must have training or experience of varying periods in the
Department or at field posts suflJicient to provide a grounding in pertinent laws,
regulations, and practices and to prove temperamental aptitude for visa responsi-
bilities. All beginning Foreign Service officers are given specialized training
by the Visa Division ;

2. Must be an American citizen ;

3. Must be bonded ;

4. IMust have a consular commission.

5. Must have A. B. degree or its eduivalent, or demonstrated ability and ex-
perience in handling visa responsibilities.

6. Must possess knowledge and understanding of basic theory behind United
States immigration laws, and ability to analyze legislation and apply regulations.

7. Must liave knowledge of United States citizenship laws.

8. IMust have understanding of relationship between the State Department and
Immigration and Naturalization Service in connection with visas.

9. Must have basic understanding of international laws and practices regard-
ing the movement of peoples across country boundaries.

10. Must have ability to draft nonroutine correspondence and to write clear
and concise opinions.

Enclosure to question 4 of Que.



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