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ing, or he can buy an improved stock farm for $100 to $150 per acre in an inten-
sively developed section.




Alabama Alfalfa Which Grows Luxuriantly on the Limestone Soils.



ALABAMA



Page Twenty-nine




&3&C&'




Soy Beans in Tennessee Valley.

There are farming or horticultural opportunities in Alabama for every man's
inclinations and pocketbook, and he can secure practically any sort of terms that
he might wish.

Temperature.

The average temperature of the State as a whole is 63° ; northern Alabama
61°; central Alabama 64°; southern Alabama 65°.

The average length of the crop growing season in Northern Alabama is ap-
proximately 200 days ; Central Alabama 210 to 240 days, and in Southern Alabama
240 to 260 days. This long growing season is what enables the Alabama farmer
to raise two and three crops on the same ground in the same season.

The average number of days during the year with the temperature above
90° is 62° ; with the temperature below 32 only 35 days.

Precipitation.

The annual average rainfall for the State as a whole is 52 inches, although
in the southern counties bordering on the Gulf it ranges between 60 and 63 inches,
and in the North-Central and Northeastern portions it ranges between 53 and 57
inches. The rainfall is well distributed throughout the year, and the Autumns are
favorable for the maturing and harvesting of the staple crops.

A Progressive State.

The State is in step with the progress of development, and rural mail routes and
telephone lines form a net work through every county, with much interest mani-
fested in the building of good roads.




A Field of Hairy Vetch.



Page Thirty



ALABAMA




Alabama has Year 'Round Pastures.

The population of the State is growing steadily and rapidly. In 1910 the pop-
ulation was 2,138,093 and the Census Bureau estimate that on January 1, 1919 it
had increased to 2,410,936, an addition of 272,843 in nine years.

Principal Cities.

Montgomery, located in the central part of the State, is the capital of the
State.

Birmingham, situated in the mineral district, is the largest city.

Mobile, on the Mobile River, is the State's port.

Good Schools.

The schools will rank with any to be found in rural communities. Opportuni-
ties for higher education are offered by many splendid colleges and universities that
are to be found in all sections of the State. Churches of all the denominations are
well and capably represented and well attended.

The citizens are warm-hearted, generous and hospitable and stand eager to ex-
tend the helping hand of fellowship to any one taking up a residence within the
State's borders.

Development Agencies.

Among the agencies that have contributed to the development that has taken
place in recent years in Alabama should be mentioned the following:

The Alabama farmers themselves, who, by reason of their intelligent reception
of the modern methods that have been worked out by scientists, and their eager,




A North Alabama Wheat Field.



ALABAMA



Page Thirty-one





Alfalfa and Johnson Grass that Will Cut from Five to Seven Tons to the Acre.

active co-operation have conclusively shown that experiments proven on a small
scale can be demonstrated on a wide area under actual farming conditions.

The Alabama Extension Service, which includes Farm Demonstration Agents,
Home Demonstration Agents and traveling specialists in marketing, dairying, live
stock, horticulure, crop pests and agricultural engineering ; Boys' Corn, Calf and Pig
Clubs ; Girls' Poultry and Canning Clubs, and Women's Home Economic Clubs, which
are concerned especially as to the better feeding and the health of the family and
the preservation and conservation of all foods.

The Alabama Experiment Station, with principal farm located at Auburn, and
several hundred subsidiary field tests in various counties covering the entire State.

The most important of these local tests consist of experiments to determine
plant food requirements of corn, cotton, peanuts, sweet potatoes and other crops
of the State.

The tests also include a study of the adaptation of all promising forage crops
to different soils; they are also concerned with testing in various counties to de-
termine the adaptability of each soil and climate to the pedigreed varieties of
corn, oats, wheat, cotton, etc., bred up by scientific methods at the main experi-
ment station.

The State Department of Agriculture, in its appropriate function of law en-
forcement and other regulatory work. Especially important in this line is inspec-
tion of fertilizers and feed stuffs, the administration of which is in the hands of
the State Department of Agriculture, the analyses work on which it is based being
made at Auburn.

The State Department of Agriculture also maintains a Marketing Bureau for
the farmers' benefit and issues each month the Alabama Markets Journal, the mis-
sion of which is to help market Alabama products.




Sumatra Tobacco Growing Under Partial Shade. Used for Cigar Wrappers.



Page Thirty-two



ALABAMA




i 3




■ ft *



BIWM*




A Shorthorn Herd.

The daily, weekly, agricultural and religious press of the State, which has
generously disseminated all information relative to the latest methods of profitable
farming.

The State Live Stock Association, which developed increased interest and ac-
tivity in all forms of live stock raising.

The State Board of Horticulture, which has to deal with the prevention of the
spread of insect pests and plant diseases, and which is ever-watchful to see that no
diseased nursery stock is permitted to be shipped into the State, and, by proper
inspection, insures the maintenance of healthful conditions in all of the nurseries
of the State.

The State Horticultural Society, which is aggressively behind every latest de-
velopment pertaining to fruit growing.

Teaching of agriculture in the schools, including not only the State A. & M.
College, but also in ten district agricultural high schools, a number of high schools
and in many of the public schools.

The Live Stock Sanitary Board, which is concerned with the prevention of di-
seases among cattle.

The work of the Agricultural Agents connected with the various railroads op-
erating in the State has also contributed to a considerable extent toward the de-
velopment and prosperity of Alabama.

The Agricultural Agents of the railroads have been carefully selected with
reference to their knowledge of agricultural and horticultural conditions, both in
the North and the South. They are required to devote their entire time to visit-
ing the farmer, advising and encouraging him to raise maximum yields of the
crops best adapted to his particular locality.




'The Grandson" Grand Champion Boar, International Live Stock Exposition, 1912.



ALABAMA



Page Thirty-three




A Chert Road in the Alabama Hills.



Special Aid for Newcomers.

While all farmers are counselled with impartiality, the railroad Agricultural
Agents are charged especially to seek out all new arrivals from other sections, and
in addition to advising them specifically as to the proper crops and methods to in-
sure them success in the particular locality in which they have settled, also put them
in touch with the other development agencies in the county, district and State,
so that shortly after his arrival the newcomer is in position to know exactly where
to go for any specific authoritative information he may desire upon any subject
pertaining to his work.

After the new arrival has made his crop or raised his live stock, these men
acquaint him with the best markets and most direct transportation routes.

Should he raise truck crops or fruits, these gentlemen advise him regarding
methods of selecting, grading and packing fruits or vegetables ; instruct him how
to properly load them in the cars so as to get the maximum tonnage in the car
without any possible deterioration in the product while en route.

For the perishable products, such as peaches, strawberries, radishes, etc., the
railroads furnish refrigerator cars, and their Agricultural Agents advise the ship-
per regarding the proper amount of ice to put in the bunkers and at what stations
en route the cars should be re-iced in order that the products might arrive in good
condition at their destination.

Railroad Agricultural Agents also co-operate with all the other development
agencies in the State in every line of agricultural, horticultural or live stock en-
deavor, and, by reason of their familiarity with crops and conditions at various
points along the lines of railway, they are enabled to bring exact and definite in-
formation to growers who contemplate specializing upon some particular commod-
ity that has not been grown in their locality before.





An Old Cotton Plantation Now Devoted to Alfalfa and Live Stock.



Page Thirty-four



ALABAMA




A Bunch of These Are On Every Farm.

All of these various development agencies are at the disposal of the farmer
at all times and at no expense to him whatever. It is doubtful if any State in
the Union is organized any more highly for assisting the newcomer than Alabama.
The newcomer may settle here in perfect security that a certain crop will do
well in a certain locality, be advised as to the correct methods to use in causing
it to give maximum results, the best manner of caring for his perishables and stor-
ing crops can all be answered intelligently and at once by some of the numerous
agencies which have given the farmer and his problems practical and sympathetic
study.

Climate As An Aid to the Farmer.

The Alabama farmer has an abundance of time to plant, mature and gather
any crop he desires. As a matter of experiment, a farmer in South Alabama has
been known to grow two crops of silage corn on the same acre in the same year,
although, naturally, such method is not following the best farm practice.

Alabama's climate, aside from the pleasure that one derives in not having to
suffer from extremes of heat or cold, actually means a considerable sum to him
each year. The heavy clothing and overcoats, mittens and fur caps necessary in
the North are unknown here. Neither is it necessary to feed work stock, cattle and
hogs as much as in the North, because there is no necessity for them to consume
food to keep up their animal heat.

He is also saved the expense of building and maintaining expensive cold-proof
barns in which the cattle may winter. In Alabama thousands of cattle spend the
entire Winter on the open range, without any shelter whatever except the canopy
of heaven, and are not fed a mouthful except what they manage to pick up for




Peaches Come Into Profitable Bearing in Three Years.



ALABAMA



Page Thirty-five




Sumatra Tobacco Under Partial Shade.

themselves, and the visitor in the Spring is always surprised at their good flesh.
The cattle feeder who supplements the pasturage he has with other feeds finds
his cattle not only go through the Winter without loss, but with an actual gain.

Aside from the mere money value of climate, there is a superlative satisfac-
tion in being able to work outdoors practically every day in the year in one's shirt
sleeves and to always go without an overcoat. It is a common sight in South Ala-
bama in January and February to see children in the country districts, and even
in the towns and cities, romping in their bare legs with no discomfort whatever.

Where it is so delightful in the Winter the stranger naturally assumes that
it must be much hotter in the summer than in the North, but such is not the case.
No one ever saw a horse in Alabama with a sponge on its head to keep it cool in
Summer. Sunstrokes are unknown, and while the thermometer gets up in the 90's,
it has only gotten over the 100 mark a very few times in the 30 or 40 years the
Weather Bureau has kept records in the State.

On the days when the temperature is in the nineties the nights are uni-
formly cool. It is frequently necessary, even in the Southernmost counties of the
State, to use a blanket for cover at night.

During all of the Summer months there are frequent showers that are cooling
and refreshing, and the breeze that has been cooled from coming across thousands
of miles of salt water is always present, and an occasional rest in the shade of a
tree will enable any farmer to do as big a days work in the middle of Summer cul-
tivating his crop or putting his hay into the top of his barn as he was ever able
to do in the North.

As will be noticed from the temperature and rainfall records, there is ample
moisture for the growing of any crop, and it should be borne in mind that the




Cotton and Corn Side by Side in the Black Soil Belt.



Page Thirty-six



ALABAMA




A Battery of Silos — Capacity 250 Tons Each.

heavy rains of the winter months can be stored in the clay subsoils and utilized by
the crops growing in the early spring.

Well Merited Recognition.

When the War Department was called upon to train millions of men at army
camps, there was no difference of opinion whatever as to where the majority of these
camps should be located, and the South by reason of its climate and sanitation, was
immediately selected as the location for practically all of the camps and canton-
ments.

Its mild climate permitted the boys to be given intensive training during both
the Summer and Winter months, and the millions of relatives who visited Southern
towns near which camps were located in either Summer or Winter carried home
with them nothing but praise for the wonderful climate which they found in the
South.

Alabama was signally honored in the location of Camp McClellan at Anniston,
where the War Department purchased outright many thousands of acres of land
and utilized it for intensive and extensive training of artillery units.

At Montgomery there was established Camp Sheridan, where both infantry and
artillery were trained. Taylor Field, where the army aviators were trained, and
Wright's Field Aviation Repair Depot No. 3 were also established at Montgomery.

It would be impossible to have anything more authoritative as to the health,
sanitation and climate of Alabama than the action of the War Department in lo-
cating camps here, and the wonderful health records enjoyed by the Alabama camps
will always remain a lasting tribute to its climatic advantages.




Registered Jersey Herd.



ALABAMA



Page Thirty-seven





~^r



One of Alabama's Modern Meat Packing Houses.



The same conditions that actuated the War Department officials in selecting
Alabama for their army camps hold equally true with respect to any farmer de-
sirous of changing his location.

Why Land Prices Are Low.

When one realizes that the field crop production of Alabama during 1918, ex-
clusive of livestock, is very close to half a billion dollars, it is difficult to realize
that a State producing such a volume of agricultural wealth can still be said to con-
tain productive lands that can be purchased at low prices and on easy terms.

The explanation of this is very simple when the local conditions are under-
stood. For many years, and in some instances generations, the lands in the north-
ern and central portions of the State have been operated as extensive cotton plan-
tations almost exclusively. These plantations have been handed down from father
to son, and have increased in area with each generation.

Under the present economic conditions labor has been attracted to the cities
by reason of the large daily wages which they receive being more enticing than
an annual settlement from their share of the cotton crop, and it has become neces-
sary for the owners of these plantations to divide their extensive farms into small
places of forty and eighty acres and upwards and to dispose of them upon favor-
able terms.

These plantation owners have more land than they can possibly hope to culti-
vate under present labor conditions, and the result is there are innumerable oppor-
tunities in the farming line of which the energetic man can take advantage.

The lumberman having cut his timber is also unable to farm the cut-over
lands, and so he offers them at low prices and favorable terms.





Threshing Five Bushels Oats per Minute.



Page Thirty-eight



ALABAMA




Baby Beef on Alfalfa Pasture in February.

Many Settlements of Northerners.

In many parts of Alabama there are colonies of Northern and Western people
who have settled together because of sharing the same religious beliefs or racial
blood.

Feed Mills.

While velvet beans are most economically harvested by allowing cattle and hogs
to range through the fields, where they consume practically 100% of the entire
crop, the demand on the part of dairymen and cattle feeders for a concentrate has
caused many mills to be established throughout the State, where the ear corn,
stalks, blades and the velvet beans, vines, pods and stems are all ground together,
making practically a perfectly-balanced ration.

The demand for this concentrate is much greater than it has so far been pos-
sible to supply, and the raising of velvet beans for grinding into meal gives prom-
ise of becoming an industry of almost as great economic wealth as the cottonseed
industry has already proven to Alabama.

The City Man On An Alabama Farm.

Whether or not the city man can succeed on the farm without previous ex-
perience is a question frequently asked. As far as Alabama is concerned, there is
no question whatever about his being able to succeed.

The modern farmer is not the rustic "Rube" pictured on the stage who rises
at dawn and finishes the evening chores by lantern light. In this age of efficiency
the farmer who, by adopting modern methods and machinery, gets a maximum of
efficient labor from his employees and raises products where the margin between
the cost of production and sale is sufficient to show him a profit is the man who
will succeed on the farm. While labor is cheaper in the South than in other sec-
tions, the man who gets most for his labor is the one who provides it with modern
machinery that increases the productive capacity of the man.



ALABAMA



Page Thirty-nine




Feed Mills Afford Cash Market for Velvet Bean and Grain Crops.



Some old farmers continue to show some hesitancy to adopt modern methods.
Having been educated in the school of hard work, they are more or less of the
opinion that long hours and back-breaking manual labor make for success on the
farm.

The city man, on the other hand, is an eager student, and not having farmed
before, will adopt the methods and advice which is so freely offered him, and if
he does not permit his enthusiasm to induce him to extend his operations beyond
his financial ability to care for them, he is reasonably sure of success.

The city man, therefore, need have no fear in coming to Alabama to farm or
to engage in fruit raising. If he will diligently follow the advice of the various de-
velopment agencies and adopt the methods of the successful farmer in the commun-
ity where he has settled, diversify and rotate his crops and arrange his farming
system so as to have money coming in at different periods of the year, nature will
cheerfully co-operate with him, and there is no reason for his becoming a failure.

There are a very large number of city men now successfully farming in Ala-
bama who had never put a collar on a horse or turned over a furrow until they
did it on their Alabama farm, and whether they were carpenters, mechanics, clerks
or professional men, those who work as intelligently on their farms as they had in
their former occupations have prospered to such an extent that nothing could induce
them to return to the city work in which they were formerly engaged.

Come and See Alabama.

The wonderful opportunities that Alabama offers can be best appreciated by
a personal inspection of the conditions as they exist: that is all the Agricultural
Section of the United States Railroad Administration asks. "Come and see Ala-
bama" and you will be convinced.



Agricultural Opportunities In Alabama

By DR. CHARLES C. THACH,
President Alabama Polytechnic Institution

Alabama offers the glad hand to any one who desires to make a good live-
lihood from the land. Really, the story of the possibilities of farming in Ala-
bama is so good that I am afraid to tell it! The climate temperate, rain-fall
about fifty inches per year, health conditions excellent, arable land plentiful,
schools and churches better every year, in highway construction among the
leading States in the Union, railway centers for distribution abundant — all the
elements that go to make farm life profitable and pleasant!

Practically every variety of farm products can be raised with profit in
the State. In three staple crops Alabama leads the Union, namely — sweet po-
tatoes, peanuts, and velvet beans. The cotton crop is about a million bales a
year; corn about seventy million bushels; oats about eight million bushels.

In the Tennessee Valley the best grasses and clovers flourish. In the hilly
sections of the State, the finest varieties of apples can be grown. In the west-
ern section truck-gardening flourishes. In many counties grape growing is
highly successful; while citrus fruit culture throughout the entire Gulf coast
section is one of the most remarkable fruit developments of recent years.

By actual demonstration pork can be produced as cheaply as in any part
of the United States. In the western prairie section of the State where alfalfa
and all grasses can be grown with the greatest profit, cattle can also be raised
as cheaply as in any other section. Cattle can be cared for out-of-doors the
whole year round. Tick eradication has been made effective by a State-wide
law, and each week records a tremendous increase in high-grade cattle for beef
and dairy purposes. Owing to the out-door life, there is less tuberculosis than
in any section of the Union. Mr. Rommell, Chief United States Department
of Animal Husbandry, says cattle raising in Alabama is of national interest.

Although the average value of land has increased at least five dollars an
acre in a year, there are available good lands at a cheaper rate than anywhere
in the Nation. A farmer in the Northwest by selling his land might re-invest
in three times the number of acres of equally good land in Alabama — in a
word, he can farm in Alabama with much less capital than in the more con-
gested sections of the Nation.

These are a few of the good things that Alabama offers to all good Ameri-
can citizens who wish to make their homes with us. They are yours for the
coming.



ALABAMA

Alabama contains 32,818,560 acres, of which 20,732,-
312 are in farms.

Alabama ranks eighteenth in population and twenty-
seventh in land area.

Alabama is the second State in the Union in point
of cheap and accessible cut-over lands for general farm-
ing.

Alabama produced more than a half billion dollars
worth of farm crops in 1918.

Alabama stands first in the list of States in the pro-
duction of peanuts, velvet beans, and sweet potatoes.

Alabama grows a great variety of food and feed
crops — corn, hay, peas, peanuts, velvet beans, soy beans,
sugar cane, sorghum, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, al-
falfa, clovers, and every variety of vegetables and fruits
known to the Temperate Zone.

Alabama is the home of the pecan nut and the acreage
to this orchard crop is rapidly increasing.

Alabama produces nearly half as many hogs as Mis-
souri, the great live stock State of the West.

Alabama is destined to become one of the leading
live stock States of the Union. Already it is making
rapid strides along this line. The best blood lines of
cattle and hogs are in evidence throughout the State.

Alabama has a wonderful diversity of soils, which re-
spond readily to the demands of intensive farming. The
United States Bureau of Soils has completed the soil
surveys of 55 of the 68 counties in the State.

Alabama has an equable climate and is free from
long drouths. The State is never visited by general crop
failures.

Alabama has an average growing season of two hun-
dred days in the northern counties; two hundred and ten
days in the central section, and two hundred and forty to
two hundred and sixty days in the southern part. The
average rainfall for the State is fifty-one inches, and the
average temperature is sixty-three degrees.

Alabama is all American and is loyal to the slogan,
"Made in America'', but naturally we like it better when
we can point with pride to some product and say it was
"Made in Alabama." The invitation is cordially extended


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