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AGRICULTURAL SERIES No. 9



AGRICULTURAL SERIES No. 9



UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION

Monograph



COLORADO -AN UNDEVELOP ED EMPIRE



Messages from State Officials






From the Governor

Denver, Colorado

The great State of Colorado has a vast, unoccupied,
undeveloped territory — agricultural, stock, fruit and
mineral — lands of great potential value, where ample
opportunity awaits the industrious newcomer to make
a home and acquire independence.

In order, however, to bring about that so much de-
sired condition, it is highly essential that every effort
be made toward giving prospective settlers authentic
information concerning these opportunities. This
booklet has been prepared with that end in view and
is submitted to the prospective home-maker as con-
taining only reliable information.

Therefore, it is essential that expert assistance be
given the newcomer in order that he shall lose as little
time and effort as possible and not take unnecessary
chances in getting his new undertaking under way.

To this end our School of Mines, Agricultural Col-
lege, our Oil Department, our Mines and Stock De-
partments and our State Immigration Department,
are at the command of any and all desiring such advice
and assistance.

No other factor can be more effective in the work
than the continued hearty co-operation of the State
and the United States Railroad Administration, in
obtaining and publishing the truth, and only the truth,
regarding Colorado's opportunities.



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Governor



From the President of the State
Agricultural College

Fort Collins, Colorado
The agricultural college through its Experiment
Station and through its Extension Service is able to
keep in the closest touch with farming conditions and
farming development. Through the specialists of the
Extension Service, agricultural agents, home demon-
stration agents, and club leaders, it is possible to give
personal consideration to the individual settler, and
through the farm bureau, to bring to him the helpful
co-operation of his neighbors.

A cordial invitation is extended to the new settler
to get in touch with the County Agricultural Agent,
at once, the other extension workers in the county and
the Extension Service at the State Agricultural Col-
lege. Naturally, also, he should join the Farm Bu-
reau without delay.



The institution is vitally interested in the educational,
civic and industrial development of Colorado and
gladly co-operates with the United States Railroad
Administration in giving information to prospective
settlers on the agricultural, educational, and industrial
resources of our State.




From the State Commissioner of Immigration

Denver, Colorado
The importance of equipping the homeseeker and
prospective investor with accurate data concerning
the locality to which he hopes or expects to go cannot
be overestimated, for it is only through the possession
of such information that he can guide himself intelli-
gently in the establishment of his home and the
development of his work.

Keen appreciation of this fact has induced this de-
partment to work willingly with the representatives of
the Agricultural Section of the United States Railroad
Administration in the preparation of material dealing
with Colorado. The truth about Colorado needs no
embellishment by exaggeration; it is sufficient with-
out that.

The homeseeker in the West, if he is wise, will use
every effort to acquaint himself with the soil and
climatic conditions of the district into which he goes,
and with the social, educational, religious, transpor-
tation and market facilities which it has to offer. It
is for the purpose of giving this sort of information
truthfully and accurately that this department has
assisted in the preparation and approves the material
contained in this booklet.

The Colorado State Board of Immigration is an
active State organization for the promotion of the
development and settlement of the State and for
the guidance and protection of the newcomer. It
has compiled a wide variety of data relative to the
advantages of the State, its soil, climate, transporta-
tion facilities, crop yields, and other matters of
importance to the newcomer, and stands ready at all
times to aid and encourage the settler in every way
and to protect him from loss through unfortunate and
unwise investments.



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26



1919



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Commissioner



U. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




eblo. There are many mining and industrial cities in Colorado which furnish a ready market
for farm produce, dairy and poultry products



The Purpose of this Booklet — How the
Railroads Can Help the Homemaker



This booklet is issued by the Agricultural Section,
Division of Traffic, of the United States Railroad
Administration, J. L. Edwards, Manager, Washing-
ton, D. C.

The information was compiled by the Agricultural
Representatives of the several railroads serving the
State of Colorado, namely :

Atchison, Topeka 8b Santa Fe C. L. Seagraves, Chicago, 111.

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy J- B. Lamson, Chicago, III.

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific . . Alexander Jackson, Chicago, 111.

Colorado & Southern Earl G. Reed, Denver, Colo.

Denver & Rio Grande W. H. Olin, Denver, Colo.

Denver & Salt Lake F. J. Toner, Denver, Colo.

Missouri Pacific Geo. K. Andrews, St. Louis, Mo.

Rio Grande Junction W. H. Olin, Denver, Colo.

Rio Grande Southern W. H. Olin, Denver, Colo.

Union Pacific R. A. Smith, Omaha, Neb.

The articles on the State's more important indus-
tries and possibilities are contributed by recognized
authorities.

The purpose of the booklet is to help direct ambitious
and industrious home-makers and producers, desiring
to better their condition in life, to localities where



they should meet with success in proportion to their
resources and ability.

Our mission is to help industrious men and women
to become farm owners and to enable them to lay the
foundation for a home and eventually independence
for the family.

Bear in mind that none of the railroads above
mentioned have any interest in the sale of lands, nor
are they engaged in the land business.

All, however, are greatly interested in the develop-
ment and general prosperity of the districts served by
their respective Hnes.

The interests of the railroads and the communities
served by the lines are identical and interwoven. Pros-
perous communities mean prosperous railroads. A
well-satisfied settler is a good asset. A misplaced man
is a liability. Our interest does not cease with the
location of the settler. We are deeply interested in
his success. We stand ready at all times to help the
newcomer with his problems. Much valuable know-
ledge of farm practices and opportunities has been
gained by observation and experience which will prove
helpful to farmers. This is available to all inquirers.



COLORADO-AN UNDEVELOPED EMPIRE




Denver and Pueblo are good markets for live stock, and their importance as live stock centers is rapidly increasing.
Good railroad facilities put these markets within easy reach of every farmer



The several Railroad Agricultural Representatives
have for years made a careful study of conditions and
keep in direct touch with their respective territories.

Owing to limited space, detailed information is not
attempted in this pamphlet, but should the reader
desire any special information on any subject con-
nected with any branch of farming or stock-raising in
any locality in Colorado, it can be secured by writ-
ing to or calling upon the agricultural repre-
sentative whose name and address is stamped on
the last page of this booklet.

State fully just what is desired. Prompt and de-
pendable information will be furnished.

COLORADO

Colorado has long been a leader in the production
of golci and silver, and the State is still best known in
other parts of the country as a mining state, although
the value of the output of its farms today, including
live stock, is more than three times that of its mines
and quarries.

The agricultural development of the State in the
past few years has been very rapid. The total acreage
devoted to seven of the principal crops in 1917 was
approximately 1500% greater than forty years ago.
The total acreage and yield of the principal crops in
1917 was as follows.



Crop Acreage Yield

Alfalfa and native hay, tons. . 1,300,000 2,836,000

Wheat, bushels 600,000 13,536,000

Corn, bushels 532,000 10,640,000

Rye, bushels 27,000 432,000

Beans, bushels 193,000 1,467,000

Oats, bushels 293,000 11,134,000

Barley, bushels 168,000 5,544,000

Sugar beets, tons 161,476 1,853,200

Kafir, etc., bushels 88,000 1,320,000

Potatoes, bushels 70,000 9,310,000

Broom corn, tons 30,000 4,650

Flaxseed, bushels 2,000 14,000

Apples, bushels 2,640,000

Peaches, bushels 1,200,000

Pears, bushels 320,000

The total acreage cultivated, in 1917, was 4,073,250
acres. This is only 6.14% of the total area of the
State.

Being a mountainous State, a very large portion
of the land is not suitable for the plow. There
are, however, at the present time close to 20,000,000
acres of arable land. At the present time it is safe to
say that there are not more than 5,000,000 acres of
this amount under cultivation. The possibilities for
agricultural development are unexcelled.

It is estimated that the population of the State, in
1918, was 1,022,639. This makes about ten persons to
the square mile as compared with more than thirty



U. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




The large number of days of sunshine, makes it possible to cure alfalfa hay of the best quality. On irrigated lands alfalfa yields range

from two to five tons per acre. On the dry uplands of the Eastern part of the State, one to two tons are secured by

growing alfalfa in rows under cultivation. Seed production on the dry lands is especially profitable



persons to the square mile for the entire United States.
Slightly more than half the total population live in the
rural districts.

It is a great live stock State; the value of domestic
animals sold and slaughtered in 191 7 was approximately
$100,000,000, which is about 300% greater than the
value in 1909.

Colorado has made rapid strides in agricultural
development during the past twenty years. It is safe
to say that the development during the next twenty
years will surpass all past records. Land values are
constantly increasing, and with 15,000,000 acres of
tillable land, a considerable portion of which is subject
to irrigation, yet unplowed, the future possibilities are
enormous.

The Rocky Mountains run through the middle of
Colorado, north to south. This makes three natural
divisions of the State: The Eastern, Intermountain,
and Western Slope districts. Each division has dif-
ferent crops, climate and methods of farming. For
this reason each division is treated separately in this
booklet. It tells the prospective settler what farm
crops and farm practices have proven the most de-
sirable and profitable for each of the three districts.

Fertile Soil

The soils are rich in mineral properties, having
received the wash from the Rockies for centuries. In



but few places has nature done so much soil blending,
filling it with lime, phosphates, potash, iron, mag-
nesium and sulphur ready for the farmer's use. The
presence of iron in the soils and the sandstone accounts
for the red color.



The director of the U. S. Weather Bureau for Colo-
rado has recently summarized the weather data under
three divisions, covering all data on rainfall, tempera-
tures, frost, humidity and wind velocity, for the
number of years weather observations have been
made. The average annual precipitation is from this
summary and for the stations named in his records.
These figures are found further in this booklet.

The rainfall on the plains in the southeastern part
of the State comes largely in the months from April 1st
to October 1st. Seventy-five per cent of the annual
amount falls during this period. The precipitation
varies from twelve to more than twenty inches in the
higher parts of the Arkansas-Platte Divide, near the
center of the State, where the elevation is between
6,000 to 7,000 feet. In these higher altitudes frost is
fifteen days later in spring and fifteen days earlier in
the fall than on the lower plains. Below 6,000 feet
elevation, the last killing frost in spring occurs in the
latter part of April and the first killing frost, about
the middle of October. This gives to this portion of
the Plains Region of the State, about five and a half
months between frosts.



COI>ORADO-AN UNDEVELOPED EMPIRE




An eastern Colorado farm home showing Cottonwood trees five years old.
Every dry-land farmer can have attractive home surroundings



In the northeastern part of the State the amount of
rainfall on the plains area decreases from east to west,
until the foothill region is reached. Near the Kansas-
Nebraska line in Sedgwick, Phillips, Yuma, Kit Carson
and the eastern parts of Logan, Washington and
Lincoln counties, the average runs between seventeen
and eighteen inches; in the vicinity of Greeley, Weld
county, it is a little over twelve inches. On the higher
lands of the Arkansas-Platte Divide of this division,
the rainfall is heavier, nowhere ranging less than
fifteen inches. Eighty per cent of the rainfall occurs
from March to September, inclusive, while the snow-
fall is light. Usually the growing season covers five
months — from early May to corresponding date in
October.

In the western part of the State there is a uniformity
of weather conditions from day to day. The precipi-
tation in the principal agricultural districts is less than
fifteen inches, and in certain districts like San Luis
Park and lower Grand Valley runs less than ten inches.
There is an increase with altitude until in the highest
regions, where observations have been made, an annual
mean precipitation of forty inches is indicated. Snow-
fall in the lower valleys is light and remains but a short
time. With increasing elevations the depth increases
rapidly; near the mountain summits a total fall of more
than twenty-five feet has occurred in a single season.
The growing season interval between frosts varies
greatly. In the lower Grand Valley it extends from
the middle of April to the middle of October; above
9,000 feet frost may be expected every month. The



climate of the mountains cannot readily be summa-
rized. The rainfall of the mountain regions depends
largely on the elevation and exposure to rain-bearing
winds, the latter being the leading factor.

Sources of Larif

There are four sources of obtaining land to which
the homeseeker should turn his attention:

(1) The subdivision or resale of land or farms al-
ready improved or occupied.

(2) The opening of new tracts of land by private
parties or by Government Reclamation Service.

(3) Homestead and desert entry of Government
lands.

(4) Purchase of State lands.

((.'>; and Terni.^

Non-irrigated farm land suitable for general farming
ranges in price from $15 to $50 an acre, and irrigated
land for general farming, with a good water right, from
$50 to $400 an acre. Terms are usually one-eighth to
one-fourth down. The rest can be paid in such install-
ments, at favorable rates of interest, as a diligent
farmer can meet from his yearly farm returns.

The State of Colorado owns approximately 3,000,-
000 acres of land subject to sale or lease. These lands
are sold at public auction to the highest bidder and
payment is made on the basis of ten per cent in cash



U. S. RAIT. ROAD ADMINISTRATION




A typical forest reserve scene showing the possibihty for building and fuel supplies in the nearby mountains.
Settlers near the forest range may also secure grazing permits from the government at very low cost



at the time of sale, and the balance in eighteen equal
annual payments, with interest at the rate of six per
cent. Applications for the sale of specific tracts are
made to the State Board of Land Commissioners at
Denver, which administers all State land.



There is still available Government land in Colorado
open to entry, but prospective settlers on Govern-
ment land must remember that the best lands, close to
railroads, were taken long ago. To get good Govern-
ment land today, one must go to districts many miles
from transportation, cities and towns.

There are ten United States land districts in the
State, with headquarters in the following cities: Del
Norte, Denver, Durango, Glenwood Springs, Hugo,
Leadville, Lamar, Montrose, Pueblo, and Sterling.
Each office furnishes information relative to unoccu-
pied tracts open for entry.



There are seventeen National Forests which lie
wholly, and two more partly, within Colorado. Most
of these National Forests, which have a combined
total area of thirteen and one-quarter million acres,
are within the Intermountain Region. Free use of
timber is granted to bona fide settlers, schools, churches
and non-commercial organizations for improvements
of mutual or public benefit. Live and dead timber



which may be cut without injury to the forest, is sold
to settlers at the actual cost of administering such
sales.

The National Forests also contain a large amount
of excellent summer grazing lands, and farmers and
stockmen are given every encouragement to make the
fullest use of these ranges. Grazing seasons are fixed
on each Forest to fit local conditions, and fees are
determined upon an equitable basis. Information on
these matters may be obtained from local Forest
officials. In 1918 grazing permits were issued to 5,600
permittees for a total of 1,519,859 cattle and sheep,
over 60% of the permittees grazing less than 100 each.

The National Forests are administered by the
Secretary of Agriculture through the Forester of the
United States Forest Service. His regulations are
published in what is known as the "Use Book," copies
of which may be obtained on application to the Dis-
trict Forester, Federal Building, Denver.

The resources of the National Forests — the timber,
grass, water power and outdoor life features, such as
camping, fishing and hunting — are for the use of all
citizens. One can readily see the advantages to the
settler and stockmen of proximity to the National
Forests for grazing privileges and fence posts, lumber
and firewood for home use. The Government is also
entering into extensive program of road and trail con-
struction in the Forests, which is almost of inestimable
value to the homesteader and mountain rancher.



COLORADO-AN UNDEVELOPED EMPIRE




The church, school and social facilities of the state are

excellent. In many communities children are

taken to and from school free of

charge in motor busses

Live Stock the Basis of Colorado FarmiriE;

The greatest agricultural resource in Colorado
since the settlement of the State has been her live
stock. Certain sections are especially adapted to the
dairy and hog industry, other sections can emphasize
poultry, still other districts develop the sheep industry
with profit. In other districts beef cattle are produced.

The cities, towns and mining camps give markets
for cured meats, poultry and dairy products, while the
stock yards of Denver and Pueblo afford an all-year
market for hogs, sheep and cattle. There were received
in Denver, in 1918, from all contiguous territory,
including Colorado, 728,268 cattle— 1,651,759 sheep,
383,543 hogs, 14,599 horses and mules — a total of
34,119 carloads. Car lots of Colorado live stock also
find their way to Missouri River points and Chicago.
The National Western Stock Show, held in Denver
each January, has become one of the great stock
shows of the country. It stimulates the cattle, sheep
and hog industry throughout the Intermountain
States.

Some type of live stock should be kept on every
farm. This gives a profitable home market for all cheap
and bulky feeds grown on the farm, and insures a
fertilizer of known value.

Schools, Churches and Community Centers

There are more than seventy-five consolidated
schools in Colorado, and while that is not a large



A community clubhouse for Colorado farmers. Business

and educational meetings are held in these buildings

and they are also the center of social activities

in farming communities

number when compared with the record of several
other states, still credit may be claimed for some of
the best and most complete consolidated schools that
may be found anywhere. Last year more than 10,000
children attended modern consolidated schools, in
beautiful, modern and well-equipped buildings, with
trained and experienced teachers and most of the
other things it takes to make a good school. And,
best of all, 1,100 of these children attended country
high schools made possible by consolidation. The
modern auto bus, that will accommodate thirty, thirty-
five and even forty children, makes consolidation
possible over large areas and many country children
are now riding ten, fifteen and some even twenty
miles to schools.

In these schools the regular subjects are taught with
a degree of efficiency comparable with city schools,
while many of them offer courses in agriculture, and
shop work for the boys, and home-making for the
girls. The school and church facilities are ample in all
parts of the State.

Transportation and Markets

Farm success depends upon production, transpor-
tation and market distribution. Five trunk transpor-
tation lines: Chicago, Burlington 86 Quincy; Missouri
Pacific; Chicago, Rock Island 86 Pacific; Atchison,
Topeka 8b Santa Fe, and Union Pacific railroads, con-
nect the foothill cities of the Eastern Slope of the



U. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




Marketing wheat



this way is common in Eastern Colorado. The roads are good and heavy
loads can be hauled at any time of the year



Rocky Mountains with the markets of Omaha, St. Joe,
Kansas City, Chicago, and the Mississippi Valley
trade centers.

The Denver 8b Salt Lake Railroad connects north-
west Colorado with Denver -and these trunk lines. The
Denver 8e Rio Grande Railroad connects Intermoun-
tain and Western Slope and southwestern Colorado
with the foothill cities of Pueblo, Colorado Springs
and Denver, as well as these trunk lines to eastern
markets. The Colorado 85 Southern Railroad connects
the foothill cities of the Eastern Slope with northern
and southern markets.

Within the State are mines of coal and precious
metals; quarries of marble, granite and other building
stones; smelters and coke ovens that give employ-
ment to many who must be fed. The power develop-
ment from mountain streams and the great quantities
of Colorado coal have attracted manufactures of im-
portance and the number of workmen employed by
these manufacturing plants is increasing year by
year. These all depend upon the Colorado farm for
food commodities.

Eastern Colorado, except in occasional instances,
is well supplied with railroad and highway transpor-
tation facilities. Along the western boundary of the
district, adjacent to the foothills, it is traversed from
north to south by the Denver 8e Rio Grande, Colorado
8b Southern, and Atchison, Topeka 8b Santa Fe rail-
roads and the Union Pacific, Burlington, Rock Island,



Missouri Pacific, and Atchison, Topeka 8b Santa Fe
railroads cross the entire eastern half of the State on
their way to western terminals. Numerous branch
lines afford transportation for the productive districts
located at a distance from the main lines.

Hundreds of thousands of dollars have been spent
by the State and counties in the maintenance of ade-
quate highways for the farmer, and it is probable that
few districts of such tremendous area are so well sup-
plied with roads for all purposes. With the moderate
rainfall which prevails through eastern Colorado the
highways are almost universally good at all seasons
of the year. Motor trucks are rapidly coming into
favor for marketing farm produce.



There are 48,000 miles of all classes of roads in the
State, connecting the farms and shipping points, also
connecting the main cities and county seats, one with
the other.

About eighty per cent of this mileage is in the plains
and valleys, and about sixty per cent of the total
mileage is east of the foothills, serving the farming
sections in the eastern part of the State.

New roads are being opened each year by the several


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