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feed crops for live stock and also afford an area for



AP OF COLORAD







CQLORADQ-AN UND EVE LOPED EMPIRE




A pit silo in Eastern Colorado. Dry-land sccluas are well adapted to the construction of the pit silo and it may be built without
expert labor at very little cost. It is a good insurance policy for the dry-land farmer



pasture. At least 160 acres is needed, and 320 is better,
with success more certain. General farming under
irrigation requires at least forty acres, while eighty
acres, or more, gives a better chance for growing feed
crops for some live stock as well as cash crops. Ten
acres is too small a unit, save in the vicinity of cities
and towns, where a local market justifies intensive gar-
den farming. A fruit farm should have at least ten
acres of fruit to be profitable, and sufficient additional
area to grow feed crops to maintain at least a family
cow, a fiock of poultry and a few hogs.

>;tock a Necessi;
The settler who farms without live stock is extremely
likely to fail. On the other hand, the man who gets a
few cows and other live stock, increasing the number
as his capital and available feed permits, is almost sure
to succeed, for he has a living assured. There is seldom
a year when good yields of forage crops such as milo
maize, millet, cane, etc., cannot be produced, and with
proper silo capacity to store the surplus of years of
plenty for times of drouth, the settler's position is
made secure.

No dry-land farm is complete without a poultry
flock. Living costs can be greatly lowered by a few
hens. Turkeys thrive, and there is always a ready
market for poultry.



Experience has shown that the most successful
farmers in eastern Colorado have used dairying as a
basis of their success. On every dry-land farm there
should be at least four to six good milch cows
and sufficient feed, in the form of silage or dry forage.
Four to six cows will keep a family in groceries and pay
interest. The returns from dairy cows will not be
endangered by drouth, hail or frost, and the cream
check comes in regularly every week.



Nearly the whole territory is adapted to the con-
struction of pit silos. These are very inexpensive and
can be put down by any farmer. Silage has been
carried over in perfect condition in such silos for a
period of several years. These silos insure succulent
food for the dairy cows and other farm animals
throughout the winter, and in times of short pasture.
A silo with live stock makes dry farming safe.

Cash Crops

Beans, wheat, potatoes and rye are successfully
raised on the dry lands of eastern Colorado, and offer
great opportunities when used as a supplement to
live stock production or dairying.

The Pinto bean is a safe dry-land crop. It fits into
the crop rotation, being an especially good crop to



20



u



RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




Drilling wKeat on a large scale in the dry-land section of Eastern Colorado. Note the splendid condition of the seed bed.
Soils in the eastern part of the State are easily handled



precede wheat. It prepares the land for fall-sown
grain and makes a good cash crop. All indications
point to a more satisfactory market for this crop in
the future. Pinto bean hay is a valuable feed for live
stock.

Fair crops of Pinto beans have been produced on
sod, and on sandy soil with as low as eleven inches of
rainfall. On old land, properly prepared, yields of from
four to six hundred pounds have been produced with
fourteen inches of rainfall. Every dry-land farmer
should have at least a small per cent of his cultivated
land in Pinto beans. It not only insures him a cash
crop, but also prepares the land for the following crop
of small grain. It is considered one of the best crops
to build up the dry-land soil that we have. In ordi-
nary years from 250 to 600 pounds to the acre can
be produced when the crop is properly cultivated.

In regions where wheat cannot be depended on, rye
is certain, and has the further advantage that it can
be used either as a cash or forage crop. Fall rye should
be planted on every dry-land farm. The pasturage
afforded stock in the fall and spring is very valuable,
and if the season is not favorable to develop grain, a
crop of rye hay can at least be counted on.

Potatoes are a profitable crop in many dry-land
-actions. They do especially well in the foothills, and
:n the northeastern part of the State. Yields of be-



tween 35 and 115 bushels per acre may be expected
in regions suitable for potato production. Potatoes
raised under dry-land conditions are sought for
table stock in market centers, because of their excel-
lent cooking quality. The greatest possibility in
potato production on dry lands, however, is in the
raising of seed. The irrigated regions must import
most of their seed, and that raised on the dry lands is
the very best obtainable.

orage Crops

Corn is an important forage crop, and does well, in
practically the entire region. Except in favored locali-
ties, high yields of grain cannot be expected. Yields of
forage vary from two tons to six and the grain from ten
to forty-five bushels.

Milo maize, kafir corn and feterita are extensively
raised, especially in the southern regions. In these
regions they give a better yield of grain and forage
than does corn. Millet is extensively produced, and
makes a very sure crop of both forage and grain.
One to three tons of forage can be expected under or-
dinary conditions, and from fifteen to forty bushels
of grain.

Sudan grass is coming into general use throughout
the region. It is a heavy yielder of good forage, and a
very valuable pasture crop. It is usually planted with



COLORADO-AN UNDEVELOPED EMPIRE




A dry farm in Eastern Colorado. Four years ago the site upon which this home was built was raw prairie. Note the excellent home garden
in the foreground, which was produced entirely by tillage and without irrigation. A garden of this kind greatly reduces living expenses



a press drill on a carefully prepared seed bed similar
to that for corn, and should be planted about the
same time as corn. In ordinary seasons from two to
three tons of hay are secured per acre.

Alfalfa is successfully produced on the dry lands in
local areas. Creek bottoms and fields receiving run-off
water are best suited for it. It does best when planted
in rows and cultivated. Many dry-land alfalfa fields
yield as high as two or three tons per acre. The prac-
tice of producing alfalfa seed on the dry lands by
growing in rows is increasing.

Sweet clover has proven very successful for pas-
turage. It can be grown in practically the entire region
and each dry-land farm should have a sweet clover
hog pasture. The Russian sunflower is coming into
favor, especially as a silage crop.



surroundings Importan'
Many dry-land settlers have suffered inconvenience
through failure to provide proper home surroundings.
A dry-farm home may be made very attractive by ob-
taining a good domestic water supply and by pro-
viding for the irrigation of a small garden tract and
some trees, both shade and fruit, either through a
windmill or small pumping plant. In some of the
better developed dry-land communities there are farm
homes which for home comforts and conveniences
rival the best to be found in any section.



Factors to Be Considered Before

n I :

There are several factors which should be considered
before locating on a dry-land farm in eastern Colorado.

( 1 ) Since rainfall is the chief limiting factor of pro-
duction on these plains, the Government weather
records should be carefully studied before purchasing
such a farm — not only as to the number of inches of
rainfall, but as to its distribution.

(2) The soil must be suited to dry-land farming.
It must be deep and uniform, it must not be streaked
with formations of adobe or gumbo, which prevent
the penetration of moisture, and it must be underlaid
with a proper subsoil. It cannot be too strongly recom-
mended that the homeseeker carefully examine the
soil over the entire farm before he purchases, and, if
possible, consult the County Agricultural Agent or
someone else qualified to judge whether it is suited
for dry farming.

(3 ) Water supply, especially for domestic purposes,
should be carefully considered. The usual source of
water, except in the western portion of the region, is
wells, and the settler should ascertain the depth at
which he may expect good water, and the cost of
getting it.

(4) Markets and their accessibility may mean the
difference between success and failure. They should
be carefully considered in picking a location.



U. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




The "turkey trot" in Colorado, poultry products bring good prices and a farm flock will provide an immediate cash

income and supply the table



(5) Above all comes the personal equation. Per-
haps you and your family would never be contented on
a dry-land farm. You must remember you are coming
to a comparatively new country. Before deciding to
locate on such a farm, picture a treeless tract of raw
land which must be transformed into a prosperous
home. If this pioneering work does not discourage
you, and you have a vision of a future home, all your
own, with ever-increasing comforts and possessions —
the size and amount of which you realize depends on
your own initiative and industry, and if you have
sufficient capital to give yourself a fair chance of suc-
cess, then you are safe in taking the step.

Picking the Location

Dry-land farming is similar throughout eastern
Colorado. Some localities, however, are better suited
for this type of farming than are others. Some offer
opportunities along particular lines of agriculture not
common to the whole region, and some, though not
best suited to dry farming, offer better opportunities
to the homeseeker because of less development, and
consequent lower prices of land.



In that part of the northeastern Plains Region fall-
ing within the 15 to 20-inch precipitation belt, viz:
Sedgwick, Phillips, Yuma and Kit Carson counties,
and a part of Logan, Washington, Lincoln and Chey-



enne counties, agricultural conditions are very simi-
lar. In this region dry-farming is highly developed
and has proved an unqualified success. Cash crops,
such as beans, potatoes, wheat and rye, do well, and
the settlers are prosperous almost to a man. Corn does
exceptionally well in this region. Stock-raising and
dairying, however, as in all dry-land communities, is
the balance wheel of all agricultural operations.

There is still much raw land, in the form of undi-
vided ranches and holdings of absent land owners,
which may be purchased at reasonable prices. De-
veloped farms sell for $35 to $100 an acre, according
to improvements, while raw land, suitable for tillage,
may be purchased for $20 to $60 an acre.

Denver, Pueblo and Colorado Springs offer good
markets in the West, while Missouri River points are
easily reached on the east.

PLAINS OF SOUTHEASTERN COLORADO

In this division is included that region in the south-
eastern part of the State which falls in the 15 to 20-
inch precipitation belt, viz: Baca County, except the
southeastern corner, the southern portions of Prowers
and Bent counties, and the eastern and southern
portions of Las Animas County.

Dry -land farming in this section is not so highly
developed as in the northeastern. Conditions are not
so favorable for cash crops. While the precipitation



COLORADO-AN UNDEVELOPED EMPIRE




Six years' progress of an Eastern Colorado farmer. Tfie first home is shown on tha left, while that on the right was built six years
later and is modern in every way. The trees surrounding the house are five years old



is about the same, the greater heat of summer and the
prevalence of drying winds tend to make drouth
conditions more frequent. All things considered, how-
ever, great opportunities are offered here for the aver-
age homeseeker, as land is very much lower in price.

Stock-raising and dairying are very successful.
The production of sheep and wool is a large industry
here. The production of hogs is rapidly increasing.
Forage craps are certain, and in favorable years good
cash crops are produced.

Milo maize, kafir corn, etc., are more successfully
produced than Indian corn, the long growing season
being especially favorable for them. Winter rye is a
paying crop. Good yields of wheat are often obtained.
Beans are produced in the driest years.

The wise settler in this region will turn his attention
to the production of forage for feeding live stock, and
will make the growing of cash crops supplemental to
this.

Raw land, suitable for farming, can be obtained for
$10 to $30 an acre, while improved farms sell for $20
to $50 an acre.

Good markets are offered to the west in Denver,
Colorado Springs, Pueblo and Trinidad, while to the
east, Missouri River points are easily accessible.

PLAINS SECTION EAST OF FOOTHILLS
REGION

This region includes that part of eastern Colorado
falling within the 10 to 15-inch precipitation belt.



Weld, Morgan, Adams, Arapahoe, Crowley, Kiowa and
Otero counties, and a part of Larimer, Boulder,
Logan, Washington, Elbert, Lincoln, Cheyenne, El
Paso, Pueblo, Brent, Prowers and Las Animas coun-
ties are included.

Dry -farming conditions vary widely in this section.
As the foothills are approached on the west, much of
the land is rough and unsuited for tillage, but a large
part of the region is dry-farmed with great success.

Stock-raising and dairying is successful throughout
the section. Wheat is grown in many parts, and beans
are a profitable crop throughout the region.

Splendid opportunities are offered here for the home-
maker. Land values have a very wide range. Devel-
oped dry-land farms may be purchased for $25 to $75
an acre, while undeveloped land suited for tillage may
be purchased for $15 to $50 an acre.

FOOTHILLS REGION

This is the region embracing the extreme western
edge of eastern Colorado. Most of Larimer, Boulder,
Jefferson, Douglas, El Paso and Huerfano counties,
and a part of Elbert, Pueblo and Las Animas coun-
ties are included. The rainfall is for the most part
between 15 and 20 inches.

Agriculture is varied because of the range in alti-
tude, which runs between 4,000 and 8,000 feet. Live
stock production is successful throughout the region,
especially dairying. Wheat is a safe crop in many
sections. Potatoes, both eating and seed stock, are an



24



U. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




ilS^""^|f|PRi!




Th2re are almost unlimited opportunities for the man of small means to put land of this kind under the plow in Eastern Colorado.

This picture is typical of the plains region where approximately seventy per cent of the tillable lands are

yet in the virgin state. Note the excellent growth of grass on this land



important crop. There is a great opportunity, espe-
cially on the Arkansas Divide, which takes in Doug-
las, southern Elbert and northern El Paso counties,
for the production of seed potatoes to supply the
irrigated regions. This divide also offers wonderful
possibilities for dairying.

Corn for forage is successfully raised even at an
altitude of 7,000 feet. Winter rye is a sure forage crop,
while oats and barley do well in much of the territory.

Excellent markets are found near at hand in Denver,
Pueblo, Cheyenne, Colorado Springs, and Trinidad.



All land not suitable for farming offers grazing
possibilities. Nearly every settler will wish to set
apart a portion of his farm for pasturage. Aside from
these local pastures, however, there are large tracts
which cannot be successfully cultivated. These offer
possibilities for stock-raising. In many parts of east-
ern Colorado there are large areas which will never be
valuable for agriculture except as grazing lands. How-
ever, winter grazing is so uncertain, and is attended
with such danger of loss, that most stockmen are
beginning to see the necessity of raising some feed, and
in picking out a grazing ranch, it is desirable there be
some provision made either for forage production, or
the buying of it in close proximity.

Grazing lands may be purchased for $5 to $15 an
acre. In parts of the Foothills Region grazing privi-
leges can be secured on the National Forests.



Available and Classified Land in
Eastern Colorado



County


Esti-
mated
Popu-
lation

1918


Ar^a in
.4cres


Esti-
mated

Agri-
cultural

Land

Non-
irrigated


Esti-
mated
Irrigated


Grazing—

Too

Rough

for
Cultiva-
tion


Esti-
mated
Acres of
Arable

Land

Un-
plowed


Range of
Altitude
in Feet




12,500
1S.800
14,600
■ 8,500
36,500
4,500
7,000
5,000
8,500
50,000
17,300
19,000
6,200
10,000
35,000
41,000
15,300
9,000
14,600
23.000
5,000
15,000
64,000
4,200
9,500
50,000
12.000


807,680

538,880

1,633,280

975,360

488,960

1,137,280

660,800

540,800

1,188,480

1,357,440

960,000

536,320

1,150.720

1,381,760

1,184.640

3,077,760

1,166,080

1,644,800

825,070

762,080

440,320

1,043,200

1,557,120

339,840

1,613,440

2,574,080

1,514,880


428,084

369,902

704,428

6,857

24,214

952,806

6,378

62,599

368.'396

198,250

3.500

34,193


86,594
37,177
20,000
46,559
82,189


152,036
66,383
8,993
166,020
135,029


300,000
275,000
350,000

750,000

soo'ooo

300,000

500,000

500,000

1,000,000

300,000

■ MO'OOO

200,000
700,000




.\rapahoe


4600- 5600




360O- 5000


Boulder

Cheyenne


4960-14,000
3875- 4600


Crowley

Douglas

Elbert


45,399
7,394
530
14,281
21,633
40,390


114,412
298,093
614,325
657,243
314,706
223,006
792,298
1,124,674
210,884
739,429
330,725

' 277.924
159,846


4100- 4500
5400- 7600
4700- 6600


El Paso


5000-14.110


Huerfano

Jefferson

Kiowa


5690-13,000
5300-10,000
3500- 4200


Kit Carson

Larimer

Las Animas


75,807
8,824
11,495
402,022
1,183.240
98.212
19,174
391,112

' 65,361
178,894
1.023,452
745,550
464,500


450
48,110
23.541
50.930

/2,555
76,269


4100- 4700
4800-14,000
5300-14,000
3600- 4100


Lincoln


450O- 5400
4100- 4600


Otero


4000- 5100


Prowers

Pueblo

Sedgwick

Washington

Weld


87,848
40.379
20,670

6.687
284,687

2,494


427,012
614,350
82,274
97,590
810,906
13,090,752


3200- 4000
4350- 8000
3400- 3675
40OO- 4800
4400- 5000




800,0003500- 4200









The above figures were furnished by the Stat€ Immigration Department. For the
most part they are estimates. All of these counties will support three times aa many
people as at present. The figures are designed to give a general idea only of the possi-
bilities for development.



25



COLORADO-AN UNDEVELOPED EMPIRE




Colorado is famous for the production of beet sugar, and the beets grown here have an exceptionally high sugar content, due to the

excellence of soil and climatic conditions. Yields range from twelve to twenty-two tons per acre

and the price paid to growers in 1918 was $10 per ton



JUT ^NTrRlVTOHNTAIN RECiM

The Intermountain Region includes the principal
ranges of the Rocky Mountains reaching across the
central part of Colorado from north to south.

These parallel ranges form the greatest water shed
on the American Continent. They gather and hold
vast accumulations of snow. These banks of snow,
melting, give rise to mountain streams which carry a
wealth of irrigation water for agricultural lands
on the Eastern and Western Slopes. In the Colo-
rado Rockies are the source waters of four great
river systems: North and South Platte of the
Platte-Missouri on the northeast, the Arkansas on the
southeast, Rio Grande on the south, and the Grand-
Colorado on the west. The power possibilities from
these major streams and their many tributaries are
tremendous. But a small fraction of this latent energy
is at present utilized. Between the principal ranges
are many treeless, grassy, plateau valleys. The larger
of these mountain basins or valleys are called Parks:
North, Middle, South, Estes, and San Luis. These are
all comparatively level, surrounded by mountain
barriers and separated from each other by cross ranges
of mountains.

The Cattle Industry in the Parks

North, Middle and South Parks are simply large
mountain valleys, each from forty to sixty miles long



and twenty-five to forty miles wide, having excellent
water, grass and shelter. For these reasons the cattle
industry, for many years, has been an important
business. The elevation runs from 7,700 to nearly
9,000 feet. Timothy, alsike, red clover, alfalfa, stock
roots and very fine wheat and oats are grown in both
North and Middle parks. South Park has a
superior quality of native grass, that gives the hay
a high value on Intermountain and Denver mar-
kets. The large amount of native and tame hay put
up during the growing season enables stockmen to
carry their cattle through the winter in fine condition.
They put many of their beef steers on the market,
grass-fat in late summer.

The National Forest areas within and around these
parks insure good grazing for the herds. School lands
within these Intermountain Regions are subject to
lease from the State Land Board for grazing purposes.
Irrigated lands can be purchased at prices ranging
from $40 to $80 an acre. Non-irrigated land sells for
$3.50 to $10 an acre, according to location. This is
used for grazing principally.

These parks still have opportunities for cattlemen.
While beef production will always be the most im-
portant industry, near-by mining camps afford a
market for poultry and dairy products, and the small
ranchmen find a few dairy cows and laying hens sup-
plement the yearly profits on the ranches.



LI. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




Colorado is noted for its potaloo'^ ' )n irrigated lands yields of 200 bushels an acre are common: on dry lands, 100 bushels.
Potatoes grown on dry land make exceptionally good seed and the seed stock finds a ready mirkat
in the irrigated sections of the State, also in many eastern cities
San Luis Vallev



San Luis Valley is the largest of these great Inter-
mountain Parks. It includes five agricultural counties:
Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, Rio Grande, and Saguache,
and one county — Mineral — noted more especially for
its metal mines. San Luis Valley is 120 miles long, and
from thirty-five to fory miles wide at its central or
widest portion. It lies in the south central part of the
State and reaches south to the New Mexico line. Its
altitude runs from 7,200 feet, in the southern end, to
8,000 feet, in the northern end of the valley.

Like the other parks San Luis has high protective
mountain barriers surrounding it. The valley was a
fresh-water lake in geologic times. This gives a level -
ness seldom found, with scarcely a hill throughout the
valley. The soil is of unusual depth and varies from a
clay loam in the central portion — the lower level
of the former lake — to sandy and gravelly loam
around the more outer edges of the valley. The rain-
fall is less than ten inches, making dry-farming too
uncertain to be encouraged.

Irrigation and Drainage

The Rio Grande River and its tributary streams
furnish the irrigation water for the valley. Irrigation
practice here, as elsewhere, has shown the necessity of
adequate drainage. After many years' crop farming
it was found the water table was coming too close to



the surface of the land in the central or lower portion
for successful crop farming. These lands went to
"seep" or became water logged. Several hundred
thousand acres of the very best lands in the valley
were thus rendered non-productive. Many thou-
sand acres of these lands have recently been
drained by private parties. Su:h beneficial results
have been shown that a project for the drainage of all
the rest of these water-logged lands is under con-
sideration by the U. S. Reclamation Service, the State
of Colorado and the water users. This area is certain
to be drained within the next few years.



The valley contains over five million acres of land.
Two million acres are in the National Forests, one-half
million vacant public land and one quarter million
acres is State land. Besides the water-logged lands,
there are nearly one-half million acres of cultivated
crop land "under ditch" not subject to "seep." Water
is available for much more land so that the present
area of crop land can be doubled when the reclamation
work now planned shall have been completed. The
price of irrigated farm lands ranges from $35 to $150 an
acre according to location, soil and state of improve-


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