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ment.



Field peas are to this valley what corn is to the Corn
Belt. Barley is often seeded with the peas and the two



COLORADO-AN UNDEVELOPED EMPIRE




Oats is an important crop, especially on the irrigated lands where the quality is of the best
and the yields frequently range above 100 bushels an acre



cut for silage, or cured and stacked as hay for winter
feeding. The great majority of the fields are harvested
by turning in hogs and lambs to feed off the crop.
Alfalfa furnishes summer pasture for hogs, and hay for
winter feeding. Two cuttings are obtained per season
— three to four tons per acre for the season's crop.
Spring wheat gives yields of thirty-five to fifty bushels
per acre, and oats with yields of fifty to eighty and
more bushels per acre, are standard crops. The
flour mills afford good markets for grain.

Here is the second largest potato district in the
State, sending out 2,500 to 3,000 cars of potatoes each
season. Yields run from 250 to 400 bushels per acre.
Nearly every crop farmer is a stock feeder. He either
runs a bunch of hogs, feeds a flock of lambs or runs a
beef herd. From 100,000 to 125,000 New Mexico
range lambs are brought in each fall to clean up the
pea fields. After 90 to 100 days' feed in field and feed
lot, they are sent finished to Denver and Missouri
River markets.

Monte Vista is the agricultural center of the valley.
Here is a hog growers' association most unique in
organization, while successful in hog production and
profitable returns. Two veterinarians employed by
this association keep down hog diseases and 40,000
finished hogs are sent each year. Alamosa is the rail-
road center. From here branch lines run through
eastern, southern, western and northern sections of
the valley.



Twenty-three trade centers are well distributed.
Two counties — Rio Grande and Saguache — - have
Farm Bureaus and employ County Agricultural
Agents. The other counties plan to organize farm
bureaus soon. Aggressive farmers who will develop
the agricultural resources of the San Luis will be
welcomed and given a chance to make good.
Upper Arkansas Valley

The valley of the upper Arkansas River is along the
headwaters of the streams in Lake and Chaffee counties.
Near Buena Vista the valley is eight to ten miles wide.
Here wheat, oats, barley, peas, potatoes, timothy and
alfalfa have been grown for many years. In this section
may be found a considerable acreage of State and
private lands for which water for irrigation is being
made available. Several thousand acres await develop-
ment by settlers. Near-by mining camps offer attrac-
tive local markets for food commodities. Prices of
lands with a good water right range from $45 to $90 an

acre. , ,^.

;ale Districts

The Eagle River Valley, in Eagle County, the Roar-
ing Fork and Crystal River Valley, in Pitkin and
eastern part of Garfield counties, are two well-known
potato districts of the State. A Rocky Mountain red
loam soil, found in both valleys, is peculiarly adapted
to the growing of high quality potatoes. Yields are
seldom less than 250 and often run above 400 bushels
per acre. Two cuttings of alfalfa are obtained per



28



U. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




Dry-land wheat produced on valley land in the Foothills Yields range from fifteen to forty bushels an acre Small ranches in the foothills
sections may be secured with grazing privileges in the near-by hills



season, with a total yield of three to four tons per acre.
Thirty-five to fifty-bushel wheat, and seventy-five to
ninety-bushel oats per acre are grown in these valleys.

The Carbondale District, in Roaring Fork Crystal
River Valley, has a creamery which encourages dairy-
ing, giving a home market for butter fat. In Eagle
Valley are registered Herefords of superior quality.
The raising of beef cattle is an important industry.
Irrigated land sells for $40 to $150 an acre, according
to location and improvements. A considerable area
is yet to be improved and settled up.

The Upper Gunnison Valley

Gunnison County is noted for its native hay and
stock ranches. Ranch propositions of value are yet
obtainable here where small grain, alfalfa and stock
roots can always be grown. Gunnison, the county
seat town, is the railroad center, with branch lines
to coal camps on the north, SaUda on the east and
Montrose on the west.

There are many protected valleys beyond the num-
ber named, that have real opportunities awaiting
crop and live stock farmers. Thirteen million acres of
the Intermountain Region of the State is taken up
with mountain ranges. Between these ranges lie fif-
teen million acres of park and valley lands that have
economic value for stockmen and farmers. Within
this Intermountain Region lie the great mineral dis-
tricts of the State, which yield in metals over forty



million dollars annually, and upwards of twelve mil-
lion tons of coal. These mining interests give employ-
ment to some fifty thousand workmen and their
families. This furnishes a local market for near-by
farming regions. Mountain farm dairies have a
market all their own.

Telephones and rural delivery reach the farm
settlements. Every farm settlement has its public
school. A mountain ranch in this environment
does not mean isolation, for 9,000 miles of auto roads
have been built in this region for general vehicle travel,
and nearly every county has railway connection with
the outside world.

Expensive trips for recreation are not necessary, for
these mountain ranches are located within the "Play-
ground of America." Game in the mountains, trout
in the streams and lakes of this region, awaken hunting
and fishing desires in young and old. With such hunt-
ing, fishing, camping, outdoor life privileges, amid
surroundings noted for its scenic beauty, Colorado's
Intermountain Region bids a western welcome and
invites the homeseeker to its pleasing environment.

WESTERN SLOPE DISTRICTS

The part of Colorado which lies west of the Rockies,
from Routt and Moffat counties on the north to
Montezuma on the south, is commonly called the
Western Slope. The contour of the region is more
broken and undulating than the Eastern Slope. The



COLORADO- AN UNDEVELOPED EMFIKL




The producing sections of Col



Ths stats has many miles of railroads,
Icets



farming lands are in the valleys of rivers or on broad
mesas that are found near the river valleys. The
Western Slope is divided into three sections. The
White and Yampa rivers carry the waters of North-
western Colorado to the Green river. The Grand
River receives the waters of the central west, while
the streams of southwestern Colorado are tributaries
of the San Juan River. Southwestern Colorado is
frequently spoken of as a part of the San Juan Basin.

ORTHWESTERN COl.ORAD

This portion of the Western Slope comprises the
counties of Routt, Moffat, and Rio Blanco. North-
west Colorado is broken and uneven in its surface,
but its plateau mesas and river valleys have large
areas of good farming lands. The soil varies from
sandy and clay loams to heavy clay loam or adobe
that is rich in plant food. While something over
eighty thousand acres has been irrigated, water is
available for irrigating many times this amount of land.

Within this section are many thousand acres of
State lands and more than three million acres of
Government land that is not taken up. Because
of the winter snows in northwest Colorado, much of
this land can be made productive under dry-farming
methods. Perhaps no section of the State has such
large bodies of land awaiting settlers to develop it.
The last report of the State Immigration Commission
shows over forty thousand acres under crop produc-
tion without irrigation in northwest Colorado. Irri-



gated land is valued at $25 to $150 an acre, according
to location, while non-irrigated crop land runs from
$7.50 to $25.

The rainfall varies from thirteen to twenty inches.
Crops are: rye, wheat, oats, and barley, alsike, red
clover, alfalfa, timothy, native hay, potatoes, and
vegetables. Because of its grass production, and large
grazing areas, stock-raising is the chief business in
northwest Colorado. Irrigated meadow lands in the
river valleys furnish the hay to feed the stock through
the winter. Amount of hay and winter forage which
can be grown for winter feeding determines the
amount of cattle or sheep which can be run on the
range.

A wealth of coal, unsurpassed in the State, is in
this section. Such natural resources here exist
that transportation and market facilities seem
certain to be afforded these producing districts in the
near future. Northwest Colorado has much to offer
home settlers in virgin lands capable of successful dry
farming, as well as lands which may be irrigated.
There are also areas where lands are irrigated all
ready for crop production. Rural delivery, telephones,
schools and churches in the settled districts, with
State roads connecting settlements, are found here.



This section of the Western Slope includes the coun-
ties of Garfield, Mesa, Delta, San Miguel and Mont-



30



U. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




iUng fr



Western slope district. Such lands are valued at $500 to $1000 an acre



rose. The agricultural lands lie in varying altitudes
from 8,000 feet, on the east, to 4,500 feet, at lowest
portion of the river valleys on the west. This gives
gradual crop zones, where^ under irrigation, are pro-
duced commercial crops varying from small grain,
potatoes, and alfalfa to peaches, pears, sugar beets,
onions, and corn.

Grand Valley and Montrose — Delta County —
peaches, pears, and apples are well known on the
market. Fruit associations have been formed for the
better handling and marketing of the crop. Cream-
eries have been established in this section, making
dairying an important industry, since there is a home
market for all butter fat produced. Vast quantities
of oil shale in the buttes of the Grand Valley, below
De Beque, coal deposits in various parts of the district
and the carnotite (radium is obtained from carnotite)
ore beds, in western part of Montrose County, give
mining interests that are of growing importance and
value to the agricultural activities of this section.
Sugar beet factories at Grand Junction and Delta
have encouraged a considerable acreage of sugar beets.
This crop being under contract, it is really marketed
before it is planted. Corn is becoming an important
crop in this section. The Olathe District holds
annual corn shows, and these stimulate the use of
better seed, with the result of increased crop returns.

Settlers on Redlands Mesa, in Grand Valley, have
accHmated a strain of Iowa Silver Mine Corn, known
locally as "Diamond Joe," and use it as a standard
crop. Through careful selection these corn farmers are



obtaining on their irrigated lands yields of 60, 75 and,
in a few instances, 80 bushels per acre. Corn farmers
in the Olathe District (lower Gunnison Valley) have
developed a yellow dent strain of corn to yields of 50
to 70 bushels per acre. On high mesa lands, where
corn will not mature, Russian sunflowers are being
grown for a silage crop.

Two U. S. Reclamation Projects are within this
section. Home-makers will find the reports issued by
the Reclamation Service on these projects of inter-
est and value. Detailed information about all U
S. Reclamation projects in Colorado can be secured
by addressing F. E. Weymouth, U. S. Reclamation
Service, Denver, Colo.



Surrounding the towns of Montrose and Olathe, in
Montrose County, and Delta, in Delta County, on the
Western Slope of the Rocky Mountains, lie 100,000
acres of rich bottom and mesa lands comprising the
Uncompahgre Valley Project, the Project office being
at Montrose. Works for the delivery of water to the
entire area are practically complete. There are 75,971
acres of deeded land and 24,029 acres of public land, of
which 19,594 acres, contained in 393 farm units, have
been entered. Twenty-six hundred and sixty-three
acres of irrigable land, contained in 64 units, are open
to entry, and 1,772 acres are withheld from entry.
The farms vary in size from 40 to 80 acres. About
forty thousand acres of mesa soil are suitable for



COLORADO-AN UNDEVELOPED EMPIRE




A typical irrigation canal. There are thousands of miles of such canals in Colorado and additional
thousands of rniles are to be constructed



raising apples, pears, peaches, prunes and small fruits.
The heavier soils are especially well adapted to the
raising of sugar beets and wheat. The entire area is
adapted to alfalfa, wheat and oats and considerable
areas to the raising of potatoes and onions. The range
in soil, from heavy adobe to light, sandy loam makes
possible a wide range of profitable crops.

The irrigable land lies between the elevations of
5,000 to 6,400 feet above sea level. The temperature
ranges from 20° below to 98° above zero, but zero
temperatures are very unusual. The rainfall on the
irrigable land is six to twelve inches.

We Grand Valley Project
Is located in the Plateau Region on the Western
Slope of the Rocky Mountains in west central Colo-
rado, the Project office being located at Grand Junc-
tion. The irrigable area of the Grand Valley Project
includes 50,000 acres of land.

The average elevation of the Project is 4,700 feet
above sea level. The climate is mild, with a large
percentage of sunshine and long growing season.
Oppressive heat is unknown. Zero temperatures are
very unusual and are generally accompanied by calm



weather. Owing to the protection of high mountains
and sheltering plateaus, the valley is not subject to
severe storms of any kind.

The irrigation works have been completed far enough
to furnish a dependable water supply at the beginning
of the season of 1919, for 30,000 acres of land. Approx-
imately 50% of this acreage is embraced in farms now
under cultivation, and the remainder is made up of
about 10,000 acres of deeded land and 5,000 acres of
vacant public land. Of the latter class of land, 1,500
acres was open to entry on January 1, 1919, and the
balance will probably be opened within the next year.

The principal crops produced on the Project are
alfalfa, wheat, oats, sugar beets, corn, potatoes, fruit
and vegetables. The soil consists of three general
types: red sandy mesas, sandy loam and adobe. The
red soils are deep and well drained and especially
adapted to the growing of fruits, for which the valley
is already justly famous, and also to alfalfa, corn, and
potatoes. The sandy loam is an alluvial soil, very
fertile and adapted to the growing of practically all
kinds of crops, while the adobe soils are of a heavier
nature and are especially adapted for sugar beets and
cereals.



32



U. S. RAI LROAD ADMINISTRATION




fruit valley of the



stern slope district. Commercial orchards are common in this part of the State. Home orchards do well in all
parts and help to reduce living expenses



The principal railroad shipping points are Grand
Junction, Fruita, Loma, Mack, Palisade and Clifton.
All are adjacent to or on the Project. The sugar factory
at Grand Junction furnishes a market for all sugar
beets grown on the Project, and the local flour mill for
wheat and other cereals, while the local canneries
handle each year a large quantity of tomatoes, fruits
and vegetables. The marketing of the fruit crop is
handled largely through co-operative associations. The
educational facilities are excellent on account of the
proximity of the project to the old settled-up district.

Besides the Government Project, private interests
own general crop and fruit lands within the valley on
both sides of the Grand River, from Antlers, Silt, and
Rifle to west end of the valley. Here is the largest
fruit valley in Colorado with 16,000 acres in apples,
pears, and peaches. Eighty-four thousand acres of
general crop land is irrigated. Settlers are offered
sagebrush land or cleared and cultivated land at prices
ranging from $45 to $250 an acre, according to location,
type of soil, and improvements.

OTHER VALLEY AND MESA LANDS
North of the Uncompahgre Government Project
are the North Fork Valley lands, in Delta County.



Here are the Paonia, Hotchkiss, Cedar-Edge and
Austin District lands. Settlers will find in these dis-
tricts choice fruit, general farming, and dairy farm
propositions. Hog-raising is becoming an important
industry. Prices for lands are somewhat lower than
prevailing prices in the Grand Valley.

In West Montrose County, away from the railroad,
are the Nucla, Naturita, and Paradox Valley settle-
ments. Here are grown more cuttings of alfalfa per
season than anywhere else on the Western Slope,
because of the lower altitude and the longer season.
Distance from the railroad does not make it advisable
to grow the fruit, truck and grain crops, soil and
climate make possible. Because of the open winters,
settlers in Paradox Valley find a market at good
prices for all the alfalfa, corn and other feed crops
they grow with the cattlemen who bring their stock
to winter in the valley.

What Central Western Colorado Has to Offer
This Central West District has such diversified

farming interests that it gives a settler an opportunity
to select his home where he can follow that type of
farming he shall prefer and can most enjoy. Special
seed farmers are here growing peas, beans, onion seed.



33



COLORADO-AN UNDEVELOPED EMPIRE




The Colorado farmer can avail himself of many opportunities for recreation. Both fishing and hunting are excellent

and within reach of every settler



etc., under contract for seed firms. The near-by
National Forests, with their grazing privileges under
purchased permit, together with large areas of unoc-
cupied land in "The Hills," emphasize and encourage
the live stock industry on the higher lands "under
ditch" in the Central Western District.



The Southwestern portion of the State is often
called the San Juan Basin, since all the streams are
tributaries of the San Juan River. It includes the
counties of Archuleta, La Plata and Montezuma.
Here, in sight of the Mesa Verde National Park —
home of the cliff dwellers — is th? oldest farming district
in the Rockies. It was farmed centuries ago by tribes
of men now extinct.

'ural Contour
The watersheds of this district are the San Juan and
La Plata mountains. Their run-off flows into the San
Juan Basin streams, which find their way into the San
Juan River. Tributary streams divide the country
into mesas varying from a few thousand to fifty
thousand acres in one mesa plain. These mesas, or
level plateaus, are comparatively uniform, separated
by deep arroyos, or canon-like breaks. Where not



already farmed, these mesas are covered either with
black sagebrush, or thickets of cedar, pinon or scrub
oak brush.

Over this whole region is a good agricultural soil
varying from a sandy loam to an ashy clay. Arroyos
(breaks or cuts) show these soils to be many feet deep
and of uniform texture. In the higher altitudes, 8,000
feet and above, are areas with sheltering trees and a
wealth of grass, making them well adapted for grazing
purposes. Because of the extent of these areas and the
nearness of National Forest Lands, stock-raising is
now and will continue to be a leading industry.

The agricultural lands are below 7,000 feet eleva-
tion, situated on Fort Lewis Mesa, in Las Animas
Valley, Pine Valley, in La Plata County, Florida,
and other mesas of 15,000 to 20,000 acres each of
tillable lands. Montezuma Valley, in county of same
name, has an area of 300 square miles. Here are
grown both winter and spring wheat, oats, barley,
alfalfa, and forage crops, equal in quality and yield to
that produced in other parts of the State. Parts of
Montezuma and Las Animas valleys grow both bush
and tree fruits, supplying the local markets with
apples, cherries, and berries. There are now in San



U. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




Grand Valley Project. Gates in Grand River Dam turning the water into the high line canal. U. S. Reclamation Servi(



Juan Basin 100,000 acres of crop land irrigated. Prices-
range from $30 to $125 an acre, according to loca-
tion and character of improvements. The State Immi-
gration Commissioner affirms more than a million
acres of undeveloped agricultural land awaits settle-
ment in this basin district.

Here is a most pleasing environment. It is near the
greatest mining center in the State — the San Juan
group mines. Coal and firewood, fence posts, and
poles are obtainable in all agricultural districts. Dur-
ango is the railroad center, with branch lines of rail-
road in four directions, giving shipping facilities.
Cortez, Mancos, Dolores, Bayfield, Ignacio, and
Pagosa Springs are important trade centers. Home-
stead, State land, private owned sage brush or irri-
gated improved land, can be obtained in the San
Juan Basin.

Progressive men, looking for a new home, will bear
in mind the important fact that Colorado is not a ONE-
crop State ; that it produces a great diversity of crops ;
that climatic conditions are, on the whole, excellent;
that opportunitiesin the United States are
not excelled in any country in the world.

Colorado offers special opportunities that you, for
your own best interests, should investigate.



Vacation Outings

in the

National Parks

"The Nation's Playgrounds"

Your National Parks are a vast region of geysers,
peaks, canyons, glaciers, big trees, volcanoes, pre-
historic ruins and other natural scenic wonders.

fS'T THEM THIS SUMMER

for fishing, mountain climbing and "roughing it."

Ask for descriptive illustrated booklet of the
National Park or National Monument you are
specially interested in — here is the list: Crater Lake,
Ore.; Glacier, Mont.; Grand Canyon, Ariz.; Hawaii;
Hot Springs, Ark.; Mesa Verde, Colo.; Mt. Rainier,
Wash.; Petrified Forest, Ariz.; Rocky Mountain,
Colo. ; Sequoia, Cal. ; Yellowstone, Wyo.-Mont. ; Yose-
mite. Cal., and Zion, Utah.

Address

Travel Bureau, U. S. Railroad Administration,

646 Transportation Bldg., Chicago, III., or

143 Liberty St., New York City, or

602 Healey Bldg., Atlanta, Ga.



COLORADO-AN UNDEVELOPED EMPIRr.





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Colorado is noted for its production of feeder lambs. The San Luis Valley is famous for its pea fed mutton.
Sheep production is especially important in the foothill regions where excellent grazing lands are available

ISSUED BY

United States Railroad Administration
AGRICULTURAL SECTION

J. L. EDWARDS, Manager
WASHINGTON, D. C.

FOR THE USE OF ALL RAILROADS
IN THE STATE OF COLORADO

For Further Information, address



H. A. JOHNSON,
Traffic MANAGtR C. & S. R* R»
Denver,

P.nt O.



POOLE BROS., CHICAGO




003 006 209 1 M j\





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Online LibraryUnited States Railroad AdministrationColorado .. → online text (page 4 of 4)