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An Invitation

Governor of Georgia

Now that our country is at peace, after the most
destructive war of all time, the old Empire State of
the South extends to the home-seeker a cordial invi-
tation to cast his lot within her borders.

Georgia is rich in all the varied products of the tem-
perate zone — in fields of marvelous fertility, in un-
rivalled water-powers, in orchards and vineyards, in
woods and minerals — in all that a genial climate and
a fertile soil can unite to produce. These are all ready
to respond to the touch of industry, to the call of

Georgia is the home of the peach and the land of
the watermelon. It is also the fleecy empire of King

Besides these material, assets, Georgia offers what
is far better: non-sectarian schools, orthodox churches,
political and civil liberty, wide-awake towns and cities,
happy homes, good health, pure water, a patriotic pop-
ulation, and a welcome in which there is not a lingering
taint of sectional bitterness.

The bugles have sung truce ; let the looms and the
spindles sing prosperity.

k • ff.U'

United States Railroad Administration

Director General of Railroads


The United States Railroad Administration is issuing this booklet to
furnish accurate and authentic data as to the opportunities offered in
general farming, live stock raising, orcharding and trucking in Georgia.

It is manifestly impossible in the limited space of a booklet of this
character to do adequate justice to so large a State and one so bountifully-
endowed by nature.

The matter has been prepared by representatives of all the roads
under Federal control serving Georgia. You will note that no particular
section or county is described in detail, but that the State is treated as a
whole, with only such sectional references as the geographical and climatic
conditions make necessary.

There are no extravagant phrases in praise of Georgia and its re-
sources and the opportunities offered to the newcomer. The purpose
of the book is simply to convey reliable information regarding the State,
and the plain statements herein regarding its crops, supplemented by
photographs, all of which have been taken within the State, speak for

The officers of the United States Railroad Administration and officials
of the several railroads serving Georgia simply wish to add to what is
contained in this booklet that the man seeking a new home can well
afford to visit Georgia before deciding upon his location.

Issued b]p


Agricultural Section

J. L. EDW^ARDS. Manager
Washington, D.C.




An Appreciation of the South

By Hon. Franklin K. Lane
Secretary of the Interior

^JYY Y recent trips into the South have convinced
^^^ me that there are wonderful possibihties for
agricultural development in that section. In many of
the Southern States there are large areas of the rich-
est kinds of land suitable for diversified farming, stock
raising, and fruit growing, which have never been put
into cultivation. The rainfall is abundant and the
crop-growing season a long one. I am satisfied
that most satisfactory location from a standpoint of
climate, productivity, sanitation and health, and other
requirements are available in those States for com-
munity settlements for returning soldiers and sailors,
as well as for others intending to engage in agricul-

Washington, D. C, February 28, 1919.

Cheapest Agricultural Lands

"I am convinced that a very large majority of the
returning soldiers for whom it is planned to make pro-
vision, could be taken care of in the coastal plain of
the South.

I am convinced that here are the cheapest lands adap-
table to agriculture in the entire country, all things
considered. * * * * in the past two decades enor-
mous areas of pine forests have been denuded of their
merchantable timber, and these lands are now available
for clearing and are now ready for agricultural uses."
— Hon. H. T. Cory, Consulting Engineer, United States
Department of Interior, in charge Federal Investiga-
tions in the South.

Savannah, Ga., November 11, 1918.

EORGIA may be said to be divided into three general sub-divisions — the
Mountains, the Piedmont and the Coastal plains.

The Mountains, or North Georgia, is that part of the State roughly speak-
ing, north of Atlanta. Here the development of the fruit growing resources
in addition to general farming is progressing at a rapid rate. There are a great many
large commercial orchards located in these hills and mountains, which by reason
of their elevation and broken character offer reasonable immunity from late and
early frosts and freezes and furnish both air and water drainage.

These mountain lands are especially adapted to the raising of live stock, par-
ticularly sheep, as they are covered with a dense growth of grass clear to the top,
and the soil, having been enriched for countless years by falling leaves, with prop-
er attention and tillage produces extraordinarily well.

The Piedmont Section, or Middle Georgia, which extends in a general way in
a line east and west of Atlanta, to a line drawn northeasterly from Columbus
through Macon to Augusta is the most intensively settled and developed portion of
the State. It is a gently rolling country covered with splendid farms, upon which
great quantities of cotton, corn, oats, rye, wheat, peanuts, peas, fruit, vegetables,
and live stock are produced.

The Coastal Plain, or South Georgia, is the territory south of the Piedmont
Section, and in this area is included the cut-over lands of the State.

It is perhaps in this section of the State that the greatest progress has taken
place during the past few years. A large part of this section was originally cov-
ered with dense forests of yellow pine timber, and as this is converted into lumber
and the lands made available for settlement, they are quickly being put into culti-
vation by an aggressive lot of farmers, who readily listen to the teachings of mod-
ern agricultural methods and are quick to profit by them.

A large number of farmers from other sections have come into this cut-over
land district, and are rapidly replacing the pine forests with improved live stock
and general farms.


Georgia's population is increasing in a healthy and constant manner without
any boom or artificial stimulants. In 1910 it numbered 2,609,121, which on Jan-
uary 1, 1919, had increased to 2,955,505.

Page Four



Peaviiie lla> is Kith in Protein.

Notwithstanding this healthy growth there is still room for many more people
in Georgia, as it is the largest State east of the Mississippi River having an area
of 59,475 square miles, or 37,584,000 acres.

Georgia's Capital.

Atlanta is the Capital of Georgia, its leading city and the geographical hub
from which radiates many lines of activity throughout the South. By reason of
its strategic location, numerous manufacturers and jobbers maintain general of-
fices in Atlanta, and during the recent war the Quartermaster General of the U. S.
Army established here a Quartermaster's Depot, which purchased and concentrated
here supplies for the various camps located in the Southeast.

Savannah and Brunswick are the State's leading ports.


The Georgia people modestly admit that they have the best climate in the
world, and the Northern man after a short residence here comes to agree with
them implicitly. Because of the length of the State from north to south, one can
find practically any climatic condition that he desires from temperate to semi-
tropical. ^ -

Climate in some sections is extravagantly praised merely because it makes living
pleasant. In Georgia the climate not only contributes to the joy of living, but it also
materially adds to the bank account.

When one contrasts the cost of a winter supply of coal in the North for cooking
and heating against the mild winters in Georgia, that require only occasional small

"^ Wt\ fcMi»L^

Digging Potatoes Cultivates the Young Sugar Cane. Two Profitable Crops from Same Acre.


Page Five

Shorthorn Cattle Popular with Georgia Farmers,

fires and the inexhaustible quantity of wood for both heating and cooking that can
be had for the gathering, it will be seen that climate in Georgia actually spells profit.

To the Northern farmer, who is afraid to go to town frequently because of
the knowledge that the frozen ruts would cut the fetlocks of his horses and proba-
bly suffer the freezing of his water works while he was gone, this working-all-the-
year-in-your-shirt-sleeve-climate will particularly appeal.

Figures on climate rarely mean anything, but a statement that the growing
season in North Georgia is 210 days, in Middle Georgia 230 days and in South Geor-
gia 260 days, gives the farmer an adequate idea of what the climate is, for he
knows that the crops will not grow unless there is warmth.

A visit to Georgia is the only way to appreciate her climate. It would be
found that in the summer months both Northern and Southern people congregate
in North Georgia, because of the delightful weather at the resorts there, and in
the winter months that South Georgia is the Mecca for the society people of New
York and the North, while upon one of the islands off" the coast of Southeast Geor-
gia, a group composed of some of the wealthiest men in the United States have
constructed a club house and many elaborate homes, and here during the Winter
months can be found practically all of the men of international fame in the financial

In North Georgia the mean annual temperature is 52 degrees. Spring 58, Sum-
mer 76, Fall 59, Winter 42.

In Middle Georgia annual 63 degrees. Summer 78, Fall 64, Winter 47.

In South Georgia annual 68 degrees. Summer 81, Fall 70, Winter 55.

The average rainfall for the State is 51 inches annually, which is evenly dis-
tributed throughout the year, the greatest precipitation averaging 16 inches in
the three Summer months, and the least being 9 inches in the Autumn months.

Sweet Potatoes After 200 Bushels of Irish Potatoes Had Been Dug. Corn in Background.

Page Six


Ideal Conditions Here for Poultry, with Good Local Markets.
Eleven Military Camps in Georgia.

No stronger endorsement of Georgia's climate and sanitary conditions could
possibly be found than the action of the War Department in selecting so
many locations within the boundary of the State in which to train the new Na-
tional Army, and the thousands of boys from the North, and hundreds of thous-
ands of their relatives who visited them, both Winter and Summer, while they were
located in Georgia camps, know at first-hand what delightful weather the State

The War Department established Camps Gordon and Jesup at Atlanta where
Ft. McPherson has long been located ; Camp Greenleaf was located at Chicka-
mauga where Ft. Oglethorpe has been so many years; Camp Wheeler at Macon,
Camp Hancock at Augusta, and Camp Benning at Columbus. Souther Field for
the training of aviators was located at Americus, and Ft. Screven for many years
has been a part of the Coast fortification at Savannah. A Naval Air Training
Camp for aviators was also established at Brunswick.

Live Stock

Georgia, by winning the Third Prize at the International Live Stock Expo-
sition at Chicago in 1918, and also third prize at the American Royal Live Stock
Show at Kansas City with "Bonnie J", a pure-bred two-year-old Hereford bull,
demonstrated that it had gone into the raising of pure-bred live stock on an
extensive scale. There are many herds of pure-bred cattle scattered throughout
the State, and a very large number of farmers now make it a practice to market
each year one or more cars of cattle that they have finished on corn and velvet

Pigs in Essex Rape Pasture.


Page Seven

Ready for the Show Ring.

Every farmer has in his mind certain conditions that would make an ideal
stock country, and if asked to describe it he would say it would be one where abun-
dant grass and forage crops could be cheaply produced ; where the water would be
pure and the climate mild ; not hot enough to worry the stock, nor cold enough to
make them use up all of their feed keeping warm.

Practically all of the conditions mentioned are met in the State of Georgia.
The soil is just such as might be prepared for the production of lespedeza, Ber-
muda, the clovers, cow peas, soy beans and velvet beans. The water is either run-
ning streams or artesian wells.

The old days of the open range are rapidly passing away. The big profits from
live stock in Georgia are made under fence, with proper food and attention. No
other enterprise offers the same certain profit under intelligent management as
the production of beef, pork and mutton. No section of the United States off'ers
superior natural advantages for this industry. Under intelligent crop rotation,
the production of grasses and legumes for pastures, Georgia can produce beef at as
low cost per pound as any place in the United States. Short winters in the south-
ern portion of the State permit green fields all the year. Green fields all the year
mean a good herd. The cheap lands, combined with cheap cows for foundation
stock, make it possible to start in the cattle business with an outlay of far less
capital than is required in most other sections of the country.

The live stock farmer who will come to Georgia, and who will grow a maxi-
mum acreage of feed stuffs, and who will keep just enough stock to consume that
feed, and who returns to the soil the manure, will be prosperous.

Particular stress should be laid upon the advantages of Georgia as a live stock
feeding and finishing country, because of the State's velvet bean crop. Velvet beans
may remain in the fields throughout the Winter without deterioration, and be con-
sumed as the stock need it.


Peanuts on Cut-over Lands.

Page Eight


A I'rize Pair of I'ure-bred Shorthorns.

Whether one wishes to range Heref ords over a wide area, finish a few Short-
horns, Polls or Angus steers on a quarter section, or raise some of the milking
types of beef cattle on a small place, all sections offer an inviting field.


It has taken the Northern farmer a long time to realize that the right kind of
climate is a distinct asset to the dairy farm.

It is our climate that permits the high yield and continued-through-the-year
production of cow feeds. Cotton-seed meal, velvet bean and peanut meal, which
Georgia produces in such great abundance, have become recognized, wherever the
cattle industry has been extensively developed, as standard protein concentrates.

If cows are carried on a relatively light concentrate feed and a maximum allow-
ance of roughage, velvet beans may constitute the sole concentrate ration. For
cows on a full grain ration and for those giving a high flow of milk, beans should
not constitute more than one-half of the concentrate ration.

The Georgia State College of Agriculture has conducted several interesting
feeding demonstrations, and the results, while they have determined the wide va-
riation in digestible crude protein in the three concentrates produced in Georgia,
varying from 31.6% in cottonseed meal down to 14.9% in the case of velvet beans,
have shown clearly the superiority of this State in the economical production of
dairy products.

A complete statement of the experiment in dairy feeding would be too exten-
sive to show here, but the bulletin recording it can be secured by writing the Geor-
gia State College of Agriculture at Athens.

Georgia Produced 68,350,000 Bushels of Corn in 1918.


Page Nine

Georgia Cantaloupes are Unexcelled.

With a climate that permits dairy cattle to graze out-doors practically the en-
tire year, which is almost an insurance against their contracting bovine tubercu-
losis, and with such a wealth of pasture and forage crops that can be quickly and
economically produced, the dairy business in Georgia offers extraordinary promise,
especially when statistics show that millions of dollars worth of dairy products are
annually imported into the State.


A permanent agriculture based upon the raising of live stock is now the keynote
of the progressive farmer in Georgia, and it is the general recognition of this basic
principle that has so largely contributed to the State's advance in the past few

Its strides particularly in the raising of hogs are little short of marvelous,
when we consider that in the mind of the average Northern man the South raises
nothing except cotton.

Five years ago hog raising as an established industry could hardly be said to ex-
ist in Georgia. Today as the result of efforts on the part of the United States and
Georgia State Departments of Agriculture, the State College of Agriculture, Agri-
cultural Agents of the Railroads and other development agencies, it is an industry
that gives promise to furnishing in the very near future, all of the pork that the
citizens of the State will require. The reason for the rapid development of the
hog industry in this section, was the recognition by the farmer that his lands were
better adapted to the raising of a greater quantity of feed suitable for feeding
and finishing hogs on a less acreage with consequent greater profit, than it was
possible to obtain upon higher priced lands in the so called corn belt of the North.

Hampshires Devtlop (Quickly Inder (ieitrj-ia ( oiulitions.

Page Ten



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Holstein Dairy Herd on Georgia's Coast.

Another factor that has contributed to this development was the construction
of several big meat packing establishments operated under Government inspection,
which provide a quick cash market.

The hog industry has become so general that even the boys of the State are tak-
ing a keen interest in it, and there are few districts where the Boys' Pig Clubs are
not enthusiastically competing in the raising of prize winners for the County and
State Fairs.

The vaudeville joke about the Southern razor-back has been retired because
such animals no longer exist. The State has enthusiastically bred pure-bred boars
to the native sows until the long-nosed type, that formerly roamed the woods in a
half wild state, has practically disappeared. These conditions were advertised to
the world when the Hampshire Boar — Cotter's Choice 40333 — from Middle Georgia
won First Prize in Aged Boar, Senior Champion and Grand Champion Boar classes
at the International Live Stock Exposition in Chicago in 1918. This hog was far-
rowed and raised on a Georgia farm.

Many farmers have embarked in the raising of pure-bred hogs exclusively, and
find a splendid and constantly growing market for all of the pigs farrowed. In
fact, the only phase of hog raising in Georgia that would not seem to be profitable
would be the shipping into the State of stocker hogs to be finished, becau'^e hogs can
be raised here for such little money, and so rapidly attain their maximum growth,
that it is hardly worth while to go to the trouble of visiting stock yards to secure
feeders and stockers.

No man with any experience in raising hogs and a knowledge of the funda-
mental situation in Georgia, has ever had the temerity to question the statement
that Georgia possesses advantages for this industry denied other portions of the

Bright Tobacco in the Piney Woods.


Page Eleven

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Value of Georgia's Wheat Crop in 1918 Was $9,658,000.00.

American Continent with a less favorable climate. Even the man with the most
elementary education, and knowledge of simple economics, knows that the longer
the growing season, the greater the production, and the greater the production,
the greater the wealth.

There are advantages in the production of hogs in Georgia that make this
industry more certain and less costly than in other sections of the country. The
long seasons mean the production of more and a greater variety of legumes and
grasses, chief among them velvet beans and peanuts, for use in economical live stock

The Southern people have always been large meat-eaters, but small meat pro-
ducers. In fact, the South consumes more meat per-capita than any other section
of the country, and a large portion of it has been heretofore imported from the
West. Again, there is another advantage — the home market.

Hog raising is one of the brightest prospects which the farmers of Georgia can
possibly have. Hogs admit of the quickest realization of profit to be found in any
branch of the animal industry.

The United States Department of Agriculture has stated frequently that pork
can be made more cheaply in the South than in any other section of the country.
Hog raising is adapted to the farmer with small capital, as but a small amount of
money is required with which to begin the business, and the returns begin to come in
within a few months after it is started. The sow is a rapid and prolific producer.
Money is turned quickly. Inasmuch as green crops suitable for hog feeding can be
maintained the year round, it is possible for the farmers of Georgia to make more
money than the Northern farmer by his hog-raising operations, and the profits made
are always in proportion to the amount of green crops used.

A Sample of Georgia's Famous Shell Roads Along the Coast.

Page Twelve


North Georgia Apple Orchard.

The mildness of the seasons here is such that the sows may be permitted to
farrow both in February and August and the pigs made ready for market in Oc-
tober and May, thus keeping away from the glut caused by the farmers in the
Northern corn belt rushing their stuff on the market in the early Spring and late

With abundant water and the grazing and the forage crops hereinbefore men-
tioned, together with peanuts, chufas, sweet potatoes and rape, there is no reason
why some crops cannot be raised that will keep ten hogs to the acre the year round.


The light loamy soils of Georgia are especially well suited for the growing of
peanuts, and this crop has been an increasingly important one in the recent past.
They are used for fattening hogs and also are sold to the oil mills.

In 1917 Georgia threshed 9,435,000 bushels of peanuts, which sold for $1.60
per bushel, bringing the State the vast sum of $15,096,000. In 1918, the acreage
increased from 255,000 acres the preceding year to 362,000 acres, but the produc-
tion per acre dropped from 37 bushels in 1917 to 28 bushels in 1918, which brought

Peanuts are so easily grown, are so much relished by hogs, and produce such
rapid and cheap gains of pork that for fattening purposes they have deservedly
been the main dependence of nearly all of Georgia hog producers.

Two varieties are grown in this area for hog grazing, the North Carolina,
sometimes known as the "Georgia" peanut, and the Spanish. Spanish peanuts are

Pecans Inter planted with Peanuts.


Page Thirteen

Registered Hereford Cattle on Lespedeza and Bermuda Pasture.

a much quicker growing variety than the North Carolina. For this reason they fit
well into a hog-grazing system, either to supply early feed before the main fat-
tening crops are matured, or for planting late in the season following such crops
as oats, rye, potatoes or watermelons.

They are in heavy demand by the oil mills, which extract a very high grade oil
from the nut and sell the shells for polishing tin plate. Confectioners also use vast
quantities of them, and those that escape the digger are eagerly rooted out by the

Grazing Crops.

In Georgia the soy bean and cowpea are extensively used as early hay and graz-
ing crops.

At a Southern Experiment Station it has been learned from tests that an
acre of soy bean pasture will afford grazing for ten pigs for 43 days when a one-
fourth ration of corn is given (about one ear a day) ; 48 days when a half-ration
(about two ears a day) of corn is fed, and 62 days when three-fourth ration (about

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Online LibraryUnited States Railroad AdministrationGeorgia → online text (page 1 of 4)