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AGRICULTURAL SERIES No. 8



AGRICULTURAL SERIES No. 8



UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION



i? ■ ,;v;nl



-V l-< O /A



TE



ri T T M T T T



The Purpose of This Booklet
How the Railroads Can Help the Homeseeker






This booklet is issued by the Agricultural Section of the
Ur.ited States Railroad Adn inistration, J. L. Edwards, Man-
ager, Washington, D. C.

The information was compiled by the Agricultural Repre-
sentatives of the following railroads serving the State of Kansas
viz:

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R.

C. L. SEAGR AVES, Supervisor of Agriculture .... Chicago, 111 .

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R.

J. B. LAMSON, Agricultural Agent Chicago, 111.

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R. R.

ALEXANDER JACKSON, Agricultural Agent ... Chicago, III.

Missouri Pacific R. R.

George K. Andrews, Commissioner of Agriculture,

St. Louis, Mo.

St. Joseph & Grand Island R. R. (Union Pacific R. R.J

Salina Northern R. R. (Uncn Pacific R. R,)

Union Pacific System,

R. A. SMITH, Supervisor of Agriculture Omaha. Neb.

The articles on the State's more important industries and
possibilities are contributed by recognized authorities.

The purpose of the booklet is to help direct ambitious and
industrious home-makers and producers, desiring to better their
condition in life, to localities where they should meet with suc-
cess, in proportion to their resources and ability.

Our mission is to help industrious men and women to become
farm owners and to enable them to lay the foundation for a home
and, eventually, independence for the family.

Bear in mind that none of the railroads mentioned on page 16
of this booklet have any interest in the sale of lands, nor are
they engaged in the land business.

All, however, are greatly interested in the development and
general prosperity of the districts served by their respective lines.

The interests of the railroads and the communities served by
the lines are identical and interwoven. Prosperous communities
mean prosperous railroads. A well-satisfied settler is a good asset.
A misplaced man is a liability. Our interest does not cease with
the location of the settler. We are deeply interested in his suc-
cess. We stand ready at all times to help the newcomer with his
problems. Much valuable knowledge of farm practices and op-
portunities has been gained by observation and experience which
will prove helpful to farmers. This is available to all inquirers.

The Railroad Agricultural Representatives have for years
made a careful study of conditions, and keep in touch with their
territories.

Owing to limited space, detailed information is not attempted
in this booklet, but should the reader desire any special informa-
tion on any subject connected with any branch of farming or
stock raising, in any locality in Kansas, it can be secured by. ■
writing to or calling upon the address stamped on the
last page of this booklet.

State fully just what is desired. Prompt and dependable in-
formation will be furnished.



Topeka, June 25, 1919

As the ages of states and nations go, Kansas is young. Natur-
ally, her resources are largely undeveloped. With most of our
land arable, and less than half of it under the plow, manifestly
a most inviting field is presented in agriculture, the State's chief
industry. Opportunities are no less abundant than when Govern-
ment land was available for homestead, or the difference in the
price of land is more than offset by the present-day advantages
of civilization — as schools, churches, transportation and markets.
Kansas' leadership in agriculture, her inestimable wealth of
underground treasures of coal and salt and lead and zinc and
oil and gas, with a fertile soil and health-giving climate, form an
incomparable combination attractive alike to the homeseeker
and the investor. Come to Kansas and share in the large pros-
perity that comes through the development of the resources
which have been so ably featured by the several recognized
authorities in this booklet, which I have carefully noted and fully
endorsed.




.y^^^^>^



Governor



Topeka, Kan., June 25, 1919

Were the land of Kansas equally apportioned among the
present inhabitants of the State, each man, woman and child
would have a tract of about thirty-three acres. As a matter of
fact, the Kansas farms average 244 acres in size. The total area
of Kansas amounts to 82,158 square miles, or 52,531,200 acres.
Belgium is only one-seventh the size of Kansas; Servia is less
than half as large; Roumania is 25 per cent smaller, and so is
England, with Wales included. Denmark or Switzerland is little
more than a fourth as large, and the Netherlands are not one-
fourth. The states of Pennsylvania and Indiana, or Maine and
Ohio united, or all New England, with Delaware and Maryland
for company, could find resting room on her ample bosom.
According to the latest census Kansas had 1,734,000 inhabitants.
If the population to the square mile in Kansas equaled that of
England before the war, Kansas would have fifty -five million
people; if as great as that of Belgium, 54,600,000 people; similarly,
if on a par with Massachusetts, we would have 37,000,000 inhabi-
tants; if even with Ohio, 10,000,000, or with Illinois, 9,000,000.
When the resources of Kansas are fully developed, the State will
sustain a vastly increased population. No state, perhaps, offers
greater opportunities than Kansas, or promises more to those
who will intelligently till.



q7 •^ •••

2




Secretary State Board of Agriculture



U. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




1 he most profitable farm is the one that produces a diversity of crops and live stock. Kansas offers
exceptional opportunities for diversified farming



Kansas



A Debt-Free State

Walter L. Payne, State Treasurer

Kansas has no outstanding indebtedness, except
current expenses for the present month. The School
Fund of Kansas owns municipal bonds as issued
by the municipalities of Kansas in the amount of
$10,674,170.23. Valuation of all property in 1918,
$3,418,798,220. Tax levy, for 1918, 1^^- mills,
which produced in taxes, for the current tax year,
$3,999,995. For current expenses and legislative
expenses we have so far drawn, in this current tax
year, 1919, $1,400,173.39, leaving a balance available
of $2,599,821.61.

In addition to this amount, there is produced each
fiscal year, from fees and licenses collected by the
several departments, approximately $1,250,000, which
goes to the general revenue of the State. The interest
collected by the School Fund upon the bonds held and
owned by the State, produces approximately $450,000
per calendar year.



W. M. Jardine, President Kansas State Agricultural College
Kansas is known as a great agricultural State. It
is true that Kansas is rapidly reaching for first place in



oil production; that only one other state outranks
Kansas in the production of lead and zinc ores; that
only two other states produce more salt than Kansas;
that natural gas has long been a commercial product
of the State; and that there is coal enough under
Kansas soil to furnish power for all her manufacturing
and mining industries and for domestic purposes for
numberless decades. It is true that Kansas has manu-
facturing industries worth not less than $330,000,000,
including meat packing, flour milling, and beet sugar
making. Yet, in spite of all her mineral resources and
manufacturing interests, Kansas bases her reputation
for usefulness before the world on agriculture.



Probably the chief assets which have operated to
make Kansas a great agricultural State are richness
of soil, long growing season, adequate rainfall when
properly utilized, and nearness to market. We can
grow wheat, corn, oats, barley, rye, sorghum, alfalfa,
cow peas, soy beans, potatoes, sugar beets, garden
truck, and fruits of all kinds common to a temperate
climate. An abundant supply of feeds and pasture
has encouraged the development of the live-stock
industry. Cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry furnish a



KANSAS — THE STATE BOUNTIFUL




Kansas ranks fourth among states in cattle growing and probably the largest factor in making it a
great cattle state has been the vast extent of her pasture lands



ready means of marketing as a finished product,
forage crops of Kansas farms and the by-products of
grain farming. The largest stock markets of the
country are within easy reach. It is hard to beat the
combination of wheat, corn, alfalfa, sorghums, silos,
pastures, cattle, and hogs as a means of producing
wealth.

The Cr Kansas Famous

Wheat is the crop that brought fame to Kansas.
Not only does the State lead in the extent of produc-
tion, but also in the quality of her hard red winter
wheat. The record crop of 180,000,000 bushels, in 1914,
will probably be exceeded in 1919. Not less than
11,000,000 acres have been sown and the total yield
will probably exceed 200,000,000 bushels this year.

Kansas farmers are showing great interest in the
new strain of hard, red winter wheat, called Kanred,
which has been developed by the Kansas State Agri-
cultural Experiment Station at Manhattan. In tests
covering a number of years this improved wheat has
given an average increased yield over Turkey Red and
Kharkof of from 3.4 to 5.2 bushels. Fifty thousand
acres were planted to Kanred wheat the fall of 1918.
It is planned that the total yield shall be used for seed
and it is expected that there will be enough to seed
7,000,000 acres.

Corn Also a Wealth Producer

While it is the tremendous wheat crops that have
made Kansas famous, com has been one of the State's



greatest sources of wealth. In total yield and value,
corn has had the lead of wheat in not less than nine
years out of ten during the entire history of the State.
The two-hundred-million bushel mark has been
exceeded several times.

Sors^hums as Life Insurance

While wheat and com are the great sources of the
productive wealth of Kansas, the sorghums which
were introduced about the same time as alfalfa, have
come to form the State's life insurance. The sorghums
are undisturbed by the ordinary dry spell. If a drought
sets in they settle down to a state of siege and when
the time of stress ends, as it always does, they pick up,
show new life, and renew their business of making
feed for Kansas live stock. In other words, sorghums
possess the ability to resist droughts. The Kansas Agri-
cultural Experiment Station is earnestly endeavor-
ing to develop to a still greater degree this valuable
characteristic.

It has been shown through feeding tests at the
Agricultural Experiment Station that the grain of
sorghums is equal practically pound for pound to corn
in feed value for live stock.

A Great Live-Stock State

The live-stock industry has kept pace with
the growth in crop production. The State ranks
fourth among states in cattle growing, being one of
the four states whose cattle number not less than




A small part of one of the many oil fields in Kansas. The oil industry furnishes employment for thousands of men
and oil centers offer splendid markets for truck, dairying and poultry products



2,000,000. Probably the largest factor in making
Kansas a great cattle State has been the vast extent
of her pasture lands. Of the 52,000,000 acres of land
approximately 20,000,000 acres are grazing lands cov-
ered with native grasses. In western Kansas the buffalo
grass, native to that region, cures as it stands and
furnishes nutritious feed which the cattle harvest
themselves in summer and winter feeding. Kansas
winters are comparatively mild and the winter feed
requirements for animals are low. Dairying is a grow-
ing industry in the State, Kansas being among the
first eight states of the Union in number of milk cows.
Not less than 74.6 per cent of all farms in the State
produce hogs. More Kansas farms produce hogs than
any other class of meat animals. Kansas can grow
hogs possibly as cheap as any other state because of
the extensive alfalfa fields and the abundance of bran
and shorts, by-products of the milling industry.



important industry. Truck gardening can be done
profitably near any large city furnishing an adequate
market. Several nursery stock growing enterprises are
located in the Kaw Valley.

irrigation

In the Garden City and Scott City districts the
growing of sugar beets and the manufacture of beet
sugar constitute an important industry. The beets
are grown by irrigation and the water is secured mainly
from wells by pumping. Throughout the Arkansas
River Valley from Colorado to the Oklahoma State
line there exists a large quantity of underground water
varying from seven to forty feet beneath the surface.
Pumping for irrigation is no longer an experiment and
not only sugar beets but all kinds of farm and garden
crops are now grown in the Arkansas River Valley by
means of water secured through pumping. This sec-
tion is destined to great agricultural development.



While all parts of the State are adapted to crop and
live-stock production, the diversity of the soil and
climate makes possible many different types of
tarming. The northeastern section and parts of the
Arkansas River Valley are admirably adapted to apple
growing. The Kaw Valley and the eastern Arkansas
River Valley furnish ideal conditions for potato pro-
duction, and since Kansas potatoes are ready for
market in July and August, an in-between season for
southern and northern potatoes, potato growing is an



Kansas is no place for the laggard, but for the man
who has stuff in him, who possesses an average amount
of intelligence and is willing to work and save, the
State offers all the essentials for success. It is true
that today and henceforth greater efficiency must be
exercised in the business of farming in order to make
a profit. Farmers must take a lesson from the fact that
much of the wealth of the large industrial organiza-
tions has been created through the utilization of



K A N



THESTATE BuuiNiihUL




Kansas ranks third in the Union in the production of salt, but leads in oil. lead, zinc and coal.
Her industrial centers furnish home markets for the farmers' produce



by-products formerly considered worthless. In like
manner the by-products of grain farming, such as
corn and sorghum stalks and wheat and oats straw,
must be given a market value through feeding to live
stock. The silo must become an essential part of farm
equipment.

All that is needed is to put into practice sound
principles of farming. The man that harnesses up with
his own intelligence and industry the natural resources
of Kansas in climate, soil, and geographical location,
will get on without difficulty.

iukl:

The State, for the purposes of this booklet, has been
divided into three sections.

THE EASTERN, and oldest part, includes the
following counties:

Doniphan, Brown, Memaha, Marshall, Washing-
ton, Atchison, Jackson, Pottawatomie, Riley, Clay, Wy-
andotte, Leavenworth, Jefferson, Shawnee, Wabaun-
see, Geary, Dickinson, Johnson, Douglas, Osage, Mor-
ris, Miami, Franklin, Lyon, Chase, Marion, Linn,
Anderson, Doffey, Bourbon, Allen, Woodson, Green-
wood, Butler, Crawford, Neosho, Wilson, Elk, Cher-
okee, Labette, Montgomery, Chautauqua and Cowley.

This, as a whole, is a highly developed agricultural
and live-stock section.

Lands in the Eastern Section range from $60 to $200
or more an acre, dependent on soil character, improve-
ments, distance to railroad and markets.



CENTRAL KANSAS, which includes:

Republic, Jewell, Smith, Phillips, Norton, Cloud,
Mitchell, Osborne, Rooks, Graham, Ottawa, Lincoln,
Russell, Ellis, Trego, Saline, Ellsworth, Barton, Rush,
Ness, McPherson, Rice, Harvey, Reno, Stafford,
Pawnee, Hodgeman, Sedgwick, Kingman, Pratt, Ed-
wards, Kiowa, Ford, Sumner, Harper, Barber, Coman-
che and Clark.

This is a fairly well developed section with most of
the land being utilized to good advantage. There are,
however, many opportunities to purchase lands at
prices ranging from $25 to $125 an acre, according
to improvements, soil, distance to markets, etc.

WESTERN and SOUTHWESTERN KANSAS is
largely susceptible to agricultural development. A
settler can still secure desirable farming lands at prices
ranging from $12.50 to $45 an acre, according to im-
provements, soil, location, distance to railroads and
markets. It comprises the following counties:

Decatur, Rawlins, Cheyenne, Sheridan, Thomas,
Sherman, Gove, Logan, Wallace, Lane, Scott, Wichita,
Greeley, Finney, Kearney, Hamilton, Gray, Haskell,
Grant, Stanton, Meade, Seward, Stevens and Morton.

In all the three sections outlined, it should be kept
in mind that highly productive bottom lands, and
lands along streams, command much higher prices
than the uplands. As the Western and Southwestern
Sections will naturally appeal to the man of small
means, a short review of these counties is herewith
given.



K. U P-.



DMINISTRATION




How the newcomer started in the earlv days in Western Kansas. Modern farm home, showing a few years of progress

— the result of diversified farming and stock raising



NORTHWESTERN COUNTIK



County


Population


County Seat


Altitude


Acreage


Assessed
Valuation


Railroad
Mileage


Total Number

Head

Live Stock


Surplus Dairy and

Poultry Products

Sold Annually


Cheyenne


4.440
6,255
8,067
4.432
5 008
5.370
2,258
3,316
4,537


St. Franda

Atwjod

Oberlin

Goodland

Colby


3,100
2,843
2.561
3,688
3,135
2,654
3,448


652,800
691,200
576,000
691,200
691 200
576 000
576,000
691.200
691.000


$7,908,107

9,274,865

12,162,141

10,161,053

13,300,188

10,630,136

3,044,986

8.796.366

10.277.865


23
38

57
35
76
43
31
75
37


30,504
40,417
52,005
32,478
27,527
39,200
27,926
32,348
28,466


$91,181
122,494
204,444
131,180

87,289
213,138

39,042
100.386
128,959






Sherman

Thomas ... .


Sheridan

Wallace

Logan


Hoxie

Sharon Springs . .
Russell Springs. .
Gove







'ENTRAL WESTERN COUNTIES



County


Population


County Seat


Altitude


Acreage


Assessed Railroad
Valuation Mileage


Total Number

Head

Live Stock


Surplus Dairy and

Poultry Products

Sold Annually


Greeley

Wichita


1.060
1,593
2,267
2.476
2,444
2,431
6,716
4,386


Tribune


3,297
2,964
2,759
3,228
2,990
2,892
2,615


499,200
460,800
460,800
460,800
612,080
552,960
829.440
552,960


$3,881,233 26
3,930,649 24
6,483,425 68
7,481,281 49
6,711,773 i 29
7,459,404 26
18,311,255 62
11,548,175 51


14,296
18,994
21,782
24,994
27,062
25,484
44,040
21.485


$19,494
41.595
49,103
58,495
27,412
28,992
83,636
59,717


Scott


Scott City

Dighton

Syracuse

Lakin

Garden City ....
Cimarron




Hamilton


Finney







^ r-jxiM i^UUNTIEc)



County


Population


County Seat


Altitude


Acreage


Assessed
Valuation


Railroad
Mileage


Total Number

Head

Live Stock


Surplus Dairy and

Poultry Products

Sold Annually




5,053
2.757
6.053
1.336
2,229
997
881




2,853
3,235
2,517
3,020
3,350
2,800
3.340


414,720
466,560
624,000
368,640
466,560
368,640
430,080


$10,177,869
7,162,733
11,971,594
4,958,111
5,147,903
3,799,852
3,552,493


30
31
33
27
22
2


26,000
20,252
43,257
12,392
18,176
17,331
18,536


$60,321
24,213
96,166
14,138

6,082
14j67S

4,787


Stevens

Meade

Haskell

Morton

Grant


Hugoton

Meade

Santa Fe

Richfield

New Ulysses ....
Johnson









-< - !<r-



O IT




iroom corn is



very profitable in Southwest Kansas for the man who understands the business.
Wichita is the greatest broom corn market in the world.



Northwestern Counties. As a general rule the
surface of the land in these counties is undulating
prairie, with bottom lands along the rivers, streams
and creeks, averaging from one-half to a mile or more
in width and well adapted ito alfalfa.

The rivers and streams are usually well fringed
with timber, white elm, white ash, box elder, cotton-
wood, hackberry and wild cherry being the most com-
mon.

There is a small percentage of bluff and rough
land, best adapted to grazing purposes.

Limestone and sandstone, suitable for building
purposes, is usually plentiful in all the counties.

Principal crops are winter wheat, corn, barley,
native hay, sudan grass, emmer, kaffir, milo, and other
grain and forage sorghums; oats, barley and millet for
forage; alfalfa in the bottom lands; potatoes; fruit for
home consumption. Plums do well in this section.

Keep in mind that live stock is a leading industry in
all these counties and that all are particularly well
adapted to dairy farming, poultry and sheep.

Depth to domestic water runs from thirty to one
hundred and seventy-five feet.

Central Western Counties. The general lay of
the land and characteristics are very similar to the
counties in group one, and the principal crops practi-
cally the sanie.



In Kearney and Finney counties, the growing of
sugar beets by irrigation is a very important and grow-
ing industry.

Many large pumping plants and storage reservoirs,
utilizing the water from the Arkansas River, make
the raising of crops under irrigation possible and
usually very profitable.

In these two counties sugar beets are the most
important crop.

A sugar beet factory at Garden City, costing over a
million dollars, converts thousands of tons of sugar
beets annually into sugar.

Alfalfa is also a very important crop in these
counties, both for feed and seed. In Scott County
there are also great possibilities on lands under irri-
gation by pumping. Irrigated lands naturally com-
mand high prices.

Southwestern Counties. As a rule the surface
of the land in these counties is undulating prairie,
with a small percentage of broken land well adapted
to grazing and the raising of cattle, horses and mules.
There is a big acreage of alfalfa valley lands along the
rivers and streams, and in Meade and Morton counties
are many artesian flowing wells, varying in depth from
fifty to two hundred and fifty feet, consequently alfalfa,
beef cattle and hogs are leading industries. Lands
suitable to irrigation from flowing wells command high
prices.



U. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




Kaffir, being drought-resistant, is one of the surest crops for Western Kansas and is
practically equal to corn in feeding value



In addition to the crops shown in the other coun-
ties, broom corn is a very important crop in all the
southwest counties.

There is limestone and sandstone suitable for
building purposes in all counties, and large deposits of
gypsum in most of them.

The climatic and other conditions in western and
southwestern Kansas all tend for health.

Farminsr Possibilities in Western Kansas
Chas. R. Weeks, Supt., Fort Hays Experiment Station

Western Kansas offers an opportunity for a home
to the industrious and energetic man who is desirous
of bettering his condition in life. Thousands of acres
of land yet unused or inadequately used await develop-
ment. Many substantial homes, equipped with mod-
em conveniences, found scattered throughout every
western Kansas county prove what can be done by the
right man, using the right methods. Western Kansas
is not the place for the man who has visions of a small
intensive farm near a large city with a good truck
market. It is rather a country for the man who can
handle a larger acreage, adapting himself to the con-
tingencies and circumstances intelligently, and who
follows the farm practices especially adapted to this
region. For such men there are many opportunities.

The newcomer to this section will do well before
planning his system of farming to consult the county
agricultural agent, the nearest experiment station, and



study the methods of the most successful farmers. The
fact that large wheat yields are occasionally secured
on poorly prepared ground has led many to gamble
in this crop. The man who depends on a one-crop
system for success sooner or later meets with failure.

Careful investigation by the Fort Hays Branch
Experiment Station, on the cost of producing wheat,
has proven beyond a doubt that the farmer who has
a diversity of farm activities, produces his wheat at
the lowest cost, and makes the greatest average income.

The profitableness of the cattle business in the


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