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earlier days of open range, and even now the raising
and fattening of cattle, on the rich buffalo grass, has
led to many false impressions of easy money in western
Kansas. There is no easy road to independence.
Experience has shown that farmers with a few head
of cattle, a silo, a few milch cows, hogs, and chickens,
who raise grain sorghums for feed, make good and
gradually accumulate wealth. Such farmers may
secure an occasional big yield of wheat. An open
winter for stock may make it possible to save feed and
make additional profits, but the man who has an
income from several sources plays safe, and makes
money, perhaps not as fast, but much surer.

A man, as a rule, should have 320 acres in western
Kansas. Many have made success on smaller units.
Usually the man on a half section, or less, who raises
live stock, leases additional land from absent land






^^^^k ^^^^^Si^ '^'^^^^^^^^^?^ita

The Pit Silo can be built in Western Kansas without expert labor, and it
should be a part of every dry-land farm

owners until he accumulates enough money to in-
crease the size of the farm.

How to Make a Start '

W. E. Grimes, Asst. Prof, Farm Management, Agri. Col.

Diversified farming, which means the production
of several kinds of crops and live stock, is the most
profitable and safest kind of farming to practice.
Experience in farming in Kansas shows that the man
who produces a diversity of crops and live stock so
that his labor is well distributed throughout the year,
and has something to sell at all seasons, has the highest
average income through a term of years. In the central
and western sections, live stock is especially important
and the man who is beginning farming with a small
amount of capital should plan on keeping some live
stock from the start. This will make his income sure
and protect him from uncertain weather conditions.

Before deciding what crops to plant, the newcomer
should make inquiry as to what varieties are best
adapted to that particular section in which he is
located, and secure seed of the very best. If possible,
he should plan to produce some cash crops, such as
wheat, but should leave sufficient acreage for growing
enough drought -resistant grain sorghum crops, such
as kaffir, feterita, milo maize, etc., to carry his live
stock over winter. The grain sorghums produce feed
for live stock in the driest of years and can be relied

It is important that the beginner avail himself of
every means to keep down expenses the first year. He
should produce as large a share of his living from his
farm as possible. A good home garden will reduce the
grocery bills, and a small storage pit, which can be
cheaply built, will successfully keep potatoes and
other root crops through the winter months.

The dairy cow will undoubtedly give the quickest
return on the money invested and will bring in a
monthly cash income. It takes but a small amount
of capital to purchase a few head of dairy cows, and
because of the safety of this kind of farming, the
bankers in the State are showing a disposition to loan
money to industrious farmers for the purchase of dairy
cows. Every farmer should have a few dairy cows to
supply milk and dairy products for his own table, and
to furnish a surplus for an immediate and regular
cash income.

He should also have a small flock of hens to produce
eggs for his table, thus reducing the cost of his living
and to furnish a surplus, which is always readily
saleable. He should have a few head of hogs —
sufficient to take care of the waste products on the
farm, and to produce his winter meat supply. The
combination of the garden, cows, chickens, and hogs,
with the growing of drought-resistant feed crops, will
insure success to any industrious man of reasonable




A cherry, apple and peach orchard in Western Kansas. Fruit for home use can be produced in all parts of the State.

It is important that the orchard be well cultivated

The pit silo (where it can be constructed) in con-
nection with the above combination makes success
even more certain. By the means of a silo a man can
save the entire feeding value of his crop in such shape
that it will be convenient for winter feeding.

Amount of Capital Required

Many men have gone into western Kansas with no
backing but a strong body, a good reputation, a level
head and a willingness to work, and have become
independent. Others have started with considerable
money and have failed. The individual factor is so
variable that no fixed amount of money can be set as
necessary for success. However, as a rule, a man
should have enough to make the first payment on his
land, equip himself with the necessary machinery and
horses, secure three or four good dairy cows, two or
three hogs, 25 or more choice hens, and a sufficient
balance to build a small house and sheds, and a well,
if he goes on an unimproved farm, and to buy seed and
feed to carry him until his crops come in. If the new-
comer can start with more live stock than indicated
above, his chances of success will be greater.

A wagon, a plow, a lister, a disc, a cultivator, a
drill, a spike-tooth harrow, and small tools are neces-
sary at the start. A soil packer would be a good thing,
but the disc set straight may be used instead. Other
tools which are used only a short time each season may
be bought co-operatively with neighbors and used
jointly. The newcomer should have at least four

horses. Such a layout will require from $1,500 to
$2,500 capital, depending upon conditions and the
individual. Quite a number of western farmers, how-
ever, have their plowing and other heavy work done
by contract, with tractors. The prospective settler
should secure all information possible as to local
conditions, prices of materials, etc., in the locality of
his choice and plan wisely his probable expenses
before selling the equipment he has on hand. A per-
sonal visit and examination of the land should be made
before moving.

From the Sec'v of the State Bankers' As«n.

W. W. Bowman

The wealth of Kansas is not imported wealth; it is
mainly wealth sprung from her own rich soil. The
State has 1,300 banking institutions widely distributed
over 105 counties, covering more than 82,000 square
miles. Every county in the State enjoys abundant
banking facilities. The stockholders of Kansas banks
are almost 100% residents of Kansas — men and women
of all vocations.

These institutions are permanently employing
about 60 million of working capital, are the deposi-
tories of full 450 million dollars of the wealth of the
people, and the volume of aggregate working capital
and aggregate deposits steadily increases. It has
enabled the banks of Kansas to have a large effective
part in the development of the State, not through
direct aid to State institutions, but through timely



A typical bunch of high-grade Herefords. Western Kansas is well adapted to the production ot feeder steers,
for which there is a strong demand in the eastern part of the State

assistance to the multitudes of individual customers.
No man engaged in worthy pursuits, who is con-
ducting his business intelligently, ever fails to receive
the fullest measure of assistance and encourage-
ment to which he is entitled. This does not mean that
any Kansas bank will furnish capital with which to
start a store, or equip a manufacturing plant, or even
buy a farm. It does mean that any good man with
character and ability and a good start of his own can
depend upon the bank always to be his friend and
lend him credit to the fullest extent consistent with
good banking. It is not the province of a bank to
start men in business — it is their province to extend
them freely all the credit to which they are entitled to
meet seasonal demands.

None more than the bankers of Kansas welcome
the newcomer to the State. The newcomer should
among the very first seek to meet and to become
acquainted with the banker. Not immediately to
borrow money, nor need he expect that as a stranger
credit will be immediately extended to him. There
must first be an acquaintanceship, then a confidence,
and then is established a long line of business relation-
ships mutually helpful both to the banker and to his
new-found customer and friend. All this awaits every
newcomer to Kansas. Nothing can be more certainly
depended upon than that the Kansas banker will
extend all the benefits of his ripe experience, his
friendly and helpful counsels, and ultimately the fullest

measure of material assistance possible for a bank to
extend, or which, on any principle of good business,
ought rightly to be extended to any customer.

Work of the Agricultural Experiment Station

F. D. Farrell, Director

Much information as to best methods of farming is
needed by experienced Kansas farmers, but the need
for information is felt particularly by new settlers,
many of whom are unfamiliar with agricultural con-
ditions in Kansas. As rapidly as useful facts are
secured, they are made available to the farmers of the
State through the Division of College Extension,
through the publication of bulletins, reports, and press
notices, and in other ways.

Any actual or prospective farmer desiring to secure
information regarding any farm matters is invited to
correspond with the Director of the Experiment
Station at Manhattan.

The work of the main station at Manhattan is
supplemented by that at four branch stations located
in the western part of the State. This region doubtless
will receive special attention by prospective new
settlers. These stations are used to extend the investi-
gational work of the main station and to conduct
experiments of local importance in western Kansas.
Branch stations are located at Fort Hays, Garden
City, Colby and Tribune. These stations are of great


K. A 1


Map of the average annua! precipitation in Kansas. Amounts in this map include the moisture from melted snow. rain, sleet and hail.
These averages cover approximately a ten to forty-year f>eriod. Small circles indicate location of the weather bureau station, where
these records have been kept. Figures in brackets indicate amounts inserted from records made in adjoining counties

value to farmers in the western section of the State,
in determining what crops can be most profitably
raised, best methods of handling live stock, etc. The
Superintendent at any station will gladly assist new-
comers with their farming problems, advise where
they can secure good seeds, improved live stock, etc.
Address the Superintendent at the nearest station.
In addition to the investigational work carried on
at the main station and the four branch stations,
experiments are carried on throughout the State in
co-operation with farmers. Field tests of seeds devel-
oped at the experiment stations are made, and last
year 788 tests were made in 80 counties.

The activities of the station reach to all parts of
the State and involve all principal agricultural prob-
lems, including those of production, utilization, and
marketing. Through the station's organization and
facilities any farmer, whether he be an experienced
farmer or a new settler, can obtain much useful infor-
mation and assistance from the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station. The station, like the college of which
it is a branch, belongs to all the people of the State,
and is maintained solely for their service.

S. D. Flora, Meteorologist, U. S. Weather Bureau
and Kansas State Board of Agriculture

Kansas has a climate which is characterized by
extremes of temperature, great variations in the

seasonal rainfall, much sunshine, and dry, bracing air — •
a climate that is productive of bountiful cereal crops
and vigorous health.

The distribution of the annual precipitation (rain
and melted snow and sleet) over Kansas, and the time
of its occurrence, are the chief limiting factors of crop
growth, and receive more attention than any other
features of the weather.

It decreases with remarkable regularity from forty-
two inches in the southeastern counties, to just a little
more than fifteen inches at the Colorado line. The
northern half of the State receives practically the same
amount as the southern, except that the northeastein
quarter has a little less than the southeastern.

Over the eastern half, the annual precipitation
equals that of Iowa, Wisconsin, and Michigan, and is
only a little less than that of Illinois, Indiana, or Ohio,
and it occurs at a more opportune time of the year
than the precipitation of any of these states. From
seventy-one to seventy-eight per cent of the annual
amount falls in the six crop-growing months, April
to September, inclusive, and there is no state in the
country, except a few along the Gulf Coast, that,
taken as a whole, receives as much rain during the
summer months as the average for the eastern third
of Kansas. Even the middle third of the State receives
slightly over twenty inches during these six months,
which is within two inches of the amount that falls
during the same period in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New



Alfalfa is grown in all parts of the State and does especially well on the river and creek bottoms.
The seed raised in the western part of the State is in big demand

York, and the New England States, while the western
third, the "semi-arid region," has an average pre-
cipitation of more than sixteen inches for this period,
which almost equals the amount during these six
months in Michigan and Wisconsin, and is approxi-
mately three-fourths of the average for Iowa for that

The average annual snowfall of the State ranges
from eleven inches in the extreme south central coun-
ties to two feet in scattered localities farther north.
As a rule, the ground is not covered with snow more
than a few days at a time.

Whether the precipitation falling over the State,
especially the western counties, has shown any pro-
gressive increase or decrease since the land was opened
for settlement, and the prairie sod broken up, is a
question that has been the subject of much discussion,
owing to the extreme importance of such a change on
crop yields. It is undeniably a fact that immense fields
of wheat, grain sorghums, and even corn, now cover a
large area in the western part that was once designated
as "The Great American Desert," but a rather exhaus-
tive study of all the available precipitation records,
many of which were begun forty years ago, fails to show
any material change in the annual amount, or in its
distribution through the year. Improved methods of
farming and adapted crops increase production.

The sunshine that Kansas receives each year is one
of its greatest climatic assets and also one of the

reasons of the high rate of evaporation in the western
counties. Practically no other part of the country
that receives as much rainfall during the growing
season is favored with as high percentage of sunshine,
which makes for rapid growth of crops.

July and August are the sunniest months and
January and February are those when the sun is most
likely to be hidden by clouds.

Of the fully equipped stations of the Weather Bu-
reau in Kansas, including the one just across the State
line at Kansas City, Mo., where records of cloudi-
ness have been kept for from twenty-five to thirty-
eight years, none has an average of less than 144
clear days annually or more than 101 cloudy days.
At Dodge City, which represents conditions in the
western part, there is an average of but sixty-one
cloudy days per year.

Kansas has a reputation of being a windy State,
when as a matter of fact the most recent compilation
of wind velocity over the country shows that the
winds of the eastern half of the State are not noticeably
greater than those of Illinois, Indiana, or Ohio, and are
less than those of Michigan.

The growing season is sufficiently long to give
ample time for the development and maturing of the
principal crops. Only in rare instances do the killing
frosts of autumn occur early enough to cause serious



About nine-tenths of the Kansas wheat crop is hard winter wheat. A new variety called Kanred. yielding from four to five bushels

more per acre than the ordinary strains, has been developed

The average date of the last killing frost in Spring
ranges from April 7th in the extreme southeast to the
first week in May in the northwest. The average date
of the first killing frost in autumn ranges from the
first week in October, in the northwestern counties,
to October 2 2d in the southeastern.

On account of the dryness of the air in the western
part instances often occur where the temperature falls
to freezing or even a few degrees below without the
deposit of frost or any damage to the most tender

J. C. Mohler, Secretary Kansas State Board of Agriculture

Can you — by any stretch of imagination — compre-
hend the magnitude of a wheat field extending over
an area of 11,000,000 acres?

And should you succeed, would you credit any one
state with having planted such an acreage to wheat in
a single season?

Not likely.

But that's what Kansas did in the Fall of 1918.
She sowed to wheat that Fall an area that exceeded
the total land surface of Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
Connecticut and Delaware combined, with 839,760
acres over for good measure.

Her wheat acreage alone exceeds, by 2,805,280
acres, the entire area of the Kingdom of Holland.

It would cover every acre in Belgium and still have
3,721,280 acres to spare.

Greater than the entire Kingdom of Denmark, with
a surplus of 1,151,680 acres.

These facts are simply quoted to give one a faint
idea of what the State produces in the way of wheat

If nothing unforeseen happens, our wheat yield
this year (1919) is expected to exceed 200,000 000

Great as have been her achievements, Kansas is
just striking her gait.

Wheat is not by any means OUR only crop.

The aggressive man contemplating a new home
knows that climate is a most important factor in suc-
cessful farming.

Man can control practically everything except

The accompanying tables prove most emphatically
that Kansas is not a ONE-crop state.

K?»n«ia«t Cropn and Products in 1918

The yields and values of the crops and products for 1918 are
as follows:


Winter and spring wheat 93,195,332 bushels $186,332,975

Com 44,539,488 bushels 64,081,656

Oats 50,482,487 bushels 35,562,383

Rye 2,257,212 bushels . 3,569,001

Barley 5,737,224 bushels . 5,601, 76i5

Emmer (Speltz) 10,685 bushels 8.107

Irish and sweet potatoes 2,875,701 bushels . 4,119,708

Cow peas 3,719 tons 61.363

Flax 205,227 bushels . 666,988

Broom com 18,582,438 pounds. . 1,791,975


IT. n o 1 A T E

While Kansas has thousands of riiik-s of i^ood i. ,,.(!>, ilii- ftilt-ral uovt-niimril and tlie M.i, v.,,, ,,.. ad $8,000,000 for additional good roads
in the next thirty months. This means better marketing facihties and improved social hfe


Sugar beets

Sorghum for syrup.




Sorghum hay, forage and stover

Saccharine sorghum for seed

Jerusalem com

Sudan grass


Tame hay (exclusive of alfalfa)

Prairie hay

Wool clip



Condensed milk

Milk sold, other than for butter and


Animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter

Poultry and eggs sold

Horticultural products -. . . .

Honey and beeswax

Wood marketed


















057 tons. . . ,
215 tons. . . .
310 gallons
,678 bushels.
689 bushels .
036 bushels.
155 tons. . . ,
361 bushels

224 tons

704 tons . .
460 tons - . . ■
026 tons . .
208 tons
168 pounds.
264 pounds.
142 pounds .
302 pounds

558,960 pounds .
























Total value of all farm products $592,017,325

Niirnbers and Val

e Stoc

Number Value

Horses 1,053,000 $116,883,000

Mules and asses 227.745 31.884.300

Milk cows 683.211 56,023.302

Other cattle 2.239.717 120.944.718

Sheep 249.928 3.124.100

Swine 1,467,082 33.009.345

Total value of live stock $361 .868,765

Notwithstanding this wonderful showing in agricultural pro-
duction it should be borne in mind that there are yet remaining
more than 30,000,000 acres of tillable land in Kansas that has
never yet been plowed.

Alexander Jackson, Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R. R.

The following railroads serve the State: Atchison,
Topeka & Santa Fe, Chicago, Burlington 85 Quincy,
Chicago, Rock Island 8e Pacific, Kansas City, Mexico
8e Orient, Kansas City Southern, Midland Valley,
Missouri, Kansas 8e Texas, Missouri Pacific, St. Louis
8e San Francisco, St. Joseph fit Grand Island, Salina
Northern and Union Pacific Railroads.

In selecting a desirable location to engage in the
production of the chief staple necessities of life, the
wise man always keeps in mind one vital thought —

Quick and economic transportation to desirable
markets is a most important consideration to the

In the State of Kansas there are almost ten thousand
miles of railroads, no railroad station within the State
being more than twenty-four hours from a profitable

Kansas is particularly fortunate in being the hub
of that great temperate zone in which is produced the
bulk of the essentials of life, such as wheat, com and
oats, live stock of all kinds, and other products of the
farm, which all must consume daily.

Kansas produces all the cereals excepting rice.

Bounded on the north by Nebraska, on the south
by Oklahoma, by Colorado on the west, and by Mis-
souri on the east, the State is well located from a geo-
graphical standpoint.




Kansas rural schools are making rapid advaiiceiiiciii and many of tlie uitiei buildings are being replaced
by modern buildings with provision for all of the new school activities

Within her own borders are the great commercial
centers and markets of Wichita, Hutchinson, Kansas
City, Topeka, Atchison, Leavenworth, Salina and nu-
merous other smaller, but very active business centers.

Just across her border, on the east bank of the
Missouri River, are two great food markets — Kansas
City and St. Joseph, Mo.

For her many surplus domestic products she
has, through her western gateways, all the leading
cities of the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast
states, with their thousands of small towns and cities
engaged in mining and other industries, all big con-
sumers of the products of the soil. Through her
northern gateways there is a great distributing terri-
tory to the Canadian line. Through her southern
gateways she has access to practically all the cotton
producing states, and through her eastern gateways
she is in a position to serve economically all the
Atlantic Coast States.

The products of the State of Kansas reach all parts
of the world.

For foreign export business, her geographical
position is such, that all Pacific and Atlantic seaports
are at her economical disposal, and especially well
located with reference to the Gulf of Mexico ports,
such as Galveston, New Orleans, etc.

The producer in Kansas is fortunate in being so
located that he enjoys and reaps the benefit of keen
competition for his products. As they are absolute

necessities, the Kansas farmer can truly say "MY

Lorraine Elizabeth Wooster, Superintendent Schools for Kansas

While the best things in school work cannot be
reduced to figures, the public interest may be shown
fairly well by the fact that, during the school year of
1917-18 there were enrolled in the public schools
405,319 pupils and 15,909 teachers. There are 7,293
school libraries containing 766,155 volumes.

The rural schools are making rapid advancement.
Many of the older buildings are being replaced by
modem schools with provision for all of the new school
activities. Utility and beauty are uniting in giving
Kansas some of the very best modern school buildings.

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Online LibraryUnited States Railroad AdministrationKansas .. → online text (page 2 of 4)