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Many rural schools are teaching agriculture. This is
a new feature of school activity promising much for
the welfare of the agricultural communities.

The 1919 Legislature passed many constructive
bills for the benefit and improvement of the Kansas
schools. There are ample school facilities for every
county in the State. There are 9,439 public schools in
the State and so well distributed that every child has
an opportunity to get a good education. Kansas has
only 2.2 per cent of illiterates. She is one of the eight
states of the union (all of which are western) which
has less than 3%.

For higher instruction, the following State Institu-
tions are available :






Kansas Farmers' automobiles parked during visiting day at the Ft. Hays ELxperiment Station,
Automobiles and good roads make social life easy and pleasant

State University, Lawrence; State Normal School,
Emporia; Fort Hays Normal School, Hays; State
Manual Training School, Pittsburg; State Agricultural
College, Manhattan.

Also private denominational universities, colleges
and academies, viz.:

Baker University, Methodist Episcopal, Baldwin;
Bethany College, Swedish Lutheran, Lindsborg;
Bethel College, Mennonite, Newton; Central Academy
and College, Free Methodist, McPherson; College of
Emporia, Presbyterian, Emporia; Cooper College,
United Presbyterian, Sterling; Fairmount College,
Congregational, Wichita; Friends Kansas Bible Train-
ing School, Friends, Haviland; Friends University,
Friends, Wichita; Highland College, Presbyterian,
Highland; Hillsboro Preparatory School, Private,
Hillsboro; Kansas City University, United Brethern,
Kansas City; Kansas Wesleyan University, Methodist
Episcopal, Salina; McPherson College, Church of the
Brethren, McPherson; Midland College, Lutheran,
Atchison; Mt. St. Scholastica's Academy, Catholic,
Atchison; Nazarath Academy, Catholic, Concordia;
Northbranch Academy, Friends, Northbranch ; Ottawa
University, Baptist, Ottawa; Southwestern College,
Methodist Episcopal, Winfield;St. Benedict's College,
Catholic, Atchison; St. John's Lutheran College,
Winfield ; St. Mary's Academy, Catholic, Leavenworth ;
St. Mary's College, Catholic, St. Mary's; Tabor Col-
lege, Mennonite, Hillsboro; Washburn College, Unde-
nominational, Topeka.

Kansas points with pride to her educational advan-
tages and facilities.


W. Burr, in Charge of Rural Organization, Agricultural College

In the spring of 1914, the State of Kansas began a
definite community development movement which
has spread over the entire State. Wherever the activi-
ties of this movement have been carried there has been
developed gradually, but surely, a healthful commu-
nity life established along the most modern lines.

Kansas has always been a State of churches, and
there are many outstanding instances of community
churches rendering service, according to modern ideals,
to all of the people.

Among farmers' co-operative organizations the
Farmers' Union and the Grange are both very strong,
not only in their particular ecomonic lines, but also as
providing social activities for farm people. The
County Farm Bureaus are being organized by the
farmers as rapidly as available Government and State
funds will permit, and the ruling tendency of these
organizations is to bring all groups of the county
together in a larger social union. The man who locates
in a Kansas rural community will find, in the realms
of education, social life, religious activity and agri-
cultural welfare, the Government and State agencies
solidly back him to assure his happiness and success.

Kansas has been a prohibition (bone dry) State
since 1876.



There are thousands of acres in Southwestern Kansas irrigated from flowing artesian wells.
This land is especially adapted to the raising of alfalfa

The bulk of her population is good sturdy American

Of her 1,672,545 people, shown in the census of
1915, 1,557,279 are classed as native bom Americans;
of whom 908,924 were born in the State. Foreign born
population totalling 115,276, from Great Britain,
France, Scandinavia, Germany, Russia (Mennonite),
Spain, Italy and other countries contribute 2,700.

Kansas has only 2.2 per cent of illiterates.

The character of its inhabitants is generally a fair
index as to the desirability of a State or community
from a residence standpoint. Kansas is a good State to
live in.

i he Lindsborg Chorus

George K. Andrews

In Easter Week at Lindsborg, a town of 2,000 peo-
ple, may be heard the very best music of its kind in
the world.

The chorus of five hundred voices sang the
"Messiah" more than one hundred times and is
acclaimed by competent judges, and especially those
vho are also great artists, as being the best oratorio
chorus in the world.

Special trains carry thousands to Lindsborg every
year, and thousands come in automobiles.

This is one of the musical events of America.

R. I. Throckmorton, Professor of Soils, College of Agriculture

The soils of Kansas rank very high in plant food
content. This is due in part to the way in which the
soils have been formed, and in part to the fact that
they have not been subjected to extreme leaching
since their formation, as have the soils of more humid
regions. The native grasses that grew and died on
the plains returned large quantities of organic matter
to the soil. These soils contain sufficient quantities of
plant food to produce large crops for centuries.

The soils of the eastern section of the State are, as a
whole, very productive and well adapted to the grow-
ing of general farm crops.

The soils in the central part of the State are typical
limestone soils, and are well adapted to all kinds of
farm crops. Alfalfa, and other legumes do especially
well because of the high lime content.

The bottom lands along the Kansas and Arkansas
rivers and their tributaries are very productive and
easily handled. The soils of the Arkansas River valley
are underlain at a comparatively shallow depth by
water-bearing sands and gravel from which water can
be secured for irrigation.

South of the Arkansas River and extending from
Colorado eastward, approximately half way across
the State, is a body of soil that has been formed from
the weathering of sands, gravels, silts, and clays, that


»_/ ^ * 1— '

!-"? O T T N 'T

Corn yields in Kansas range from twenty-five to eighty bushels an acre.
This corn averaged seventy bushels

have been carried there from the higher lands farther
west. These soils contain an abundance of plant food
and are especially high in potash. Their producing
power is limited by lack of moisture rather than lack
of plant food. A considerable portion of this area in
the southwestern part of the State is valuable only for
grazing purposes.

The soils of northwestern Kansas have been formed
largely by wind action and consequently are very
uniform. These soils are very deep, of excellent tilth,
and high in plant food content. They are adapted to
all classes of general farm crops as far as climatic
conditions permit. Considerable care must be used in
cultivating these soils, because if they are broken down
to a very fine condition they are subject to blowing.
However, if the surface soil is kept rough there is
little danger of injury from this cause. The lister
should generally be used in preference to the plow in
this section, and the soil should always be cultivated
so that it will remain in a ridged condition.

The sand dune section of Kansas is very limited
and occurs almost entirely as a long, relatively narrow
band, south of the Arkansas River. This area com-
prises shifting sands that are of little value for agri-
cultural purposes. A few local areas produce some
pasture, but, as a whole, these soils cannot be depended
upon to furnish pasture during the hot dry portion
of the year.

Alkali is not abundant in the soils of Kansas, and
there are but a few local areas where it interferes with

normal crop growth. Most of these so-called "alkali
spots" occur in the Arkansas River valley, or as small
seepage areas on the upland. There are many soil
areas in the State that have light -colored surface soils,
called alkali soils, but which do not contain alkali.

C. C. Cunningham, Assistant Professor of Agronomy,
Kansas State Agricultural College

Corn is one of the most important crops grown in
Kansas. It ranks first among all Kansas crops in num-
ber of bushels produced and second in value. During
the ten-year period 1908 to 1917, inclusive, over
113,350,000 bushels of com were produced annually. In
sectionswhere it is well adapted corn is more extensively
grown than any other cereal. It not only produces large
yields of grain, but it is an excellent forage and silage
crop. Corn is a one-man crop. Although considerable
labor is required, it can be so distributed that one
man can readily grow from fifty to two hundred acres,
depending on the locality. Most of the com grown in
Kansas is produced in the eastern half of the State.
In western section it is not as reliable or as profitable
a crop as the grain sorghums (kaffir, milo, etc.).

In western Kansas it is very important to plant well
acclimated varieties only. The longer a variety has
been grown in that part of the State the more likely it
is to give satisfactory results.




Kansas produces corn, grain, sorghums, alfalia and null IttnU m abundance — the prime feeds for profitable pork production.
The newcomer should have enough pork to furnish the winter meat supply.

More cultivation than is necessary to control weeds
and keep the ground in condition to absorb moisture
does not pay in Kansas. It is always important to
keep the ground in condition to absorb readily heavy
dashing rains. Putting the surface soil in fine dusty
condition should be avoided. Such soil does not take
up water readily. Newcomers should consult ex-
perienced farmers and the County Agricultural Agent
as to the best varieties and methods of tillage.



E. F. Ferrin, in Charge of Swine Investigation, Agri. College

The hog is the most profitable animal under average
farm conditions. Corn and hogs are a profitable team
and the lard-type hog is one of the most efficient
means of marketing the corn crop. In sections where
com is not a sure crop, the grain sorghums can be
relied upon and are equal in feeding value. The
experience of late years has shown that by using
forage crops pork can be grown more cheaply than it
can be made in the dry lot. Under conditions where
alfalfa does well, it is the top-notch crop for producing
pork. It comes more nearly being an essential crop in
the making of cheap pork than does com. Sweet
clover, which can be grown in many sections where
alfalfa cannot be profitably produced, is also becoming
a great forage crop.

Wheat shorts is one of the very best feeds for hogs,
at any time from weaning to market. Kansas is one

of the great wheat producing states and much of its
wheat is milled at home. Under normal conditions
shorts is plentiful and reasonable in price. There are
two important advantages which Kansas farmers who
raise hogs have over many of their competitors —
first, the alfalfa crop, which does well in many sections,
and sweet clover, which does well in almost every
county, and second, the by-products of wheat.

There is a growing demand for feeder pigs. Many
hog feeders are looking to the Kansas City market for
these pigs. Arkansas, Texas and Oklahoma have
contributed many thin hogs to be given the corn crib
cross, but Kansas is nearer and can supply more nearly
the kind of hogs feeders want. Regulations governing
the shipment of feeder pigs have recently been modi-
fied so that they can be handled as easily as feeder
steers. This demand makes a splendid market for the
hog raiser, located in the sections of limited rainfall.
Western Kansas hog raisers have a double choice for
marketing. If feeds are available the hogs may be
finished; if not, they may be sold as feeders.

Shorts and alfalfa pasture will keep pigs growing
in thrifty, healthy condition. Kaffir, milo, feterita or
corn may be added and will give larger gains, but
little of these feeds is needed until the fattening stage
begins. A growthy pig, weighing seventy-five pounds
in October, is ready to be sent in as a feeder or to go
into the fattening lot at home. Corn is not necessary
to finish them. The Kansas Experiment Station has



A Kansas sorghum field that produced twenty tons of silage to the acre.
Sorghum silage is equal to corn silage for feeding

found that ground kaffir, milo or feterita will make
practically as good gains and as a rule at a cheaper

C. C. Cunningham, Assistant Professor of Agronomy

Sorghums in western Kansas take the place that
corn occupies in the Com Belt States. They are grown
for grain, forage, and silage. It has only been during
the last decade that sorghums, especially the grain
sorghums, were given proper recognition among the
crops of Kansas.

Reports of the secretary of the State Board of Agri-
culture show that for this State as a whole sorghums
have been more profitable than corn. The difference is
especially marked for central and western Kansas.

Sorghums are resistant to drought and heat, and
produce good yields on soils too poor to grow most
other crops profitably.

Sorghums will frequently remain dormant during
periods of drought that kill corn, and when rain comes
later revive and mature a crop.

Sorghum for silage and forage will out-yield any
other crop grown for this purpose anywhere in the
State, regardless of soil, elevation, or length of the
growing season. This has been verified by numerous
tests. The feeding value of sorghum silage or forage is
approximately the same as corn.

Crops like winter wheat or spring small grains
should not follow sorghums. Better results are secured
if late planted crops, like com, which make their
development during the latter part of the growing
season, follow sorghums. In western Kansas it is often
advisable to summer-till land that has produced a
heavy crop of sorghum, if it is to be sown to wheat.

Sudan grass is the only variety of the hay sorghum
group extensively grown in Kansas. It differs from the
other sorghums in that the stems are fine and not
juicy and the plants stool very abundantly. From
fifty to two hundred stems from one seed are not
uncommon. Sudan grass is superior to millet for hay.
It is very palatable and is greatly relished by live stock.
It has been referred to as "Alfalfa" of the uplands of
western Kansas.

The sorghum family of plants is of great value to
western Kansas. It makes it possible for the live-stock
farmer to provide suitable feed for his live stock, it
provides reliable cash crops, and when properly
utilized it makes it possible for the western Kansas
live-stock farmer to compete successfully with those
of the Eastern States.

Broom Corn, a Great Cash Crop

Kansas and Oklahoma are the two great broom
corn producing states. Wichita is the largest broom
corn market in the world, while Liberal, Kan., is the




Dairying is a very profitable and rapidly growing line of farming. It is especially profitable in the western part of the State.

Kansas raises her own dairy feeds

center of the largest broom corn district in the United
States. This crop is grown in many other localities in

The climate of central and western Kansas is
especially well adapted for the production of a good
quality of broom corn brush. Clear dry weather with
plenty of sunshine usually prevails during the har-
vesting period, thus permitting the harvesting of the
brush without damage from rain or heavy dews.

It is advisable for a beginner to make a thorough
study of the industry, preferably under actual working
conditions, before undertaking to become a broom
corn grower.

It is very important to grow a pure, well-selected,
strain of broom com.


C. W. McCampbell, Prof, Animal Husbandry, Agricultural College

The beef cattle industry divides itself into three
separate lines of endeavor — raising feeders, finishing
cattle produced by some one other than the producer,
and finishing cattle on the same farm where they are
produced. Kansas is splendidly adapted to all three
lines of beef production. In western Kansas conditions
are particularly favorable to the production of rough
feeds and feeder cattle for which there is a ready
demand in the eastern part of the State. The advan-
tages of this section are cheap nutritious grass and
cheap, but efficient, winter feeds in the form of sorghum

crops, alfalfa and straw. The value of these feeds has
been well demonstrated by numerous tests.

Great opportunities exist for the expansion of the
finishing territory by a more general appreciation of
the value of the grain sorghums for fattening cattle.
Tests show that for all practical purposes a pound of
kaffir is equal to a pound of corn for fattening cattle
for market.

Eastern Kansas offers splendid opportunities for
producing and finishing cattle as well as finishing
cattle produced in the range and semi-range sections.
Splendid pastures, large acreages and abundant crops
of clover, alfalfa and corn, with three splendid markets,
Kansas City, Wichita and St. Joseph easily accessible,
make this section one of the most desirable cattle
finishing sections of America.


J. B. Fitch, Professor of Dairying, Agricultural College

That the farmers of Kansas are coming to appre-
ciate the favorable conditions and profit in dairying in
their State is shown by the fact that during the last
ten years more than sixty thousand special-purpose
dairy cattle have been shipped into Kansas from the
older dairy sections in the North and East. The de-
mand for high-grade and pure-bred dairy cattle is
still very great.

Kansas has many conditions favorable for dairying
which are not available in many well-established dairy



A feeding combination common in Kansas. The State has the feed and climatic conditions
to produce beef and pork economically, and abundantly

communities in the north and East. She grows her feeds
at home. Dairymen in the North and East pay market
prices for Kansas alfalfa, plus freight, and yet feed it
to their cows at a profit. To balance this feed they use
silage which Kansas can produce more cheaply than
they can. The Kansas farmer does not rely altogether
on corn. In addition to corn he produces cane and
kaffir for silage and grain. In purchasing concentrated
feeds the Kansas farmer has an advantage, as the
State produces an excess of bran and other mill feeds.
Cottonseed and oil meals can be secured from adjoin-
ing states.

Feeding tests and results obtained by dairy farmers
have shown that alfalfa hay and corn, or sorghum
silage, makes the best and cheapest combination of
feeds for dairy cattle. The farmers of Kansas are
fortunate in that these feeds can be produced abun-
dantly in the State.

The climate, with its long growing season and
short winters, is well adapted for dairying. Expen-
sive farm buildings are not necessary. The dairy
industry is rapidly growing in the western part of the
State, where the quick returns especially appeal to the
man with small means.

The type of cow being milked is constantly being
improved by the use of pure-bred dairy bulls and better
methods of selection.

The bulk of the State's butter fat and milk is pro-
duced by the small farmer who has three or more

cows. There are over two thousand cream stations in
the State which buy for about sixty large creameries
furnishing a ready market for butter fat. The farmer
who sells butter fat uses his skim milk to great advan-
tage as a feed for poultry and pigs. There are seven
condenseries which buy whole milk and there is a
great demand for whole milk near the larger towns and

J. B. Fitch, Professor of Dairying

The silo is fast becoming a necessity to the live-
stock farmer in Kansas. It is only within recent years
that farmers have discovered that the sorghums make
excellent silage. Since the use of sorghums for silage
has become extensive, there has been a much greater
demand for silos. Farmers in the western part of the
State, especially, have learned that the silo is the best
possible insurance.

They have found that in this section a silo can be
had at a very small expense. The pit silo — which is
becoming very popular in the drier sections of the
State — can be built without expert labor, and at an
actual cash outlay of not to exceed 25 cents per ton
capacity, for the cement and hoisting apparatus. It is
very easily constructed and entirely satisfactory. It
requires no expensive machinery for filling, and can
be filled with a small outlay of labor cost. The pit
silo is practical for a man with a few head of live stock.




This pile of wheat contains three hundred carloads. Kansas leads all other states in wheat production.
The yields range from ten to fifty bushels an acre

By its use 100% of the crop produced can be saved for
feeding. The flow of milk from dairy cows can often be
increased more than 30% by the use of silage. The
grain ration can be reduced at least one-fifth. The
value of the forage crop produced can be doubled.
The fact that silage properly stored can be kept indefi-
nitely makes it possible to keep on hand a surplus of
feed for future use. The man who milks cows or feeds
cattle cannot afford to be without a silo. Every man
who plans to move to western Kansas should con-
sider the pit silo carefully. It is one of the great
advantages of western Kansas. Pit silos will be found
in considerable numbers in every dry-land county.
Newcomers will do well to visit farmers who have
these silos, and plan to put one down the first season
for their own use if possible. The county agricultural
agent will be glad to assist newcomers with silo prob-

Profit in RaUinsr and Feedins: Sheep and Lambs

A. M. Patterson, Assistant Professor of Animal Husbandry,
Kansas State Agricultural College

Kansas, with its dry open winters, abundance of
roughage and splendid markets, is well adapted to
sheep and wool production. The average farm would
be much benefited by a flock of sheep, which could
turn waste products into cash, thus saving feeds of
commercial value and at the same time increasing the
fertility of the soil.

Sheep produce two crops annually, wool in the

spring and lambs in the fall. At present prices the
income from the wool will almost pay for the ewe's
keep. The value of sheep as soil improvers should not
be overlooked. There is no class of live stock better
adapted to building up the soil than sheep.

Sheep are noted as weed exterminators. Not only
will sheep rid the fields of weeds, but will turn them
into a marketable product and return the fertility of
the soil to the land in the form of manure. Rape and
Sudan grass, sown in waste places for pasturing sheep,
improve the appearance of the farm and are the means
of making extra profits. Road sides, lanes and fence
corners may also be kept clean and tidy by the use of
a flock of sheep.

Whether grade or pure-bred sheep are to be raised
depends upon the knowledge the beginner has of the
business. For one who has had no experience it is best
to buy good grade western ewes and a pure-bred ram.
After obtaining some experience, the pure-breds may
be purchased. Careful study of market conditions
should be made in order to make the greatest profits.
There are great opportunities in western Kansas for
the production of feeder sheep for which there is a
constantly growing demand in the eastern part of the
State. Kansas City is a great distributing market for

S. C. Salmon, Professor of Crops, Agricultural College

Kansas leads the world in the quantity and quality
of the wheat she produces. No state in the United



A bunch of well-bred brood mares.. Rich Hmestone pastures and excellent alfalfa make strong-boned, rugged colts.
There are more than three thousand pure-bred draft stallions in the State

States, and no political subdivision of a similar size in
the world, produces more wheat on the average.

Nearly eleven million acres of wheat, the largest

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Online LibraryUnited States Railroad AdministrationKansas .. → online text (page 3 of 4)