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ever put out by a single state, was sown in Kansas in
the Fall of 1918. The pre-war acreage was nearly eight
million acres. This is too much wheat for Kansas to
grow on the average in proportion to the live stock and
the acreage of other crops. The aim of Kansas farmers
for the future should be not more acres of wheat, but
more wheat on fewer acres. The new or prospective
settler in the wheat belt will do well to keep these
facts in mind and remember that his chances of grow-
ing good crops of wheat will be increased — and he will
continue to grow wheat longer — if he invests a part of
his capital in live stock and grows sorghum crops for
feed rather than depend on wheat alone.

Most of the Kansas wheat crop is grown in the
central part of the State. Wheat does well in eastern
Kansas, but so many other crops give profitable yields
that wheat plays a relatively unimportant role in the
agriculture of this area.

In extreme western Kansas, wheat is somewhat
uncertain because of severe and protracted droughts.
In favorable seasons excellent yields are obtained.
Considering the low price of western Kansas lands the
wheat grower often makes a greater profit on his
investment than the eastern farmer, even though he
does not raise a crop every year. Better methods of



tillage are constantly reducing the element of chance.
However, experienced farmers place even more depend-
ence on live stock and the growing of feed crops in this
part of the State than in the eastern.

Probably nine-tenths of the Kansas crop is hard
winter wheat.

A small amount of spring wheat is sown in north-
western Kansas. Winter wheat almost invariably
gives better yields, where it comes through the winter
in good condition.

The newcomer should study the methods of the
most successful farmers and get in touch with the
County Agricultural Agent before putting in his crop.



F. W. Bell, Associate Professor of Animal Husbandry,
Kansas State Agricultural College

Kansas is one of the leading horse and mule pro-
ducing states. The State is steadily improving its work
stock in size and quality, and is producing the kind of
horses that meet the demands for efficiency in harness.
There are more than 3,000 pure-bred draft stallions
standing for public service in Kansas. As the result of
the use of such sires, there is a good supply of big draft
mares for farm work. The colts produced by these
mares, when properly grown out and developed, supply
the demand for the best work horses and mules. The
rich limestone pastures and an abundance of alfalfa



28



S. RATI ROAD ADMINISTRATION'




A farm flock will supply the table and help to reduce living expenses. Surplus poultry products find a ready market
and will furnish an immediate cash income. Turkeys are especially profitable in Kansas



aid greatly in the development of rugged colts, with
wearing qualities in bone and feet.

Good draft mares furnish the most satisfactory and
economical power for Kansas farms. Such mares take
care of the farm work at any and all seasons of the
year, and return an additional profit in the colts they
raise. If these colts are sired by good pure-bred draft
stallions they soon reach a size where they can be put
into the harness and if they are not needed on the farm
they will bring a good price on the market. There is
little demand for the small, rough, poorly developed
stuff that results from the use of scrub sires on small
mares. ' :

Under the benefits of the State stallion license law
the Kansas farmer can choose the right kind of stallion
to which to breed his mares, since every stallion is
licensed as being either a pure-bred, grade or scrub.

The importance of breeding to high-class stallions
cannot be overestimated. A good stallion will add
many dollars to the market value of a colt, and any
extra trouble or time the farmer may take in getting
his mares to a good stallion will be weir spent.

i'ouitry

W. A. Lippincott, Professor, Poultry Husbandry,
Kansas State Agricultural College

Kansas is a State of farm poultry rather than of
specialized poultry farms. The fact that it is among
the first ten states in Xhe Union in the total income



received from poultry products, coupled with the fact
that the poultry packing industry has reached a
development ahead of that of any other state, indicates
that Kansas conditions are favorable for poultry pro-
duction, and that poultry keeping fits in with the di-
versified agriculture practiced.

Poultry products are almost exclusively sold as
staples and there is scarcely a trading point within the
State where a price is not quoted every business day
of the year, nor a section in the State where a reason-
ably well-cared-for general farm flock will not give a
highly satisfactory return on the investment. The
requirements for success are a good poultry house,
rational feeding, and the use of male breeders from
high-producing families.

There are opportunities for poultry breeders who
may develop high laying families of the breeds popular
on general farms. The demand for cockerels from high
laying families at present is far beyond the supply.

Every Kansas farm should have poultry. The
climate is excellently adapted to its production. Feeds
for poultry are produced in abundance. Kaffir, which
does exceptionally well in the western part of the
State, forms the basis of many prepared commercial
poultry feeds.

The farm flock is a very important source of
immediate cash income. Eggs are readily saleable and
the production of eggs should be planned for from the
beginning, not only for table use, but also for market.



29



■: A S







"^'M:




Alfalfa yields from two to seven tons an acre and the highest yields are secured under irrigation.
Kansas is one of the leading alfalfa states in the Union



Turkeys do especially well in western Kansas.
The importance of a small flock of poultry for the
newcomer cannot be overestimated.

Alfalf
S. C. Salmon and C. C. Cunningham

Alfalfa is the most valuable forage crop grown in
Kansas. It is also one of the most important of all
crops when its relation to the live-stock industry of the
State and to the maintenance of soil fertility is con-
sidered. No other crop is grown which is so certain to
return a profit — or which can be produced more
cheaply in proportion to its value. While the total
value is exceeded by wheat and corn, no other farm
crop produces a greater net profit per acre. Good
alfalfa hay has never been excelled as a feed for dairy
cows and growing Hve stock.

Kansas is one of the leading states in the growing of
alfalfa. It is doubtful if there can be found another
area of equal size so well suited to its growth. The
deep fertile soil, well supplied with lime and the min-
eral elements of plant food, and the generally favorable
climate characteristic of central Kansas, would be
hard to duplicate. As a matter of fact, alfalfa can be
grown in all parts of the State, but is not generally
profitable on the uplands of western Kansas, where the
annual rainfall is less than twenty-five inches. Pro-
duction of seed in the western part of the State has
proven especially profitable, and is a growing indus-



try. The dry climate makes plump seed of excellent
germinating power.

It is not difficult to secure a good stand of alfalfa.
The newcomer should get acquainted with the experi-
enced and successful farmers of his community and
study their methods. The County Agricultural Agent
will gladly aid settlers in getting the best kind of seed
and in making a start with alfalfa. Kansas owes much
to alfalfa, and newcomers will do well to look carefully
into the value of this crop.

iiweet Clove;

C. C. Cunningham, Assistant Professor of Agronomy

Sweet clover is a valuable crop in the State. It is
extensively grown for hay, pasture, and soil improve-
ment, and its use for these purposes is rapidly increas-
ing. It is also a splendid honey plant.

The common white blossom sweet clover is the
variety most largely grown. The yellow blossom kind
is also grown, but does not yield as well as the white
sweet clover.

Sweet clover is adapted to all the soils of the State,
except those which are acid or poorly drained. It
grows well on sandy creek and river bottoms in west-
ern Kansas and on some infertile soils in eastern
Kansas where alfalfa is not generally successful, and in
other regions where alfalfa is an important crop. As a
rule, alfalfa is a better hay crop where it can be success-
fully grown, but not so good for pasture and soil



30



U.S. RAILROAD /



ST RAT I ON




Bees are profitable and they should have a place on every farm.
Large acreages of alfalfa and sweet clover furnish excellent bee pasturage



improvement. Sweet clover rarely causes bloat when
used for pasture.

The second season sweet clover can be pastured
until some time in June and then left for a seed crop.
The seed sells for about the same price as alfalfa seed
and the yields are usually heavier.

The greatest value of sweet clover is for pasture
and soil improvement. All forms of live stock eat it
readily when they become accustomed to it.



Professor M. F. Aheam, Kansas State Agricultural College

Kansas has the soil and rainfall in the eastern part
of the State to produce three, and even four, hundred
bushels of potatoes per acre with proper cultural
methods; and from seventy-five bushels up in the
western part of the State.

The Kansas potato crop is a money maker as the
crop matures after the southern potatoes are off the
market and before the northern supply is ready for the
table. Add to this, good transportation facilities and
it is easy to figure that potato raising is bound to be a
profitable industry especially along the river bottoms.
Every farmer and most city gardeners will be well
repaid for time and labor spent in growing enough
"spuds" to supply their needs.

Potatoes are deserving of a more important place
in the list of Kansas crops and there is a bright future
in store for this industry in the State.



Early Ohio and Irish Cobbler are the two leading
varieties, but Bliss Triumph is a splendid early variety.



C. C. Cunningham, Assistant Professor of Agronomy
Oats and barley are minor crops in Kansas. The
former crop is grown quite extensively in eastern
Kansas while most of the barley is grown in the north-
western part of the State. Oats are not adapted to
western Kansas and rarely give satisfactory yields.
Barley is a better crop to grow in this part of the State
and should usually be preferred to oats. It rarely
proves profitable in southwestern Kansas.



Dr. J. H. Merrill, State Apiarist, Agricultural College

The possibilities for profit in keeping bees
vary according to the location. Where alfalfa and
sweet clover are extensively grown, bee keeping is
very profitable. In every part of the State there are
sufficient honey plants to support bees with profit.
There is little expense required over the original cost.

Bees are not hard to handle, and some knowledge
and experience will enable any farmer to successfully
manage bees, so that he can produce sufficient honey
for his own table, and probably have a surplus for
market. There is a place for bees on every farm. The
newcomer in the State would do well to look into the
possibility of honey production.



31



THE STATE BOUNTIFUL




A home-made reservoir, easily and cheaply filled by means of a windmill, will furnish plenty of water
to irrigate the garden and supply the household and live stock



Albert Dickens, Professor of Horticulture, Agri. Col,

Trees anchor settlers to the soil. The home that
has no garden, no orchard, no shade trees, is often for
sale. Trees are an asset that increase the attractiveness
and the value of the farm. They can be grown success-
fully in every part of Kansas and no man should plan
on establishing a home without trees surrounding it.
A little care and attention is all that is needed to grow
trees successfully in the western part of the State.

The preparation of the land for tree planting should
begin the year before the trees are planted and should
be carefully cultivated to keep out the weeds and
store moisture in the soil before planting is done.

A wind break is especially important and desirable
in western Kansas, as it tends to reduce evaporation,
thus maintaining the moisture content in the soil,
protecting and making possible greater crop produc-
tion. It is also a very valuable protection for live
stock during the winter months. There are many
varieties of trees that do well. Almost all varieties
that are grown in the temperate zone are satis-
factory. In the western part of the State, on the
uplands, the elm, hackberry, locust, ash, mulberry,
red bud, russian olive, osage orange and coffee bean
are long-lived and hardy.

Quicker growing trees such as the cottonwood, pop-
lar, soft maple, or willow may be planted for a quick



growth, to be supplemented later by the more hardy
varieties. The evergreens also do well, especially red
cedar, which is native to the State and is the most
hardy of all the evergreens. Once well established
it will withstand almost any hardship.



Pump I



W*<tt<»rn Kansas



Geo. S. Knapp, Superintendent, Garden City Exp. Sta.

Western Kansas has more than a million acres that
can be irrigated by pumping. Probably not more than
forty thousand acres of this area are now under irri-
gation, but the irrigated acreage is increasing rapidly.
Water for some of this land can be pumped from
rivers and creeks, but for the most part it will have to
be pumped from wells.

Underlying this area, in strata of sand and gravel
at depths of from ten to thirty feet in the valleys and
thirty to one hundred feet or more on the higher
land, is an abundant supply of water. Wells are made
by sinking perforated casings into these water-bearing
strata, often going to a considerable depth through a
number of strata to get wells of large capacity. By
this means it is possible to get wells with a capacity
large enough to irrigate a half section or more of land.
However, most of the existing pumping plants irrigate
120 acres or less.

Practically all farm crops adapted to the climatic
conditions of western Kansas do well under irrigation.



32



U. S. RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION




There is a place on every farm for a flock of sheep to convert waste into cash. You will find great opportunities
in the western part of the State for the production of feeder lambs which eastern feeders demand



Alfalfa yields from four to six tons per acre under
irrigation. Milo and kaffir, irrigated, will yield from
forty to eighty bushels per acre. Sugar beets cannot
be raised without irrigation, but produce profitable
yields when properly irrigated.

A plant sufficient to irrigate 160 acres will cost
from $2,000 to $6,000, depending upon the depth to
water. The cost of pumping can be greatly reduced by
using a smaller pump in connection with a storage
reservoir. This method is carried out quite success-
fully by the Garden City Experiment Station, with
a pump discharging about seven hundred gallons per
minute. This small plant, if it were in operation one-
half of the time, from the first of April to the last of
September, would pump water enough to cover 160
acres nearly twenty-four inches deep.

The cost of pumping an acre-foot of water varies
from $1.25 to $6.00 or more, depending upon con-
ditions. This does not include labor.

At the Experiment Station at Garden City it
requires, under normal conditions, about one-half acre-
foot of water per acre to produce a ton of alfalfa hay.

Alfalfa and the sorghum crops, both grain and
forage sorghums, are the most profitable crops grown
under irrigation in the western part of the State. Where
such crops are properly tended and receive sufficient
irrigation water, they will produce good returns on
much of the higher upland where the cost of pumping
is relatively high.



There is no need for the new irrigator to experiment
when installing a pumping plant. Experience, based
on the successes and failures of the past, has developed
successful types of well casing, reliable tools and
machinery for putting in wells, and sufficient machinery
for pumping under various conditions.

iruck Market anil i

George K. Andrews, Missouri Pacific R. R.

No better place can be found than the Arkansas
and Kaw valleys for truck and market gardening.
Land adjacent to, and between Wichita and Hutchin-
son and Topeka and Kansas City can be had for
$150 to $250 an acre, in five and ten acre tracts and
of the kind of soil suitable for the purpose. The Arkan-
sas Valley is underlaid by water in abundance at a
depth of eight to fourteen feet. Irrigation is not nec-
essary in the Kaw Valley. A five-acre farm can be
bought and equipped with Skinner overhead irrigation
plant and gasoline engine at a cost of under two thou-
sand dollars. An earth-baked reservoir can be used for
surface irrigation and filled by windmill or engine and
pump. Crops come in just following the Texas and
southern crops and just ahead of the northern crops,
thus affording a sure market. Carload shipments are
in demand from both northern and southern states.

Two crops a season can be raised and there are more
truck and market crops consumed in Kansas alone
than are now raised there.



33



AS



■-* .-J



TATE BOUNTIFUL




Cum laiiLb lii.-ni tiiiiong Kansas crops in Lotal iiuiiiLcr of bushels produced and second in value:
a big factor in fier live-stock production



Every farm should have a home garden. There is
no part of the State of Kansas that cannot profitably
produce the usual garden crops. The growing of a
garden will do much to reduce the cost of living and
the newcomer should plan on having a garden as soon
as possible. But little expense is required and the
returns are worth many times the original cost. Every
effort should be made to reduce the living cost the
first year. A garden, along with chickens and a few
cows and some pigs, will practically keep the family.

Fr.iit For H, >.,.-. r...

Albert Dickens, Professor of Horticulture, Agricultural Col.

No farm home is complete without a family orchard
sufficient in size to provide fruit for the use of the
family. The home orchard adds much to the value of
the farm. But little experience in fruit growing is
necessary to produce sufficient amount for home use.
There is no part of Kansas that will not produce a good
home orchard. In the eastern and central parts of the
State there are many large commercial orchards.

In the western part of the State the ground should
be well cultivated, and the weeds kept out, and the
moisture stored before the trees are set out. The trees
should be carefully cultivated each season in order to
keep them well supplied with moisture.

Trees should not be set too close together, especially
in the western part of the State. A very common



mistake is to plant too many trees per acre. Garden
crops may be grown between the trees, but it is not
well to attempt to produce too much from the dry-
land orchard. It must be remembered that moisture is
the limiting factor in production, in the western part
of the State, and every care should be taken to preserve
as much moisture as possible for tree growth. Where
practical, a windmill and small reservoir for irrigation
will aid greatly.

Cherries and plums are especially hardy and do
well in all sections. There are many varieties of
apples that do well. Early varieties perhaps are
more successful, as a whole, than the winter varieties.
Early Harvest, Red Astrachan, Duchess, Copper's
Early, and Wealthy apples do well in nearly all parts.
Winesap is the most popular winter variety. Grimes
Golden and Jonathans do well. The York Imperial,
Rome Beauty, Stayman Winesap and Delicious are
meeting with favor.



..A ^t.



^r K.



Alexander Jackson

As a rule the majority of people residing east of the
Missouri River labor under the impression that
Kansas is a flat, treeless country, lacking in rivers or
streams of any importance.



34



RATTROAD ADMINISTRATION




Grain sorghums and healthy children are sure crops in Kansas. The value of the grain sorghums was more than $61 ,000.000 in 1918.

During 1918.403.319 pupils attended the public schools



In riding through or visiting the State for the first
time, one of the greatest surprises is to find many
important and beautiful rivers and picturesque streams,
well lined with trees, adding beauty to the landscape.

The principal rivers traversing the State are the
Arkansas, Big Blue, Chikaskia, Cimarron, Elk, Kansas,
Missouri, Osage, Republican, Saline, Smoky Hill,
Solomon and thirty other rivers, named in any com-
mercial atlas.

In addition to the above, there are two hundred and
sixty smaller streams designated and featured on the
atlas as "creeks."

This will give some idea as to the amount of
bottom land especially adapted to the raising of
alfalfa.



W. C. Markham, Secretary, Kansas Highway Commission

The Federal Government has allotted almost $8,-

000,000 to be spent in road construction in Kansas

during the next thirty months. This sum is tenth from

the top of the amounts given to the forty -eight states.

The people in Kansas now realize that better roads
mean better marketing facilities and improved social
life.



The next five years will see wonderful development
in the great natural resources of the State. A perfected
road transportation system is at hand.



IN THE



YOUR National Parks are a vast region of peaks, can-
yons, glaciers, geysers, big trees, volcanoes, pre-
historic ruins and other natural scenic wonders.

Visit them this summer — for fishing, mountain climb-
ing and "roughing it."

Ask for descriptive illustrated booklet of the National
Park or National Monument you are specially in-
terested in — here is the list: Crater Lake, Ore.;
Glacier, Mont.; Grand Canyon, Ariz.; Hawaii: Hot
Springs, Ark.; Mesa Verde, Colo.; Mt. Rainier,
Wash.; Pertrified Forest, Ariz.; Rocky Mountain,
Colo.; Sequoia, Ca!.; Yellowstone, Wyo.; Yosemite,
Cal. and Zion, Utah.

Address

Travel Bureau, U. S. Railroad Administration

646 Transportation Bldg., Chicago, 111., or

143 Liberty St., New York City, or

602 Healey Bldg., Atlanta, Ga.



35




Modern method of breaking sod. The soils of Kansas are very fertile and easily handled. Note the excellent tilth

ISSUED BY

United States Railroad Administration
AGRICULTURAL SECTION

J. L. EDWARDS, Manager

WASHINGTON, D. C.

FOR THE USE OF ALL RAILROADS
IN THE STATE OF KANSAS

For Further Information, address




POOLE BROS. CHICAGO




LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

iiiiiimi



003 006 114 7





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Online LibraryUnited States Railroad AdministrationKansas .. → online text (page 4 of 4)