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„, %la ,

O PRINCETON, N. J. ">



Presented by Mr. Samuel Agnew of Philadelphia, Pa.



Division J— ' \_-/ f^»-<-
Section • • i J(
Number



Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

Princeton Theological Seminary Library



http://www.archive.org/details/menthingsasisaOOmurr



MEN AND THUGS



AS



I SAW THEM IN EUROPE.



BY KIRWAN.



y



fly £r X. ^^W*-



NEW YORK:
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHER

329 &. 831 PEARL STREET,
FRANKLIN SQUARE.

1853.



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand
eight hundred and fifty-three, by

Harper & Brothers,

in the Clerk's Oflice of the District Court of the Southern District
of New York.



TO



HIS OWN PEOPLE,



ENDEARED TO HIM BY A MINISTRY OF TWENTY YEARS,
THIS MEMORIAL OF HIS FOREIGN TRAVEL



% Befittfe)



BY THEIR PASTOR.



PREFACE.



"What, another book of sketches of men and things
in Europe ! Yes, verily, another book ! But how came
you to write it ? I will tell you. First, because many
of my friends seemed determined that I should write it.
Secondly, because I had collected matter enough for a
volume during my rambles. Thirdly, I have as good
a right to maintain the truth of the proverb, that " of
making books there is no end," as any body else.
Fourthly, because I saw things with my own eyes,
and desired to tell about them in my own way. Fifth-
ly, because I believe I have- friends and readers enough
to exhaust at least one edition, who are desirous to
know who and what I saw, and what I think about
them ; and I have a wish to gratify them. And,
lastly, because I thought I could make some revelations
as to religion, morals, and men, that may be of some
use to my generation. If these reasons are not satis-
factory, the reader has my hearty consent to lay down
this volume unread. The loss may be as much his as
mine.

I describe things as I saw them ; and if my pictures
are not true, it is because I am no painter. I speak of
men and things according to my own impressions ; who
would desire me to speak according to theirs ? Let
all such write their own books. Though I may be
judged as having spoken with undue severity as to



VI PREFACE.

some things in the following pages, I hope I have spo-
ken as a Christian ; and as an American citizen, who
feels that my adopted, beloved country has nothing to
learn but evil from the religion, the habits, the morals,
the politics, and especially the priests of the Continent
of Europe. There are some things which require a
whip of scorpions, and they should have it.

I say but little about Ireland, as I indulge the hope
of giving a little volume to the public on Ireland and
the Irish, for the benefit of its swarming emigrants to
this land. But whether I can arrange my materials,
and when, are very uncertain — perhaps soon, perhaps
never.

I often allude in these pages to my traveling com-
panion. He was Dr. George R. Chetwood, my towns-
man and friend ; eminent for his professional skill and
sterling virtues ; and who will testify that I have taken
no traveler's license with the men, scenes, things, and
circumstances which I describe.

I send this volume forth after its predecessor with
the prayer to (rod that all the good seed it contains
may be widely scattered and permanently fruitful.

Kirwan.
New York, August, 1853.



CONTENTS,



CHAPTER I.
The Voyage opens. — Our Passengers. — A Voyage a Voyage. — A Pic-
ture. — Death on Board.— Burial at Sea. — An Ocean Grave unde-
sirable Page 9

CHAPTER II.
First Sight of Land — Voyage Ended. — Liverpool. — Dr. Raffles. —
Souls from Purgatory. — Sabbath in Liverpool. — First Sermon in
Britain.— Dr. Hugh M'Neil.— Chat with a Lady 15

CHAPTER III.
Ride from Liverpool to London. — Chat in the Cars. — London. — Sam-
uel Gurney. — Reform in Ireland. — Rev. Mr. Jowett. — John Hen-
derson. — Dr. Achilli. — Caution as to Priests 21

CHAPTER IV.
Exeter Hall.— Meeting of the British and Foreign Bible Society. —
Lord Ashley. — Marquis of Cholmondeley. — Earl of Harrowby. —
Sir Robert H. Ingles. — Dr. Duff". — Salt among the Aristocracy. Sr7

CHAPTER V.
St. Paul's. — The Tower.— The Thames. — Westminster Abbey.—
Stone of Destiny. — Regent's Square Church. — Dr. Hamilton. — St.
James's. — Westminster. — Bishop Wilberforce 33

CHAPTER VI.
Mr. Lawrence. — Parliament House. — House of Lords. — Lord Chan-
cellor. — Duke of Argyle. — Wee Willie Skinner. — Lord Grey. —
Bishop Wilberforce. — Tout ensemble. — Law Lords. — Sir Culling
Eardley . — Badinage 38

CHAPTER VII.
London to Dover. — Dover. — A Voyage to Calais. — Official Imposi-
tion. — Landing in France. — A true Picture.— Ride from Calais to
Paris. — The Country. — Wind-mills.— People. — A Dissertation on
Vanes 43



11 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VIII.
Paris. — Garden of the Tuileries : its Beauty. — Night Walk.— Palais
Royal : its Gardens. — Arbre de Cracovie. — Jardin des Plantes. —
Pere la Chaise : its Epitaphs Page 48

CHAPTER IX.
Notre Dame. — The Power of the Keys. — A Shaving Shop in a Cathe-
dral. — Hotel Dieu. — A Nun in a Circle. — Vincennes. — A Mistake.
—Blame divided.— The Donjon.— Salle de la Question.— Justice
will come 53

CHAPTER X.
Versailles. — The Palace. — Picture Gallery. — Chapel. — Theatre. —
Banqueting Room. — Room of Louis XIV. — Room of Death.— Room
where was signed the Revocation of the Edict of Nantz. — The Bal-
cony. — The Gardens. — Whence the Revenues. — Causes of the
Revolution. — Bourbon Dynasty. — Moral Lessons of Versailles. 58

CHAPTER XI.
Bastile. — Lettres de Cachet.— Man of Iron Mask. — Column of July. —
Emeute of 1848 — Place de la Concord. — Obelisk of Luxor. —
Guillotine.— January 21st and October 16th, 1793.— National As-
sembly Hall. — Confusion. — Republicanism dishonored 64

CHAPTER XII.
Sabbath in Paris.— Madeleine. — Toupet. — The Interior. — Le Suisse.
— Appearance and Duties. — A Funeral. — A young Couple at Mass.
— Sights Seen. — High Mass. — Bad Influence of Popery on Paris. 70

CHAPTER XIII.
A pleasant Meeting in the Madeleine.— Wesleyan Chapel.— The Serv-
ice. — <• Clothes." — Minister for Paris. — Prayer-meeting. — Sabbath
Evening Walk. — Sights seen. — Reasons for French Character. —
The Riddle solved.— A Look at St. Germain.— A Prayer 75

CHAPTER XIV.
Exit from Paris. — A Diligence. — Beaune. — Chalons. — Abelard and
Heloise. — Face of the Country. — French Villages. — The Peasant-
ry.— The Saone.— Ladies' Dress.— Old Habits retained.— Ameri-
can Peculiarity. — A Digression 82

CHAPTER XV.
The Saone.— Lyons : its Appearance— its History.— Peter de Vaud.
—Revolutionary Scenes.— Precy.— Couthon.— Collot d'Herbois.—



CONTENTS. Ill

Horrid Murders by Jacobins. — Festoons of Human Limbs. — Anec-
dote of Dr. Nesbit. — Fouehe. — Death an eternal Sleep. — The Mob,
the most fearful of all Governments Page 88

CHAPTER XVI.
Lyons. — Down the Rhine : its Scenery. — Nuns : their Appearance. —
An Inference. — A Contrast. — A startling Incident. — Avignon. —
Split in the Popedom : its Causes. — The Popes of Avignon : their
Palace. — The butcher Jourdan. — The Cathedral. — The Tarpaean
Rock. — The Inquisition.— The Museum. — Old Mortality. — A Con-
versation with Mine Host. — Petrarch and Laura 94

CHAPTER XVII.
Avignon to Marseilles. — Mixed People. — The City. — The Sea. — Po-
lite Captain. — Marseillaise Hymn : its History. — Dietrick's Fate. —
De Lisle. — Pensioned by Louis Philippe. — The Hymn itself.. 100

CHAPTER XVIII.
Sail to Leghorn. — A Day in its Bay. — Robbing by Passports. — Leg-
horn from the Sea. — Corsica. — Napoleon. — A great Man a great
Need. — Civita Vecchia : its Fortress. — Placard on Notre Dame. —
Civita Vecchia from the Sea. — Ostia. — Bay of Naples. — Landing
in Italy 107

CHAPTER XIX.

Naples. — Carthusian Monks. — The entire View. — Vesuvius. — Her-
culaneum. — Pompeii. — Cemetery. — The Morals of the People. —
Naples thoroughly Popish. — Its Beggars. — Its Priests. — Its Igno-
rance. — Its Superstitions. — Its Wickedness. — Its awful Despotism.
— Ferdinand the " Model King." — The blessings of Popery .. 113

CHAPTER XX.
The Effect of a Feast-day. — San Carlos. — Mixture. — Capua. — Gaeta :
its Sights. — The Three Taverns. — First Sight of Rome. — Italy, from
Naples to Rome. — The Face of the Country. — The People. — Wom-
an degraded. — Emblems of Superstition every where. — Mass in a
Village. — Light at Gaeta. — Contrast. — Glorious Associations. —
Door of Hope 121

CHAPTER XXI.

Dreams realized. — Rome from the Tower of the Capitoline. — The

Tiber. — The Seven Hills. — The Magnificent vanishes. — The Ruins.

— Bathos. — The Corso : its Appearance. — Afternoon Walk. — Rome

in June. — A Cause for Thankfulness 127



IV CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXII.
Object stated. — Saint Peter's. — From Top to Bottom. — Chat in the
Basement. — Its Grandeur and Amplitude. — Statue of St. Peter. —
Its Worship disgusting. — Mass there. — A disappointed Confessor.
— The Scene of the Rod. — The Sublime and Ridiculous. — The
Confessional, or Tomb of St. Peter. — Poor Ives's Emblems of Of-
fice.— The Wafer taken.— A Farce Page 133

CHAPTER XXIII.
Sistine. — Fresco of the Judgment. — Entrance of Cardinals. — En-
trance of the Pope. — Salutation of the Pope. — His Appearance. —
Anecdote of Dr. Miller. — Questions. — Cardinals. — Antonelli. — How
to modify our Opinions and Ideas. — How absurd appear the Claims
of Popery in the Sistine 139

CHAPTER XXIV.
Prodigies of Roman History. — Rome yet a City of Prodigies. — Juggle
of St. Januarius. — Holy House of Loretto. — Bambino. — Scala
Sancta. — Maria Maggiore. — Statue of Mary at St. Agostine. — Holy
Chain in St. Peter's, in Vinculo. — Well in St. Maria, in Via Lata. —
Prayer in the Church of St. Gregory. — Popery a prodigious False-
hood 145

CHAPTER XXV.
Rome to be studied. — Its numerous Churches. — Their Riches of Art
and Endowment. — Numerous Priests and Nuns. — Poverty of the
People. — Abounding Beggars. — Way to shake them off. — Absence
of Youth. — The People in Fear. — Despotism, through the Confes-
sional. — Its Morals. — No Religion there. — The Voice of Rome to
the Nations. — Its History not yet ended 152

CHAPTER XXVI.
Leaving Rome. — A Procession of the Host. — The Aurelian Way. —
Civita Vecchia. — Genoa from the Sea. — The City. — Columbus. —
Political History. — Duomo. — Head of John the Baptist. — Sacro Ca-
tino. — Santa Maria. — An Evening Ramble. — Scenes in the Streets.
— Female Dress. — Tastes differ 159

CHAPTER XXVII.
Departure from Genoa. — A Procession. — The Goddess of the City.— .
Primitive Work. — Ascent of the Apennines. — Descent. — Degraded
Woman. — Novi. — Great Valley, and fertile. — Alessandria. — Ma-
rengo : its Battle. — Dessaix. — Austria. — Haynau an Incarnation of
Austria. — Enter Turin. — An Incident 165



CONTENTS. V

CHAPTER XXVIII.
Turin. — Beautiful for Situation. — No Antiquities. — Growing rapidly.
— Charles Albert deceived. — His Death. — Room in the Palace. —
Spirit of the present King. — Opposed by the Priests. — Legislature
of Turin. — Senate and House. — Our Charge at Turin. — Santo Su-
dario. — "Worship with the Waldenses : their Chapel. — A Royal Peo-
ple : their Doctrines and Order. — Turin a strong Point from which
to act on Italy Page 171

CHAPTER XXIX.
Departure from Turin. — Ascent of the Alps. — Changes in Vegetation.
— A Stream from the Clouds. — Going down the Alps. — Our Fel-
low-travelers : their Testimony as to Rome. — Chambery. — Les
Charmettes. — Priests abound. — Holy Hill. — Praying in a Hurry. —
To Geneva. — First View. — Obvious Difference. — Friends in a far
Country 178

CHAPTER XXX.
Geneva: its Attractions. — Miniature of Mont Blanc. — Missionary
Anniversary. — The Oratoire. — A Drive up the Lake. — Ferney. —
Voltaire. — Magnificent View. — A Soiree. — Dr. Malan. — D'Au-
bigne. — Gaussen. — La Harpe. — St. George. — Talk through an In-
terpreter. — Polite Interchange. — Love-feasts 185

CHAPTER XXXI.
For Chamouny. — Enter Sardinia. — Obvious Change. — Fete at Bonne-
ville. — The Ravine. — Fall d'Arpenaz. — Bridge at St. Martin's:
its View. — Selling Echoes. — Ascent of Montanvert. — Mer de
Glace. — Cracks in the Ice. — View from the Cottage. — Snow-ball-
ing. — Salanche. — Return to Geneva 191

CHAPTER XXXII.
Geneva : its Influence. — Calvin : his System. — Knox. — Sunday in
Geneva. — The Market-place. — St. Peter's. — Gaussen in the Ora-
toire. — Cathedral Services. — Dr. Malan's Chapel. — An Evening
with his Family. — Sabbath Desecration. — Importance of rightly
sanctifying the Sabbath. — To whom we owe its true Keeping. 197

CHAPTER XXXIII.
Up Lake Lehman. — Lausanne. — Farrel. — Priestly Profligacy. — Cap-
tain Packenham. — His Definition. — Neufchatel. — Needed Ref-
ormation. — Farrel's Visit. — His Grave. — To Basle : its Appearance
— its History — its Reformation. — CEcolampadius. — Erasmus . 204



VI CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXXIV.
Departure from Basle.— Valley of the Rhine. — Variety of Travelers.
— Characteristic Reply. — An Observer. — A Question answered. —
Strasburg : its wondrous Clock. — Advice to the Priests. — The Ca-
thedral. — An American Prelate. — Jews burned. — Why no Relics.
—Poor Scotland.— Searched.— To Baden-Baden Page 211

CHAPTER XXXV.
Baden-Baden. — Conversation House. — The Gambling-room. — The
Manner of the Game, and Gamblers. — Monopoly in Gambling ! —
Hot Springs. — Their Manner of Use. — The new Castle. — Breakfast-
room. — Underground Apartments. — Awful History 217

CHAPTER XXXVI.
To Franklort from Baden-Baden.— Hotel Russie.— The City.— Ca-
thedral. — Jews' Quarters. — Rothschilds. — Their History, and its
Lessons. — To Cassel. — Down the Rhine. — Ruins, and their His-
tory. — The Rhine and Hudson compared. — Cologne. — The Dom. —
Mary and Bambino again. — The Three Kings. — The Bargain de-
clined. — An Inference. — St. Ursula. — Bridge of Boats 223

CHAPTER XXXVII.
From Cologne to Brussels.— Aix-la-Chapelle : its History and holy
Relics. — Brussels. — The Pare. — Sabbath in Brussels. — St. Gudule.
— Preaching in Flemish. — A sudden Stop. — Anecdote of Dr. Nes-
bit. — High Mass. — Lifting the Pay. — Tour of Observation. — Scenes
in the Pare and Streets.— The Manikin: his curious History.—
The miraculous Wafers 230

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

To Waterloo.— The Village.— The Field.— Just the Place for the

Battle. — The dreadful Spot. — Feelings excited there. — Conjectures.

— Justice to Bonaparte. — What has England gained ? — Through

Flanders to Ostend.— The Hulk.— Rapid Flight 237

CHAPTER XXXIX.
Fleetwood. — Bathing Establishment. — State-room Companion. —
Landing in Ireland. — Introduction to the Assembly. — Dr. Cook. —
Dr. Edgar.— Dr. Stewart.— Dr. Dobbin.— Dr. Carlisle.— Dr. Dill.—
Dr. Goudy.— An excited Scene.— Great Speech of Dr. Cook.— Two
Bodies compared. — The Irish Way. — A more excellent Way. 244



CONTENTS. Vll

CHAPTER XL.

Visit to Connaught. — Sligo. — Emigrants. — Often remove for the
Worse. — Camline — Famine Scenes. — A young Hero. — The Dead
Ass and Family. — Industrial Schools. — Several visited. — Priestly
Outrages.— Visit at Home.— Great Changes.— Dublin.— Mr. King.
— Dr. Urwick.— An Incident.— A brighter Day coming ..Page 251

CHAPTER XLI.
Down the LifFey. — Up the Clyde.— Glasgow.— John Henderson. — The
Cathedral. — Necropolis. — M'Gavin. — Communion Service. — To-
kens and Tables. — Pew Communion. — Dr. Gordon. — The Irish
Mission.— Gaelic Chapel. — Dr. Candlish. — Model School. — Exam-
ination. — A Dinner-party. — Edinburgh described 258

CHAPTER XLII.

Park.— Rev. J. A. James.— Sail to Oban.— Oban.— Royalty in Exile.

—Sail round Mull.— Staffa : its Cave.— Iona : its History.— Ruins.

— Culdees. — Royal Graves. — The ruling Passion.— Stone Crosses.

—Talk on the Wheel-box 266

CHAPTER XLIII.
To Ballahulish.— Glencoe : its Wildness.— Ossian's Birth-place.—
Massacre. — Scotch Bittock. — A Moor. — Barren Possessions. —Duke
of Breadalbane. — Loch Lomond. — Sketches from Nature. — Invers-
naid. — A Cabin. — Loch Katrine. — Trosachs. — Our Coachman. —
Sabbath in Callander.— Identity of the Gaelic and Irish Languages.
— Comparison. — To Liverpool 273

CHAPTER XLIV.
To Wales.— Menai Straits.— Tubular Bridge.— Length.— View from
beneath : from the Top.— Last View.— Friends at Liverpool.— Sail-
ing.— Voyage.— Passengers.— Last Evening.— Our Farewell . 282



MEN AND THINGS



AS SEEN IN EUROPE.



CHAPTER I.



The Voyage opens. — Our Passengers. — A Voyage a Voyage. — A Pic-
ture. — Death on Board. — Burial at Sea. — An Ocean Grave unde-
sirable.

Departure. At sea.

The morning of the 3d of April, 1851, opened brill-
iantly. A bright blue sky had succeeded to the drip-
ping clouds of the previous day. The fine old packet
Montezuma, Captain DeCourcey, weighed anchor, and
gave her canvas to a favoring northwester. Our sail
down the bay of New York, with many friends on board,
was as pleasant as could be expected ; and when we bid
them farewell as they were ordered away, we felt, for
the moment, as if some ties were broken that might not
again be united. Soon Sandy Hook was passed — soon
the Neversink hills died away in the distance, until
they seemed as walls propping up the western sky;
and when the hour for tea arrived, we could only see
the heavens above, and a world of waters around us.
"We were at sea.

When a man in a crowded hotel is told that he must
lodge in the same room with half a dozen of men, the
desire instinctively arises to know something of them;
A2



10 MEN AND THINGS

Our companions. A voyage.

and so, with an imprisonment in the cabin of a ship
for a month before you, there is a strong desire to
know who are your companions. We met together at
the table — we studied each others' physiognomy — and
drew our own conclusions. There was the demure,
pleasant, intelligent, but dyspeptic physician ; the elo-
quent, learned, but nervous and home-sick divine ; the
plethoric, gouty, and outspoken Western banker; the
thin, tall, sensitive, singular, versatile, imaginative man
of letters and fashion, who soon obtained the soubriquet
of " Professor;" and a short, stout, imperturbable Is-
raelite, with an Abrahamic visage, who soon answered
to the name of "Monsieur Gibraltar," and who, from
the extent of his travels as a peddler of jewelry, might
be taken for the wandering Jew himself. These, with
a few others, equally good men but less characteristic,
made up our cabin company across the Atlantic.

A voyage is a voyage in all seas and latitudes. All
meet with the same incidents. They are sick, and
then well. They are now in calm, now in storm. Now
they ship a sea, and now they see a ship. And when
the passengers have used up all their small talk — and
when the medium of pleasant intercourse is all ex-
hausted — and when the weather is cold, and no fire to
warm you — and when you are too stupid to write, too
cold to read, and too sulky to talk; and when, in addi-
tion, you are beset by calms and head winds, I know
of nothing more intolerable than a sea voyage. How
often did we say that if (rod would forgive us this time,
and return us safe home, we would not be caught com-
mitting the sin of going to sea again. But as men soon
forget, amid the comforts of wealth, the labor and suf-



AS SEEN IN EUROPE. 11

A passenger. Case of sickness.

fering of its acquisition, so we, amid the new scenes
that opened upon us as we traversed the Old World, soon
forgot the tedium and suffering of the voyage, and he
who complained most is now the most eager to try it
again.

One incident, of the deepest interest, occurred dur-
ing our voyage. There sat on the forward deck, as we
went down to the New York bay, a young man with a
wan cheek, and pale lips, and sunken eye, which show-
ed that fell consumption was preying upon his vitals.
He was a young Irishman returning to his native land
in search of health. A female sat by his side — his sis-
ter ; and when the friends of the passengers were ordered
away, they kissed and parted, with the strongest emo-
tions. A widowed mother was expecting him home ;
and this sister, with throbbing heart, was expecting his
return, in improved health. Both were disappointed.

He was a passenger in the second cabin ; and as the
winds and waves soon placed us all on the sick-list, I
lost sight of him for many days, and even his first ap-
pearance had passed away from my memory. When
our voyage was about half made, a female informed
me that a young man in her cabin was very sick, and
greatly needed religious instruction. Being informed
that a visit from me would be agreeable, I hastened to
his berth. My interview with him was deeply affect-
ing. He was a child of Protestant parents. On com-
ing to this country, he had given up all regard for reli-
gious things, and lived only for the world and pleasure.
A cold had grown into a consumption, which was now
near its closing act; and as tenderly as faithfulness
would permit, I suggested that, if our voyage should



12 MEN AND THINGS

A visit to the sick. A scene at midnight.

be protracted, as there was reason to fear, he might not
live to its close. The thought seemed new and over-
whelming, and he turned away and wept. I asked
him as to his preparation for eternity. I saw at once,
from his answer, the need of a protracted visit ; and
taking my seat on a greasy trunk by his side, I sought
to instruct him into the way of the Lord. I sought in
a variety of ways to impress him with a sense of his
own sinfulness. I sought to place Christ before him
as the only way of escape for sinners — as the only way
to heaven ; and then, surrounded by his fellow-passen-
gers in the same cabin, I committed him to Grod in pray-
er, and especially implored that the ocean might not be
made his grave. The effect upon him was not such as
I desired ; upon others it was deeply solemn.

On the day following he greatly revived, and played
cards. The succeeding Sabbath was to be Easter Sun-
day ; and, after the manner of those who regard such
times and seasons, he commenced his preparations to
keep it. "With him and others, it was to be a jolly day.
I sent kind inquiries, and asked for another interview ;
but it was declined for the present. On Saturday I
learned that he was quite well, and hoped to be on deck
on Sunday. There was a change in the weather to-
ward the close of the day. The wind increased the
tossing of the ship, and the atmosphere became quite
damp. About midnight I was called from my berth
to do what I could for the dying man. I crowded my
way, half dressed, to his berth, where he lay panting
away his life. The glaze of death was already in his
eye. The sweat of death was on all his members.
His every sense was closed. He was beyond all aid



AS SEEN IN EUROPE. 13



Woman's sympathy.



from man. The scene was deeply affecting. There,
on the bosom of the wide Atlantic, at midnight, the
winds high, and the billows raging, lay a man, sur-
rounded only by strangers, in the last moments of his
existence. Nor were these strangers neglectful of him.
Women were there, who with maternal and sisterly
solicitude ministered to his wants and wept over his
sufferings. Feeling that he was beyond my reach, I
addressed myself to those around me. The profane
swearer, the card-player, the infidel, the Papist were
there. But death has power to silence all objections,
and to open all ears to serious instruction. I pointed
them to the end of all flesh, and to the need of prepara-


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