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medicines, consequently aU we had to rely
on unlU we reached Natchez, were the
stores so fortunately supplied by the Com-
mission.

As the acting steward was sick, Dr. Bob-
bins requested me to assist him in his du-
ties, and in caring for the comfort and well-
being of the men as far as possible under
the circumstances. The boat was crowded,
through 'her cabins, on deck and on the
guards, with wounded men as thickly as
they could be laid, leaving hardly stepping
room. The first- thing to be done was to
have them fed, which we succeeded in do-
ing pretty satisfactorily, with the concen-
trated beef, fish, potatoes, crackers, farina,
butter, milk, sugar, tea, coffee, etc., sup-
plied by the Commission, and these were
all we could get until we reached Natchez,
as IcH the commissary stores we had were
hams and fiour, and which there was no
opportunity of^cooking, as there was but
one stove on board, which was fully occu-
pied in cooking for the crew, and what was
indispensable for the wounded. The next,
to get their bloody, dirty,ragged, and vermin
infested clothing off —get them washed, and
good clean Sanitary clothing put on, and it
would have given any one with a heart in
him, the most sincere gratification to wit-
ness the change produced in thgir looks and
appearance, their greatly increased cheer
and hopefulness — and to have heard their
hearty expressions of thankfulness and
gratitude.

As there were no cots or mattresses, we
supplied their place as well as might be with
the bed sacks, blankets, sheets and com-
forts, and pillows from the Commission;
gave them combs, so they were enabled to
hunt and capture a certain game which is
altogether too abundant in camp life to be
agreeable, and could be dispensed wifli



without detriment anywhere; gave them
handkerchiefs to wipe off their sweat; a
good supply of fans; some reading matter,
and occasionally a pipe fuU of tobacco for
a quiet smoke, so that in a few hours the
aspect of cheerless, dirty misery on the
boat, was very much ameliorated.

I then assisted the surgeons as far as pos-
sible, in operating, examining, and dress-
ing wounds, and in giving lemonade, ice-
water or stimulants, as needed. The Sur-
geons, Drs. Bobbins and Wood, were very
kind, humane men, and laboring incessant-
ly and without many of the most needed
appliances, became completely exhausted
and worn out, and the nurses being taken
from the different regfments in the emer-
gency, were mostly unacquainted with the
duties required, making the service very
irksome and wearing.

Upon reaching Vicksburg, Dr. Boberts
was transferred and Dr. Sanborn placed
in charge, who proceeded at once to make
requisitions for the medical and hospital
stores needed, and as the steamer was to
take on wood during the night, I remained
on shore and went up to the Sanitary
rooms to procure some additional articles
of which we were deficient, and a night's
sleep and rest, a luxury which I had been
deprived of for some time, and through the
kind and hospitable attenjiion of Mr. Way
and others there, I found myself very much
improved and ready for work again.

In the morning, before the supplies were
got on board, the hospital steamer N. W.
Thomas, in charge of Dr. Harris, fortu-
nately arrived, and it was decided to trans-
fer as many of the worst cases as could be
accommodated, to that boat, leaving the
rest in hospital at Yioksburg, Drs. San-
born and~Wood accompanying them still,
on that boat. Finding Mr. Edgerly (an
agent of the U. S. Sanitary Commission
from New Orleans) onboard, I turned over,
the sanitary stores to his charge, and at
Dr. Harris's urgent request, continued in
the same duties I had been filling. The
next day Mr. Edgerly was taken sick, and
upon our arrival at Memphis, we were
obliged to leave him there. I was very
sorry, as we were much in need of efficient
help, the boat being loaded to her utmost
capacity with very badly wounded men.



694



The Sanitary Commission BvEetin.



They required constant attention, and be-
ing but illy suppKed •with nurses, made it
very laborious and exhausting, for it was
impossible to rest with men in such condi-
tion.

It was very pleasant and gratifying to see
their countenances brighten and the look
of languor and hopelessness disappear for
a time as one carried them great pailsful of
delicious ice cold lemonade or mUk punches,
or hot coffee, as they required, and to hear
their expressions of thankfulness and grat-
itude. Great strong men, or those who were
so, previous to their sufferings, would cry
like children at some unwonted attention
or kindness. Such expressions as "God
bless the Sanitary;" "this is a bully good
thing, isn't it ?" " ain't this great, boys ?"
"what should we have done if it hadn't
been for the Sanitary ?" "thank God for
the help which always hits us in the right
time?" ."Hurrah for the Sanitary Com-
mission," &c., &c., were constantly heard
on all sides.

One poor fellow from Iowa, suffering from
an amputated leg and broken thigh, said
" he lived away back, and had never heard
much about the Sanitary Commission; did
not know much about what it meant, (but,
with tears in his eyes,) I've seen and felt
what it means now." Another, an officer,
from Illinois, said: "I've said and always
thought the Sanitary Commission was a
Ivwmhug, but if I ever say or think that
again, it will be when I am out of my sen-
ses." Another, wounded by a shot through
the lungs, said: "I always told the folks
at home the Sanitary Commission did'nt
amount to anything, and did not do us any
good, for we never got anything from it,
but now I know the reason, it is because I
was not in a situation to receive it, and did
not need it; but if it had not been for the
Sanitary Commission I would not now be
^live to tell it. " Another with an arm am-
putated at the shoulder, said: "It is al-
most worth being wounded to know how
much they think of and are trying to do
for us at home." Another one, who was
shot through the body, after being washed,
fed, getting on clean clothes, and a pipe
full of tobacco to smoke, said: "I'm all
right now, and when I get this hole groWed
up I'll pitch in and give them fits again."



I might multiply instances indefinitely,
but these are enough to show the feeling
manifested. How much good a few cheer-
ing, hopeful words would do, could be seen
in their brightened eyes and happy coun-
tenances at any time, and to sit down and
talk awhile with them about home, friends,
and the hopes of the future, relieved very
much the dragging, weary hours of suffer-
ing. Heading matter was also in great re-
quest and very useful.

I remained on duty, although quite sick
myself, until I saw the last one comforta-
bly on his cot in thfi hospital at Jefferson
Barracks, and then was obliged to succumb.
Of my being left in hospital at St. Louis,
and subsequent movements, I have advised
you in previous letters.

I do not intend this as a report, which
should have been forwarded immediately,
upon my return, but I was unable to
do so, but merely to give you a brief sum-
mary of my doings from my last report.

Enclosed please find list of names of
those who died on the passage. The effects
of Thomas Harbison, private Co. H, 24th
Indiana, which were turned over to me, I
left with Mr. Way, at Memphis, to be for-
warded to his friends. The facts in each
case for the use of Hospital Directory, are
stated as far as practicable, or as they could
be ascertained. •

I am_ still at Salem, Mass., and I think
am deriving great benefit from a change of
scene, the invigorating salt breeze, sea
bathing, rest, ^c, and the medical treat-
ment I am taking, I hope, will soon fit me
for duty again as usual.



VALUE OF THE HOSPITAL DrEECTORT.

Annexed is an extract from a letter of H.
H. Beebe, Chief Clerk of the Hospital
Directory, which illustrates its value as
the agency where information is gathered,
which is not elsewhere secured:

The foreign letter which you handed me
last evening was an inquiry for informa-
tion, from John Phillips, of South Wales,
Great Britain, regarding Lieut. William B.
Phillips, Adjutant of the 2d Pennsylvania
Prov. Artillery. A great deal of anxiety
was expressed, as he had not been heard
from since the 21st of June. It gives me
pleasure to state that I was enabled to reply
to this letter at once, deriving my informa-
tion from a very unusual channel, takjng



The Sanitary Commission BvUetin.



695



all the coincidences into consideration; and
the circumstances being so peculiar, the
informution so reliable, and the usefulness
of the Hospital Directory so well proveSi, I
desire to relate the matter to you, that you
may enjoy the pleasure also of seeing " the
good we do."

I was enabled to write Mr. Phillips that
in the assault on Petersburg, Va., July
30th, Adjutant William B. Phillips, of .2d
Pennsylvania Prov. Artillery, was taken
prisoner, in company with Captains Norris
and Millard, and Lieut. Kellow, of the
same regiment.

Mrs. Norris had inquired at this office on
three or four different occasions for infor-
mation of her husband, but we could give
her none. She came here only three or
four days since and stated that she had re-
ceived a letter from her husband, who was
a prisoner of war at Petersburg, Va., and
well. The letter came by flag-of-truce. It
mentioned the other officers alluded to,
and Mrs. N. had brought the letter here to
ask me to record this information on our
books, they having been reported as kiUed.
The record was taken, and this inquiry re-
ceived last night was answered from that
record. I should also add that the same
Adjutant Phillips was inquired for in a let-
ter received from an intelligent lady at
Hyde Park, Pa. , only yesterday, and imme-
diately answered.



A EAnre DAY IN CAMP.
[The following lines are from the pen of the
late Mrs. Egbeet S. Howi,and, and have been
already widely circulated through other chan-
nels, but as we have already published most of
her other poemx, we think the appearance of
this also will be welcome topmost readers of the

BULIiETIN.]

It's a cheerless, lonesome evening,
When the soaldng, sodden ground

Will not echo to the footfaE
Of the sentinel's dull round.

God's blue star-spangled banner

To-night is not unfurled;
Surely Ee has not deserted •

This weary, warriag world.

I peer into the darkness.
And the crowding fancies come;

The night wind, blowing northward, '
Carries aU my heart toward home.

For I listed in this army

Not exactly to my mind;
But my country called for helpers.

And I couldn't stay behind.

So, I've had a sight of drilling.

And have roughed it many ways.
And Death has nearly had me;
Yet I think the service pays. »



It's a blessed sort of feeling —

Whether you live or die—
You helped your country in her need.

And fought right loyally.

But I can't help thinking sometimes.
When a wet day's leisure comes,

And I hear the old home voices
Talking louder than the drums—

And the far familiar faces

Peep in at my tent door,
And the little children's footsteps

Go pit-pat on the fleor —

I can't help thinking, somehow.

Of all the parson reads
About that other soldier life

Which every true man leads.

And wife, soft-hearted creature,
Seems a-saying in {ay ear,

" I'd rather have you in those ranks
Than to see you brigadier."

I call myself a brave one.

But in my heart I lie !
For my country, and her hondl:,

I am fiercely free to die;

But when the Lord, who bought me,

Asks for my service here.
To "fight the good fight" faithfuUy,

I'm skulking in the rear.

And yet I know this Captain

All love and care to be :
Se would never get impatient

With a raw recruit like me.

And I know he'd not forget me;

When the day of peace appears,
I should share with him the victory

Of all his volunteers.

Audit's kind of cheerful, thinking.

Beside the duU tent-fire.
About that big promotion, '

When he says, " Come up higher."

And though it's dismal— rainy —
Even now, with thoughts of him.

Camp life looks extra cheery.
And death a deal less grim.

For I seem to see him waiting,
Where a gathered heaven greets

A great, victorious army.
Marching up the golden streets.

And I hear him read the roU-oall,
And my heart is aU a-flame.

When the dear, recording angel
Writes down my happy name I

But my fire is dead white ashes.
And the tent is chilling cold,

And I'm playing vyin the baitie,
When I've never beep enrolled 1



696



The Sanitary Comrmssion BuUetin.



WORDS OP CHEEE.

We take the following extract from a let-
ter recently received by the Woman's Cen-
tral Association of Relief, dated Conway,
Mass., August 2, 1864:

" In a former barrel some of our ladies
wrote notes and put them into the socks,
etc. Many have received answers. This
has contributed much to the interest here
in our armies. Some letters were from the
hospitals, some from the navy, some from
the field, near Petersburg, and in nearly all,



a 'God bless the Sanitary Commission.'
One letter, in which our people were greatly
interested, was from an Assistant Surgeon
of the 25th New York Cavalry.

" In this barrel is a pair of socks knit by
a lady who is ninety-seven years old on the
24th of this month. She is ready and
anxious to do all she can.

" We have just had a number of pieces
of wool given us, which our Society will
color, spin and knit for the soldiers. They
make much better socks than yarn we pur-
chase."



PATTERNS FOR HOSPITAL CLOTHING.— No. 3.

SUPPEES.
Toe piece.



J AV.



Bole.




-S^/.^.



Back.



// IN.-



IS IN.




BEQTnBKD FOB A PaIB OF SliIFFEBS.

h\ yards common woolen carpet binding.
2| knots strong linen thread.

DrBEcnoNS fob Makenq Sufpebs.
Slippers should be made of carpeting or stoat



woolen cloth and lined with cotton or cotton
flannel.

Each part should be bound and the three
parts sewed together by the binding.

A stiff sole of pasteboard or sole leather
should be inserted between the lining and out-
side.



ARM SLING.
Bling (UaU ot)



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lr/.i^*


M




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i 1


INSIDE


• mi.






• N92








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OUTSIDE


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8 IN.


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19 IN.


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The Samvtary Comrnhsixm Bulletin.



697



BATION BAG.




DiBEcnoNB FOE Mabing Slings.

Slings may be made of oaUco or any other
strong material.

The two halves shonld be sewed together
only on the outer side and the edges hemmed.

Strings should be placed on both halves, as
per dots in diagram. (Six strings.)

Those at No. 1 are of unequal length, one be-
ing 27 inches long, the other 11 inches. The
four other strings are 27 inches long.

Dlkeotions fob Making Kation Bags.
Bation Bags should be made of enamelled
cloth. The four points should be sewed to-
gether so as to form a flat bottom and the side
sewed up to make it into a bag. The top
shonld be bound with cotton and tape strii^s
run in. •



THE SANITAEY MOVEMENT IN ITALY.

THE XEUTBATiTTY OP THE WOITNDED IN TIME
OF WAB.

The following paper on this important
subject, was read at the meeting of the
Pontanian Academy on the 27th of Decem-
ber, 1863, by Dr. Falasciano, Besident
Member:

GENTiiEMEN — Too memorable for us all was the
assembly of the 20th of January, 1861. at which
the Academy resolved to celebrate the events
which gained for us our political regeneration,
for me to suppose that the proposition I had
the honor of making can be effaced from your
heart. I mean that we should undertake to pro-
mote the amelioration of the &te of the wounded
in battle, and to favor and diffuse the tendency
of saving them from mutilation and hastening
their recovery, certain that we could not offer a
more acceptable homage to the King and Gren.
Garibaldi, our liberator.

You did not disdain accepting my offer of a
prize for a competition on the treatment of gun-
shot wounds, and vied with each other in exer-
tions to gain this aim as soon as possible.

But the want of a work which could deserve
the prize, the willingness with which the medi-
cal profession answered our appeal, the number
and importance of the memoirs which reached
us within the very limited time conceded to us,
and the interviews which the professors of nat-
ural sciences were obliged to grant to each in-
dividually, showed that this theme had revealed
one of the most urgent requisites of our era, a
prevision very lately and unfortunately verified
in the person of our wounded liberator him-
self.

It was then, at the meeting of the 28th April,
1861, that on proposing a new competition on
the same subject, accompanied by explanations
and facilitations, I arrived at this conclusion —
that the means proper for preventing mutila-
tion, and saving the limbs broken by fire-arms,
are not so entirely in the power of the surgeon
as they are in that of his science; and by the
history of surgery, and the statistics of gunshot
wounds, I proved clearly, that when very few
fire-arms were en ployed, and with no precision,
that when a great quantity of baggage was kb-



quired, and the marches were slow, the neces-
sity of amputation was Jess required in the
armies.

Afterwards the perfection of arms, the addi-
tional number of troops, generated impetuosify,
rashness, and carelessness, and increased be-
yond measure the cases of amputations and
deaths; whilst where there is method and dis-
cipline amputations may not only be nearly
abolished, but the Surgeon-General Bilguer, in
a remarloible work published by him at Berlin
in 1761, reckoned 6,618 wounded in various
ways, who were treated without amputation,
and from that number 653 died, 213 invalided,
193 veterans, and 5,557 were cured. Since the
invention of ambnlanze volanti, (flying ambulan-
ces, ) in the early part of the present century,
the greatest number of amputated who died has
been 51 per cent. In the naval engagements of
Aboukir, Brest, New Orleans, and Navarino,
the deaths after amputation never exceeded 24
per cent. ; whereas, in the wars of late years,
in the Crimea and in Italy, the number Of
deaths among the amputated reached as far as
77 per cent.

On examining all the causes of the enormous
disparity of the results obtained by the sur-
geons of the above epdchs, I found the two follow-
ing singularly prevalent: the much longer and
more rapid mode of conveyance to which the
wounded were subjected during the 'compara-
tively short recent wars, and the crowded state
in the ambulances and hospitals, on account of
the more powerful engines of destruction which
are now used. From this I thought, that if it
should be desirable to put a limit to the great
proportion of deaths succeeding amputations,
it will be necessary to operate and dress the
wounds of the sufferers in the greatest proximity
to the battle-field itself, in villages, country
houses, barracks, hovels, and otheilike places
of shelter, and be able to leave them there till
the beginning of the period of cicatrization. If
this is not done, I said, it-is to be feared that
the progress of the exterminating power of war
will increase so far, that for the sick and wounded
soldier no other remedy will be found than that
which inflexible logic was forced to demand for
the plague-stricken at Giaffa. It appeared im-
possible and exaggerated, yet we nave heard
this year that in unfortunate Poland the wound-
ed are buried alive in one common grave with



698



The Sanitary Commission BvUetin.



the dead ! Horrid atrocity, to which I have no
reason to give faith.

Therefore, the necessity of perfect quietude,
pure air, and more prompt assistance to the
wounded for the amelioration of their state
being acknowledged, I entreated every govern-
ment to come to the aid of medical science,
which alone cannot prevent the transfer of the
wounded, nor provide the means required for
their being assisted near the battle-field. It
would be necessary, I stated, that the contend-
ing powers in their declaration of war should
reciprocally acknowledge the principle of " neu-
trality of the soldiers severely woijnded or sick,
during the whole time of their cure," and that
they should respectively adopt the " uuliinitei
increase of the medical staff during the whole
time of the war."

This, my first discourse " On the neutrality
of the wounded in time of war," was sent to
Palis by the French charge d'affaires at Naples,
on the same day of its reading, and no doubt our
Government received it at the same time as the
academical report to the Minister of Public In-
struction. Bat whilst G-ovemments meditate,
or at least one must think %o, public opinion
does not remain ioaotive. On the 10th of .luae,
1861, Arrault published in Paris, a "Notizia
industriale sul perfezionamento dell^ Ambu-
lanze Volanti,"* by which he claimed the invio-
lability of military doctors, assistants, and "am-
bulanze. " To these demands the eloquent Bo rie
gave his support, by an article la the Siecle of
the 1st of August, 1861.

For this reason, in my second discourse, of
Decemb.er the 29th, 1861, on the same subject,
in which I informed you of other people's opin-
ion, and discussed the measures that appeared
to me erroneous or imperfect, I gave you ampler
explanations of my idea on the neutrality of the
woundedj and particidarly sought the means of
effectuating it.

At that period an international congress seem-
ed imminent, on account of the Anglo-Ameri-
can version of the affair of the St. Jacinto, which
was precisely to have had for its object the de-
termination of the rights and obligations of neu-
trals during the war, and I thought that if the
principle of neutrality of the wounded in battle
should be adopted, either by means of a stipa-
lation in a congress, or by a mutual private
agreement between the contending powers in
the act of the intimation of war, its effectuation
would be most easily achieved.

For this, it would be. sufficient that the con-
tending armies should bind themselves — 1st.
To make a reciprocal restitution of all the
wounded prisoners immediately after each bat-
tle. 2. That the wounds should be dressed on
the battle-field itself by the personal medical
staff of each party, when the patient could not
well undergo an immediate removal with impu-
nity. 3. That the medical staff in proportiou
to the number of wounded men lefc for treat-
ment on the enemy's territory, should be allow-
ed to pass with a safe conduct and escort, re-
main as long as necessary, and afterwards should
be given up during an armistice to the outposts
or frontiers of the enemy. 4. That all the food,
lodging, and medicaments required on the ter-



* Industrial notes on tbe perfection of ambulances.



ritory of the enemy should be provided by the
commissariat of the place, against a receipt
from the acting surgeon, to be repaid after the
war. 5. That from besieged places, besides
the same reciprocal surrender of the wounded,
the besieged ought to be allowed to send forth
their own wounded, provided a neutral State
should consent to receive them, or should the
besiegers generously offer them an asylum.

Now that the potentates are to assemble
" sans systeme precon9U, sans ambition exclu-
sive, auimes par la,8eule pensfie d'etablir un
ordre de choses fonde desormais sur I'interet
bien compris des souverains et des peuples," as
the Emperor Napoleon said on the 5th of No-
vember, what greater interest can a citizen feel
thau in the act of mercy which causes him to
sacrifice himself for the welfare of his fellow-
mea? However, together with the "Manual
of Military Surgery," published and diffused by
you after the above-mentioned concourse, in
January, 1862, appeared the two discourses on
the neutrality of the wounded, which were re-
produced about the same period in the "Impar-
ziale of Florence," and whilst medical science
received such an impulse that in less than two
years we now possess, besides the above manual,
' ' Cenni suUa cura delle ferite d'armi da fuoco
del Barofao." (Torino, 1862,) the work of de
Sanctis, which has been justly confuted and
disproved in your report, ' ' La Guida Teorica
Pratica del Medico Militare in Campagna, del
Cortese," (Torino, 1862,) and "Le Traite de
Chirurgie d'Arm^e," deLegouest, (Paris, 1863,)
the idea respecting the neutrality of the wound-
ed, and of an unlimited addition to the medical
staff in time of war having become known in
Geneva, as also the portion of the prize offered



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