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REPORT



ON THE



CHICAGO STRIKE



9



OF



JUNE-JULY, 1894.



[THE APPENDICES REFERRED TO WITHIN ARE OMITTED
FROM THIS EDITION.]



WASHINGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1895.





I



REPORT



ON THE



CHICAGO STEIKE



JUNE-JULY, 1894,



BY THE



UNITED. STATES STRIKE COMMISSION,

APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT JULY 26, 1894, UNDER THE

PROVISIONS OF SECTION 6 OF CHAPTER 1063 OF

THE LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES

PASSED OCTOBER 1, 1888,



WITH



APPENDICES CONTAINING TESTIMONY, PROCEEDINGS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS.



WASHINGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1895.



(



UNITED STATES STRIKE COMMISSION.



COMMISSIONERS.

CARROLL D. WRIGHT, Ex-officio Chairman READING, MASS.

JOHN D. KERNAN UTICA, N. Y.

NICHOLAS E. WORTHINGTON..... PEORIA, ILL.

CLERKS.

EUGENE B.HASTINGS UTICA, N. Y.

WILLIAM H. RAND KEENE, N. H.

STENOGRAPHERS.

CHARLES P. WATSON PEORIA,ILL.

CYRUS L. WATSON PEORIA.ILL.

CHARLES W. MORRIS, JR HARIUSBURG, PA.

U. S. DEPUTY MARSHAL (IN ATTENDANCE).

H. BARTLETT LINDLEY CHICAGO, ILL.

in



CONTENTS.



MESSAGE op THE PRESIDENT

LETTER OK TKANS.MITTAI XII

INTRODUCTION XV-XVI1I

> AND CRIMES XVIII, XIX

TROOPS, MILITARY, KTC XIX > XX

PULLMAN'S PALACE CAR COMPANY XXI-XXII

THK AMEIUCAN RAILWAY UNION XXIII-XXVII1

Tin: GENERAL MANAGERS' ASSOCIATION XXVIII-XXXI

THE PULLMAN STRIKE: ITS CAUSES AND EVENTS XXXII-XXXIX

Wages XXXII-XXXV

Rents XXXV.XXXVI

Shop abuses XXXVI

The strike XXXVII-XXXIX

RAILROAD STRIKE XXXIX-XLVI

Action of federated tmions XL-XLII

Action of tbe General Managers' Association XLII, XLIII

Violence and destruction of property and military proceedings.. . XLIII-XLVI

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS XLVI-LI V

APPENDIX A. TESTIMONY AND PROCEEDINGS 1-653

Testimony on behalf of the railway employees 4-212

Testimony of George W. Howard 4-58

Testimony of James R. Sovereign 59-71

Testimony of George W. Lovejoy 71-77

Testimony of Sylvester Keliher 78-94

Testimony of B. B. Ray 94-101

Testimony of R. M. Goodwin 101,102

Testimony of H. F. Griswold 102,103

Testimony of James B. Conuers 104-108

Testimony of Franklin R. Mills 108-110

Testimony of Charles Nay lor 111-114

Testimony of Frank Wells 114, 115

Testimony of Martin 3. Elliott 115-117

Testimony of Frank T. McDonald 117-126

Testimony of Charles B. St. Clair 126-128

Testimony of Eugene V. Debs 129-180

Testimony of P. H. Morrissy 180-185

Testimony of Edgar E. Clark 185-187

Testimony of Samuel Gompers 188-205

Testimony of John T. Norton i!06, 207

Testimony of W. F. Gnyou 207-212

Testimony on the part of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway

Company 212-324

Testimony of Everett St. John 212-269

Testimony of John M. Egan 269-282

Testimony of Charles Dunlap 282-285

v



VI CONTENTS.

APPENDIX A. TESTIMONY AND PROCEEDINGS Continued.

Testimony on the part of the Chicago, Rock. Island and Pacific Railway
Company Concluded.

Testimony of V. W. McKeo 285-288

Testimony of S. C. Wadi- 288-295

Testimony of William Kit-hard Mooney 295-309

Trxtimony of II. K. Saiiutlcrs . 309-311

Testimony of L. A. Camp 311

Testimony of \V. (!. Fuller 312

Testimony of G. IX Cruely 313-315

Testimony of W. J. Krnse 315, 316

Testimony of Frank Couroy 310-318

Testimony of D. Braham 318

Testimony of John Digan 318

Testimony of George Furlong 318, 319

Testimony of Owen O'Keefe 319

Testimony of Fred Danmback 319

Testimony of Joseph Rippet 319

Testimony of George Davis 320

Testimony of Otto Morling 320

Testimony of James Simmons 320, 321

Testimony of Alexander Qnasso 321

Testimony of Henry Lnsson 321

Testimony of J. H. Cady 322,323

Testimony of John Clancy 323

Testimony of M. Knbelsky 323

Testimony of Charles Keck 323.324

Testimony of J. C. Klein 324

Testimony of Paul Clausen 324

Testimony of John Clausen 324

Testimony on the part of the Illinois Central Railroad Company 325-338

Testimony of Albert W. Sullivan 325-338

General testimony relating to the strike 339-408

Testimony of Gen. Nelson A. Miles 339, 340

Testimony of John C.Donnelly 340-344

Testimony of John P. Hopkins 344-353

Testimony of Michael Breuuau 353-360

Testimony of Malcoiub McDowell 360-368

Testimony of Ray Baker 368-370

Testimony of Harold I. Cleveland 370-374

Testimony of Victor M. Harding 374-380

Testimony of William H. T. Shade 380-383

Testimony of W.C.Roberts 383,384

Testimony of William K. McKay 384, 385

Testimony of Nicholas Hunt 385-389

Testimony of John E. Fitzpatrivk 389, 390

Testimony of John Fitzgerald ; . . . 390-392

Testimony of Joseph L. Kenyou 392-395

Testimony of Benjamin H. Atwell 396-399

Testimony of N. D. Hutton 399-402

Testimony of Hubert F. Miller 402-408

Testimony of witnesses with reference to railroad losses during the

strike, called by the commission on its own motion 408-416

Testimony of Channcey Kelsey , 408. 409

Testimony of William McFadden 409,410



CONTENTS. VII

APPENDIX A. TESTIMONY AND PROCEEDINGS Concluded.

Testimony of witnesses with reference to railroad losses during the strike,

called by the commission, on its own motion Concluded. Page.

Testimony of E. I'. Bronghton 410,411

Testimony of John I). Besler -111,412

Testimony of William O. Johnson 112,413

Testimony of J. M. Whitman 113,414

Testimony of W. X. J>. Winne 414,415

Testimony of Arthur G. Wells 415

Testimony of E. St. John 416

Testimony on the part of striking employees at the town of Pullman. .. 416-468

Test imony of Thomas W. Heathcoate 416-433

Testimony of Jennie Curtis 433-435

Testimony of Theodore Ehodie 435-438

Testimony of R. W. Coombs 438-441

Testimony of Merritt Brown 441-444

Testimony of Rev. William H. Carwardine 144-454

Testimony of Mary Alice Wood 454-457

Testimony of Arthur M. Wilson 457,458

Testimony of Myrtle Webb 458,459

Testimony of MichaelJ Carroll 459-462

Testimony of Rev. Morris L. Wickman 462-465

Testimony of Andrew W. Pearson 466-168

Testimony on the part of Pullman's Palace Car Company 468-641

Testimony of Frank W. T. Glover 468-473

Testimony of Paul E. Hearnes 473-476

Testimony of L.H.Johnson 476-480

Testimony of Axel Lundgren 480-483

Testimony of John. McLean 483-492

Testimony of Isaiah Campbell 492-495

Testimony of Duaue Doty 495-507

Testimony of Charles Corkery 507, 508

Testimony of Edward F. Bryant 508-526

Testimony of Charles H. Eaton 526-528

Testimony of George M. Pullman 528-569

Testimony of Thomas H. Wickes 570-630

Questions submitted by Enoch Harpole >. 630-633

Testimony of Charles E. Webb 633

Testimony of William P. Hoornbeek 633-636

Testimony of James L. Walker 636-638

Testimony of Henry O. Liudeblad 638-641

Miscellaneous testimony; also proceedings at adjourned meeting at

Washington, D. C., September 26, 1894 '. 641-653

Testimony of Edward W. Bemis 641-645

Testimony of Jane Addams 645-648

Statements of A. I. Ambler 648-651

Testimony of Gustav Augerstein i 651-653

APPENDIX B. RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE COMMISSION 655-681

Arbitration, compulsory or otherwise 657-661

Comments and general suggestions 661-667

Commission to l>e created by 1'nited States Statutes 667

Defects in our financial system a source of present depression 667, 668

Divers proposed measures of legislation for the benefit of labor 668-671

Governmental ownership or control of railroads 671-673

Judicial methods of various kinds suggested 671



VIII CONTEXTS.

APPKXDIX K. RKCOMMUXDATIONS TO TIIK COMMISSION Concluded. Page.

To license railroad employees 674, 675

Matters relating solely to the conditions at I'ullman 676

Methods of prevention of labor troubles, not statutory 676-678

Kailroad employees to be pensioned 678

Single-tax theory ; 678, 679

Views of non-union employees and others advocating non-unionism 679, 680

Wages, statutory regulation of 680,681

Communications bearing upon the relations of capital to labor 681



MESSAGE

FROM THE



PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,



TRANSMITTING



The report of the Strike. Commission on the Chicago alrike of June-July,

1894.



DECEMBER 10, 1894 Ordered to lie on the table and be printed.



To the Senate and House of Representatives.

1 transmit herewith the report on the. Chicago strike of June-July,
1894, forwarded to me by the Strike Commission appointed July 2(5,
1894, under the provisions of section 6 of chapter 1003 of the laws of
the United States, passed October 1, 1888.

The testimony taken by the commission and the suggestions and
recommendations made to it accompany the report in the form of

appendices.

GROVER CLEVELAND.
EXECUTIVE MANSION,

December 10, 1894.



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS.



LETTER OF TRANSM1TTAL



UNITED STATES STRIKE COMMISSION,

Washington, J). ., November 14, 1894.

SiE: We have the honor to hand you herewith our report upon the
controversies which arose between the Illinois Central Railroad Com-
pany and the Chicago, Hock Island and Pacific Railway Company and
certain of their employees in June last. This report is made in accord-
ance with your directions of the 26th of July and under the provisions
of section 6 of chapter 1063 of the laws of the United States passed
October 1, 1888.

The appropriation applicable to the investigation which we have
conducted was $5,000, a sum which has proved amply sufficient for all
the expenses of the commission.

In addition to our report covering our consideration, conclusions,
and recommendations, we hand you herewith a copy of the testimony
taken at the hearings conducted by the commission, a digest of the
suggestions made in writing to the commission, and various other
matters which have been submitted to it, all bearing upon the difficul-
ties and controversies considered. These matters are in the form of
appendices.

We are, very respectfully, your obedient servants,

CARROLL IX WRIGHT.
JOHN D. KERNAN.
NICHOLAS E. WORTHINGTON.
The PRESIDENT.



XIII



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS.



Upon tlie 2(>th of July, 1894, the President of the Uuited States
issued the following, viz:

GROVER CLEVELAND,
President of the United States of America.
To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting:

Know ye, that whereas controversies have arisen between the Illi-
nois Central Railroad Company, and the Chicago, Rock Island and
I'acilir, Railway Company, two corporations engaged iu the transporta-
tion of property and passengers between two or more States of the
1 nited States, and certain of their employees, which controversies may
hinder, impede, obstruct, interrupt or aft'ect such transportation of
passengers or property;

And, whereas the premises and the representations on behalf of said
employees being considered, the conditions in my opinion justify and
require the creation of a temporary commission to examine the causes
of said controversies, the conditions accompanying the same and the
best means of their adjustment, as authorized by section (5 of chapter
1(K>3 of the laws of the United States passed on the first day of Octo-
ber, 1888:

Now, therefore, by authority of the statute aforesaid, Carroll D.
Wright, Commissioner of Labor of the United States, who is desig-
nated in said statute, and John D. Kernan, of the State of New York,
and Nicholas E. Worthiugton, of the State of Illinois, hereby appointed
by the President of the United States commissioners under said act,
shall pursuant to the provisions of said act, constitute a temporary
commission for the purposes therein specified.

The said commission is hereby directed to visit the State of Illinois
and the city of Chicago, and such other places in the United States as
may appear proper in the judgment of the commission, to the end
that it may make careful inquiry into the causes of any pending dis-
pute or existing controversies and hear all persons interested therein
who may come before it; and said commission shall exercise all the
powers, perform all the duties and be subject to all the obligations
conferred and enjoined by the statute aforesaid upon temporary com-
missions created pursuant to its provisions.

In witness whereof I have subscribed my name hereto and caused the

seal of the United States to be hereunto affixed this twenty-

, 1 8 * x t u day f July i" the year of our Lord OTIC thousand eight

'' hundred and ninety-four, and of the Independence of the

Uuited States of America the one hundred and nineteenth.

GROVER CLEVELAND.

By the President :

W. Q. (llJKSIIAM.

of State.

XV



XVI CHICAGO STRIKE.

Section of chapter 1063 of the laws of the United States passed
October 1, 1888, reads as follows:

That the President may select two commissioners, one of whom at
least shall be a resident of the State or Territory in which the contro-
versy arises, who, together with the Commissioner of Labor, shall
constitute a temporary commission for the purpose of examining the
causes of the controversy, the conditions accompanying, and the best
means for adjusting it; the result of which examination shall be imme-
diately reported to the President and Congress, and on the rendering of
such report the services of the two commissioners shall cease.

"The controversy" referred to is defined in section 1 of said chapter
10G3 as follows:

Whenever differences or controversies arise between railroad or other
transportation companies engaged in the transportation of property or
passengers between two or more States of the United States, between
a Territory and State, within the Territories of the United States, or
within the District of Columbia, and the employees of said railroad
companies, which differences or controversies may hinder, impede,
obstruct, interrupt, or affect such transportation of property or passen-
gers.

At its first meeting in the city of Washington, D. C., held on the 31st
day of July, 1894, the commission adopted the following preamble and
resolutions:

Whereas the President of the United States has appointed the under-
signed a commission to visit Chicago, 111., and such other places in the
United States as may be proper, in the judgment of the commission, to
the end that it may make careful inquiry into the causes of any pending
dispute or existing controversies between the Illinois Central Railroad
Company and the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway Company
and certain of their employees, and to hear all persons interested therein
who may come before it; and

Whereas section 6 of chapter 1063 of the laws of the United States
passed October 1, 1888, makes it the duty of said commission to exam-
ine the causes of said controversies, the conditions accompanying and
the best means of adjusting the same, and to report the results of such
examination to the President and to Congress; and

Whereas the questions involved in such controversies affect all
interstate railroads and their employees; and

Whereas it is desirable that the report of this commission and
future legislation, if any, upon the questions at issue between labor,
whether organized or unorganized, and employers thereof, should be
based upon all facts having any legitimate bearing upon such ques-
tions, and should be the result only of clear and well-defined public
opinion : Therefore,

Resolved (I) That this commission will meet at the United States
post-office building in the city of Chicago, 111., on the 15th day of
August, 1894, at 10 a. m., for the purpose of taking testimony in rela-
tion to said controversies, and to hear and consider all facts, sugges-
tions, and arguments as to the causes thereof, the conditions accompa-
nying, and the best means of adjusting the same, and as to any legis-
lation or measures which ought to be recommended in regard to similar
controversies hereafter.

(2) That all railroads, labor organizations, and citizens having either



CHICAGO STRIKE. XVII

a personal or patriotic interest in the right solution of these questions,
and who can not conveniently attend such public hearing as aforesaid,
are requested to present their views and suggestions in writing to the
commission at any time prior to the date of such public hearing.

(3) That copies of this resolution be given to the press and be sent
t<> all railroads engaged in the transportation of property and passen-
gers between two or more States of the United States and to all labor
organizations.

(4) That all communications be addressed to the chairman of the
United States Strike Commission, Washington, D. C.

In accordance with the above resolution the commission met at the
United States district court room in the city of Chicago, 111., on the
loth day of August, 1894, when the chairman made the following
announcement:

By the act recited in the commission of the President that has just
been read, this commission is directed to examine the causes, contro-
versies, and difficulties existing between the roads named and their
employees at the time the commission of the President was issued. The
board is constituted as a temporary commission for this purpose, and
not fqr the purpose of arbitrating the difficulties that existed. It is
practically a court of inquiry, and its proceedings will be in accordance
witli the usages of such courts. It will proceed to hear, first, all the
witnesses on behalf of the employees, and, afterward, those on behalf of
the corporations named in the commission, and all such witnesses are
requested to hand their names to the clerk of the commission. Under
the law parties may appear in person or by counsel, as they may see
fit, and examine and cross-examine witnesses.

After all the witnesses have given their testimony the commission
will then consider arguments and suggestions to be made bearing upon,
the questions before it. All such suggestions and arguments presented
in writing will be filed and considered by the commission; but the
question as to how far the commission will hear parties who desire to
be heard orally will depend upon the time left at the disposal of the
commission, and will be determined after the testimony is concluded.
This commission, by the act creating it, possesses all the powers and
authority which are possessed by and belong to United States commis-
sioners appointed by the circuit courts of the United States. The
hours of sitting of the commission will be from 10 a. m. to 12.30 p. m.
and from 1.30 p. m. to 4 p. in. Parties and their counsel and witnesses
attending will find seats within the rail. The commission is now ready
to proceed to business, and the marshal will preserve order, limiting
the attendance to the comfortable capacity of the room. The clerk
will now call the first witness.

During the session of thirteen days at Chicago the commission exam-
ined 107 witnesses, who were either presented by the parties or cited to
appear. At an adjourned session, held in Washington, September 26,
2 witnesses appeared, making a total of 109.

At the first hearing it developed that the Pullman employees very
generally became members of the American Eailway Union in March
and April, 1894, and that the 19 local unions which they had formed
had declared* a strike at Pullman; also that the railroad companies
named in the President's commission were members of the General
Managers' Association.
S. Ex. 7 u



XVIII CHICAGO STRIKE.

The contest was chiefly between these two organizations, and hence
nothing relating to the strike at Pullman or Chicago that affected
members of either organization could be excluded as not germane to
the subject under investigation. As a matter of discretion, the com-
mission believed it wise to permit the broadest latitude of inquiry,
inasmuch as the directions to the commission were " to examine the
causes of and the conditions accompanying the controversies."

LOSSES AND CRIMES.

According to the testimony the railroads lost in property destroyed,
hire of United States deputy marshals, and other incidental expenses,
at least $685,308. The loss of earnings of these roads is estimated at
$4,672,916. (a) Some 3,100 employees at Pullman lost in wages, as esti-
mated, at least $350,000. (b) About 100,000 employees upon the 24 rail-
roads centering at Chicago, all of which were more or less involved in
the strike, lost in wages, as estimated, at least $1,389,143. (a) Many of
these employees are still adrift and losing wages.

Beyond these amounts very great losses, widely distributed, were
incidentally suffered throughout the country. The suspension of trans-
portation at Chicago paralyzed a vast distributive center, and imposed
many hardships and much loss upon the great number of people
whose manufacturing and business operations, employment, travel, and
necessary supplies depend upon and demand regular transportation
service to, from, and through Chicago.

During the strike the fatalities, arrests, indictments, and dismissals
of charges for strike offenses in Chicago and vicinity were as follows (</) :

Number shot and fatally wounded 12

Number arrested by the police 515

Number arrested under United States statutes and against whom indictments

were found 71

Number arrested against whom indictments were not found 119

The arrests made by the police were for murder, arson, burglary,
assault, intimidation, riot, inciting to riot, and lesser crimes. The cases
passed upon by the special United States grand jury, which convened
on July 10, 1S94, related to obstruction of the mail, forbidden by sec-
tion 3995 of the United States Revised Statutes ; conspiracy to commit
offenses against the United States, forbidden by section 5440 of the
Eevised Statutes ; conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce among
the several States, forbidden by chapter 647 of the United States, laws

a Made up from evidence of and statements furnished by the twenty-four com-
panies comprising the General Managers' Association.

b As to number of employees, see testimony of Thomas H. Wickes, page 586; aa
to loss of -wages, see testimony of George M. Pullman, question 348.

c Made up from testimony of Superintendent of Police Brennan and further data
gathered from the police and court records by the United States deputy marshal in
attendance upon the commission.



CHICAGO STRIKE. XIX

of 1890; conspiracy to injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate citizens
in the free exercise and enjoyment of their rights and privileges under
the constitution and laws of the United States, forbidden by section
,V>os of the United States Revised Statutes.

Several indictments were found against Eugene V. Debs, George W.
Howard, L. W. Rogers, and Sylvester Keliher, officers of the American
Railway Union, under these different statutes. Neither indictments
nor proceedings were had under the act to regulate commerce, approved
February 4, 1887, as has been sometimes stated.

These great losses and many crimes ; the vast numbers, strength, and
resources of the labor that contended under the leadership of the Amer-
ican Railway Union upon the one side and Pullman's Palace Car Com-
pany and the General Managers' Association upon the other; the
attitude of labor toward capital, disclosed in its readiness to strike
sympathetically; the determination of capital to crush the strike
rather than to accept any peaceable solution through conciliation, arbi-
tral ion, or otherwise; (a) the certainty with which vast strikes let loose
the disreputable to burn, plunder, and even murder; the conversion
of industrious and law-abiding men into idlers, lawbreakers, or associ-
ates of criminals; the want brought to many innocent families; the
transformation of railroad yards, tracks, and stations, as well as the
busy marts of trade, into armed camps; the possibilities of future
strikes on more extended lines of union against even greater combina-
tions of capital are all factors bearing npon the present industrial
situation which need to be thoroughly understood by the people and to
be wisely and prudently treated by the government.

TROOPS, MILITARY, ETC (b).

For the protection of city, state, and federal property, for the sup-
pression of crime and the preservation of order, the city, county, State,
and federal forces were utilized a^ shown in the following statement:

From .July 3 to July 10 the number of United States troops sent to and used
in Chicago to protect the United States mail service and federal buildings,
and to sustain the execution of the orders of the United States courts was. 1, 936
Between July 6 and July 11 the State militia was ordered on duty at Chicago

and remained so long as needed, to the number of about 4, 000

Extra deputy marshals, about 5, 000

Extra deputy sheritl's 250


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