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THE



UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE

r

NEW SERIES.



COHTAINIKO



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS



IH



HISTORY, PHILOSOPHY, THE BELLES LETTRES,
POLITICS, AMUSEMENTS,



VOL. lY.

JULY to DECEMBER, 1NCLUSIVS.
1805.



LONDON i

ratHTSD yOR H. O. STSIOKBS, KO. 30» rATS&VOflTXB^ROW;
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THE

UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE.

No. XX.— Vol. IV.] Jbr JULY, 1805. [N«w Sbbib8«

II 1 ' a— anteaoe M l i i m

4 BioGRAPHicAi. 8KBTCH OF Wit- Buts IB QUT improvement of it. Hencel
LiAM KBBB BBLLENDBK, DUKB OF we need not wondcT that^ induced by
KoxBUROH, &c. this consideration^ Plutarch made no

THE true glory of an Ulustrious scruple to compare Aristides . with
character^ arises not merely j&om Cato the Elder^ mlbpsemen with 11-
external causes, from the pre-emi- tus Flaminius, Pelopidas with Mar-
nent distinctions of rank, dimified cellus, and jA^esilaus with f ompey
office, or fortune, peculiar to uie se- the Great ; a common citizen of
lected few, (and which are too fire-j Athens, Laoedaemon, or Thebes, witli
quently enjoyed by the frivolous, the a consul of Rome. That excellent
superbdal, and ignonuitjf but from writer did not weigh honours in th^
the known worth, and sond merit, of balance against honours, or great pub*
the individual, from principles, inhe^- Uc eskUes Bg^stmsX great puoac estates,
rent in the human soul. Honour is but mbk against men ; as rightly
not always the reward of civil talents judging that the radiance of sovereign
and accomplishments, or of a truly power and authority is oflen eclipsed
nnifQrm,heroical military virtue. One by the superior force of a shining
^)ede8 of it may, in many cases, be example, m many a private sub*
termed acddental, as being derived ject

from antiGui^ of fiunily, suidalong But notv'ithstanding this dlfiermoq^
fine of gloriott» atxrestors, and, in the fortunes and actions of such men
Others, as being obudned, not by the as figure in the first ranks of society,
accomplishing of good, peat, and or in the more conspicuous employ*
laudable actions, but from the £ivour qients of the state, more forcibly at*
of tnonarchs*, and by^means which tract our attention, and are generally
mavbe justly conudered as infamous,, considered as more worthy of our
rather than deserving of our imitation, observation, then those who hav^
or of our liberal and ingenuous com-^ rendered themselves honourable, in a
mendation. But althoij^h few are contracted sphere of life, however
bom to the splendid privikges of roy-» highly the latter inay be esteemed oo
alty or nobility, to be personages ex- account of their eminent abilities, good
altied above others, yet aU, from the qualities, and liberal endowments.
prince to the peasant, are alike by The history of a great man, whethex
Ztr/4— all are equal inheritors of that bad or good, is sometimes that of hi«
rational part or portion, that sacred whole age ^ nation, and may afFora
emulation, whicn prompts and en- more entertsdnment and pleasure za
eourag^ us to tread in the path of the perusal, a& being applicable to ^
equity, consistenoy, and propriety, nerai things and uses -, but the bio*
Tiiis is the general gift of nature -. graphy of a inst and truly honest man«
and the real £)d most valuable difre^- roay, nevertneless, convey a character,
eoce aouQg^t us, is that which con- or inculcate a usefol Bdorsil, and not

* A striking instance of diis kind occurred, not long ago, is the noble cttc and ei^
ample of a certain noble lord, whose name, it is presumed, oo one can be unacquaint-
ed with : — nobk let us call him, for so he has bctn made, and so men deem him— but
noble, from one of f ortmie't unlucky chances, and not from virtue. This noble lord,
vhohas loog distinguished himaetfm public life, and blazed out in fttii glory, thouglv
apv hettipcajs oni^ as a Udoudedsut^ thorn of his beams, and who is shrewdly sus«
pected 01 having been long fiittenipg by the crimes and follies pf the age, is now ar«
ntgoed attberfaorofnatioial justice, as the public defaulter of unaccounted myriads !
^ tpoaiUOMOBBs! Hktammvimtt FwitiimveraetiaminScnatmivenitt



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Vol. IV. B

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i Biographical Sketch rfike Duh of Roxhurgh.

be inferior to the other^ in t«apect of ^ William Kerr Bellenden, Duke of

pi^cepf and example. Roxbargh, Marimis of Beaumoftt exA

The noble subject of (the present Cesford, Earl of Roxburgh and Keko,

Memoir, has received lustre from both Viscount Broxmouth, Baron Kerr of

the above-mentioned distinctions. It Roxburgh, and Lord Bellenden, also

is natural to an Englishman to be Hereditary Usher of the Exoheqner

h^hly pleased vrith a truly ouutial in Scotland, and Knight of the Thistle,

soul and^enius, in our kings, princes, was the only son of the late Honour-

and nobles J who, in former agjes, far able William Bellenden (who died iir
from continuing the greater part of the month of February, \75o), bv Ja-

thelr time, in a state of personal inac- comine his wife, one of the daughters

tivity, or, at least, in a fatiguing hurly- and co-heiresses of John Turner, Esq.

turly of doing just nothing, (tabano' of Kirby-hall, in the county of Lin-

sus nihil agemoj — ^ferfrom making a coin. His Grace succeeded to the

virtue ftf idleness, by assuming me dukedom of Roxburgh, August 20,

appearance of industiy and diligence 1755, on the death of John the late

, — fer from rioting in the lap of an al- duke, when the English honours of
most Sardanapalian sloth and luxury Earl and Baron Kerr, of Wakefield,

•—were Foimd hunting, in their proper in Yorkshire, became extract. Hia

persons, m the field of glory 5 went Grace succeeded John, the 5th lord,

forth cheerfully and valiantly in the as Lord Bellenden, in the month of

defence of their country, at the head October, 1796. In the year 1751,

of their armies, conquering and to his Grace married Miss Burroughs,

conquer. bv which lady he had three children.

In addition to the advantages of be- all deceased ; and afterwards, in the
ing descended firom an ancient family, month of June, 17?^, his Grace mar-
andpossessing the highest rank, with ried Marv, daughter of Captain Be-
all those circumstances of an adventi- chenoe of the Royal Navy, and niece-
tious nature which supports the whole of Sir John Smith, Bart, of Sedling>
fabric of public admiration, with re- in the county of Dorset,
spect to externals, and which com- The'house of Roxburgh Ts a very
pose, as it were, a silver pillar of the ancient family, and came originally
Corinthian order of society, his Grace from Normandy. Kerr of Kerr-half,
the Duke of Roxbui^h, according to in Lancashire, was one great ancestor
the. mode and example of our magna- of it. From nim descended two bro-
nimous ancestors, ii not in a manner thers, Ralph and Robert, in the eoun*
born a sqldier, was certainly very early &' of Roxburgh, Scotland, North
initiated, in tlie many glorious toils, Britain, and who stand at the head of
and adventurous deeds of war. It is the two branches of Cesford and Fer-
a happy commendation of his Grace, nihurst. We learn from Scottish re-'
to say, that as he is completely form- cords, that 'the above-mentioned Ro-
^d to shine either in arms or a court, bert obtained from King David II.
»o he has ever blended the gallant the lands of Oultoburn, near the wa-
disposition, the rough character of a ter of Beaumont, and that he is con-
fioldier, with those;finer feelings which, sidered as an ancestor of the house of
embellish that of the true gentleman, Cesford, from which the Duke of
equally exempt from vice, foppery, Roxbuigh is descended. From the
and ignorance ; and where this is the other branch, that of Femihurst, the
ease, no link is wantingin the chain of Marquis of liOtfaiah h descended. It
maqly digDHias, of attractive merits— farther appears, that Sir William Kerr
ftothmg fa wanting to constitute and ofCesforawas knighted at the corc^
complete a red example of polite mo- nation of Queen Ann of Denmark,
^^}}y' in the year 1 590 ; that he was a Gen-

To these general reflections, the tieman of the Bedchamber to King^

spontaneous OTisions of our breasts, James VI. cf Scotland, amd the First

to the memory of an illustrious cha- of England; that he was created Lord

jf^cter, we annex a brief outline, Kerr, of Cesford, by that king; and,

cc)mpri»ing a few particulars respect^ in the year l6\5, was ferther advan-

ing the Duke's life, transmitted to us «edto the dignity of Barl of Itos^

frcTrnthepenofoDeofoorcorreSpon- borch. ThewUowing are the dates

dents. of the creations, in order ol time:*—

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Bingrapkicul Sketch oftlie Duke oj Boxiurgh. 3

LMdKarrofCdsfvd. in lOoS; £«rl The fiUowing Sum Were written
of Itofkborgh and Kelso, l6i6', Lord bv Dr. Walcott, and addressed to his
BeUenden, l66l ; Maraais of Beau- (Mce, on hit comhig to the dnke-
moot and Duke of RoxDurafa, April, dom :

ii??'^^^ ^^P ^^ ^^^ ?S'* ?^ " Nature, at lennh. my Lord, is kind,
Wakefield, m the county of York, \{^i^h proves & Godijcjs is not blind;
Maj 14, 1722. The present Duke s Allow mc then to give you joy : .
mother was Essex Mostyn, eldest And let me add, I hope when "Faroe
toghter of Sir John Mostyn, Bart, of Your wcaldi and tiriei shall proclaim,
Flintshire, toe died on the 7th of she'll note the field of Fontenoy/'
December, 1764.

The Duke wa» bom in the month Her Grace the Duchess, is one of
of April, 1740, and, as before observ* the finest women in Europe, and ap*
ed, entered ^t an early period into the pears, at this moment, to the|;redtest
anqy, viz. in the year 1744, and was advantage, fascinating fi-om th«
present $t the famous battle of Fon- charms of her person, and in the foH
tenor, where be carried the colours bloom of beauty and mental accom-
of the regiment, and highly distin- piishiyents. Her form has received
guished himself by his coolness and the nicest and most finishii^ touches
intrepidity, by not only preserving of Nature's hand; and her exalted
his own colours, but those also of a mind and feeling heart, ai di^ilayed
brother-officer, who was killed in the in her generous, proper conduct, may
action, frotn ^ing into the hands of be held up as a model well worthy
the enemy. Afterwards, entering the the imitation of many in what is call-
r^ment tXMnmanded by his uncle, e(} high life - and even of the aggre«>
the late Duke of Argyle,ne again s^g« gate of the ladies in general. Her
nalized himself at tiae battle of Ciu- Grace derives her dienity, not from a
ioden: but being ordered back to haufhty carriage, or lof^ demeanour,
Flanders, with his regiment, to join in her present splendid and elevated
the army, his Grace, tnen still- an en« situation, but from those genuine
s^, and Mr. Bellenden Kerr, was .^ualitiesof mind and character whidi,
present at the battle of Lafielt, in the ui the very nature of.things, can alone
year 1T47. - In the month of De- confer it — ^sweet simplicity, an amir
cember, ^755, he was appointed cap- ^ble temper, and the graces of spright-
tain in the 54th regiment/ and, in ^> engaging, condescending* maanent.
the year 17979 he succeeded to the Reading and music are her Graced
title of Lord Bellenden ; and, upon mo&t favourite pur8aits-«-<uid she iiaa
the death of the late Duke of Rox- ever preferred the cultivation anden-
burgfa, in 1804, he succeeded to the joyment of these, amidst the, rural
ddcedom, and other honours of the scenes to which they are most coi>^
6mily. genial, to the noise, tumult, and

The Duke of Roxbuiigh b about nustle, of the beau monde. In the
themiddle sice, of polish^ manners, select circles which she forms, ease,
pleasane;,gracefiil, and el^ant, in per- elegance, lively sallies of wit, a luxuh
ioaandaddiws, and perfectly desti* i^ious imagination, and ^U thb agr^
tote of tliat hauteur Which too fre^ ^^ns that render female conversation
({uently accompanies elevated situa- so delightful, are enjoyed in their
tiona. The Duke is never deficient highest perfection,
ie patronizing and semunerating men The following line9 breathe a spirit
ef genius. He is earticularly attach- of ingenuous admiration, and are the
ed to the study and practice of music, production of ^n author not accu*-
andisa pleasing per^mer. His tomed to address the '* flattering line"
Gnce is extensive but judicious in his to high rank, destitute of other re-r
liberalities, and select and nngh-^ken conunendations :
b his friendships. ^ ^ ^ _ , " O blest with beauty, wit, aad taste.

Having said thus much of the Duke Fortune has paid her court at last ;
ttfioxborgh, we must necessarily re- And yet the muse believe—
M bim as the antipodes of most of Who scorns die mean, the flatt'ring line—
S? S?? ?*" ® , "* present day. More worth is ev'ry charm of diine.
ITie Duke has no heir to any of his Than all the Goddess has 10 give,
utles. ,

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OMGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

OK Msr«098 OH FAL^INQ 5TOMB»« twopheDomeiiaofmeteors and falling
IN the sixth volume of the Abridge* stones : and indeed it has of late heed
meat of the Philosophical Transapr taken for eianted^ or concluded, that
tions, now publishing, there is a pa- every such meteor-like appearance is
|ter of the great Dr. Halley's, con- attended by the M of a stone or
talniqg his thoughts on Extraordinary stones, although we do not always see
Meteors. From this we learn that the the place of the fall, npr can discover
luD&inous bodies sometimes seen in the falling bodies or atones them-
the atmosphere, are, in the Doctor's selves.

i^kiion, merely Uiikindled Yvpo^n. This conclusion, however, has con -
An objection to this, however, is tributed nothing towards enabling u«
started qy the ingenious Dr. Hutton, to discover the origin of these bodiesy
in his notes on tte said paper,, (from at least as to their generation in the
which notes the IbUowmg observa- atmosphere ; on the contrary, it seem*
tioQs are taken, with some verbal al- still more difficult to account for the
toations, adapted to the sute o^ a po« production of stones, than of gaseous
piiiar miscellany) that the diliicuity, meteors in the atmosphere, as well as
Hot to say apparent impossibilitv, of to inflame and give them such violent
conoeivingj hem exhalatums could be projectile force. In fact, philosophers
raised so higb» seems insurmountable, nave given up the idea of r^ularly
Slid requires some other origin to ac- accounting tor the origin of^ these
count for it aatisfiulonly. Indeed a phenomena, as hopeless. One idea,
number of later observations, parti- however, both possible and probable,
tnilarly some recent and well-attested has been sugs^ted on the subject, by
iacts in France, have induced a be- some of theFrench mathematicians^
lief that these huninous appearances particularly by Af. La Place; an idea
are aUied to, if not the very same as, of so extracMxhnary a nature, as both
the stones which have frequentlv been to astoaisl) and gratify us with its ixk
Icnown to have £dlen from the at- velty ^nd boldness ofconception. Tins
mospheoe, at difierent times> and in is no less than the conjecture that
•ellparts of the globe. these stony masses are projected fix>m

• These luminous bodies are seen to our sister-planet, the moon ! None
Aiove with very great velocities, in but a philosophical astronomer amid
oblique directions, descending some- have prc^xised such a conjecture, and
times, if not con^monly, with a loud at the same time proved its possibility,
hissing noise, resembling that of a This, however, J«l. La Plaos has beoi
^ mortar shell, or cannon ball, when enabled to perform by the rules at
ej^oded, or rather, perhaps, like strict mathematical calculation. . He
that of an irregular haia mass project- has demonstrated, that a mass, if prov
ed violently tlSoctfh the air. It is al- jected from a volcano in tlie nioon»
ways surrounded by a blaze or flame, with a certain degree of velocity^ of •
tapering ofFtx> a narrow stream in the about a mile and a half per second,
hinder' part of it (which is not impossible to be done).

These said bodies or masses are'seen, it will thence be thrown beyond the
or at least heard, to burst and to fly sphere of the nooon's attraction, and
in pieces; the larger parts goin^ fore^ of course descend into the confines of
most, and the smaller blowing in theearth*s; so that the mass must
succession. They then £ill on the pretendy fall to the earth, and be*
earth,andstrikeit with great violence, come a part of it
and on examining the place where Moreover, we may safely conclude,
tbev fall, the part&of the above masses that the bodies in question were not
will be found scattered about in all projected by any terrestnal volcanoes^
directions, being still considerably ancl still Luther, that we have no
warm, and most of them will have right, judging aooording.to the esta-
forced their way into the eartii, seve- l)hshed laws and analogies of nature^
.rat inches deep. After so many fbcts to suppose that they were formed in
and concurring circumstances, it is the upper regions of the atmosphere^
difficult for the most inci-eduloas to To a^oody pkiced on the sur&e of
^^fuse assent to the identity of the the moon, uie attraction towards its

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A Touch upon the Timm: 3

ceatermostbe incomparably greater moon, bv the pOmrfol' tubes of Dr.
tfaafl (bat wluch draws it towards the Herscheu ; and still more, if we con*
center of our earth ; tbese beinj? the sider that all projections from the
tvo forces which must principafl^ af- earth encounter and suffer an enor-
ibct such a body } but supposmg it to moos resistance and diminution, bf
lecede from the moon, a pomt of the dense atmpsphere of this planet^
Madon will at length be foimd, be- while it has bleen rendered probable
tween the two planets, where these from optio^ considerations, tliat tbft
ferees are exactly equal, so that' a moon has little or no atmosphere at
liodj placed there nmst of course re- all, to give any such resistance,
mam at rest, or, as it were, in equili- The case of possibility being thus
brio,* but if it be removed still nearer made out, ^d the natural effects ao-
to tbe earth than this j^et, would cording witli the supposed cause, the
Inve the aoperior attraction, and the concomitant circumstances will like-
body most descend towards it. Now, wise ajftbrd a very hidi degree of prp*
supposing a mass. to be projected from bability, perhaps li^ue short of cer-
the moon's sur^ce, in a direct line taintyitself, to thishvpo^thesis. Now,
towards the earth, by a volcano, or the chief known ana visible pheno*
&om the production of steam ope- mena, and leading circumstances,
radng by the means of subterranean that attend these blazing meteors, or
heat, then a force projecting the body burning stones, mav be thus enomo-
^tk a velocity of 12,000 feet in a rated and summed up; and with
•eoQod, OD ^ Newtonian estimation these we shall conchioe the present
of die moon's mass, would be suifi- article. 1. They blaze out suddenly,
cicnt to carry it beyond the point of or appteir to do so. 2. They move
equal attraction. Batthisestunateof with a surprisingly rapid motion^
the moon's mass is now allowed by nearlv horizontal m its direction, but
nsidi to exceed the truth; and, on a little inclined downwards. 3. They
M. La Place's calculation, it appears move in several different directions,
tliat a force of little more than half considered with respect to the points
te above power would be sufficient of the compass. 4. In their fli^t
to produce the said efi^ j that is, a they emit a loud whizzing souiid.
fyroe capable of projecting a body 5. They conmionly burst with a vio-
wtthav^odtypfless than a mile and lent explosion,, and «loud report,
a half per second. But we have 6. Hie^ fall on the earth with sreat
known cannon-bdls projected, by the force, in a sloping direction. 7- They
^irceof gun-powder, with a velocity are very hot>at firat, remain so for a
of 2500 Jeet per second, or upwards^ considerable time, and exhibit mani-
that is, about half a mile. It foHows, i^st indications of fusion on their sur«
tfaere^e, tbfit a proiectile force com- hce, 8. The fallen stone masses have
inaoicating a vdocl^ about three dil the same external appearance, and
times that of a cannon-ball, would be contexture, as well as internally the
sufficient to throw the body from tlie same nature and composition. And,
moon beyond the point of*^ equal at- 9- They are totally dilierent from all
traction, and cause it to reach the other bodies, both natural andartifi-
earth. <^i^> that have been discovered on the

Now, there can be little doubt that surface, or in the entrails of our ter-
a force equal to what is here men- restrial globe.



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