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IS to he lowered or n:i«5cd for that pur- spout is opened or shut alternately* by
. pose 'y accorJir.p lo which mode of con- means of a slider, or any other construe^
itniction, the nuiuld and frrme will al- tix)n, and forming, as' it were, when
xvays move unif<»rmly together, whether >shut, a part of the side where the luouid
i;p or djDwn. On some part of the side slides as the mould jriics up; and is
or end oi* the s lid re>ervoir, at or near opened again alternately as tne mould
to the basis or bottom tlKTujf, an aper- descends.

turc of toloral)ly large clinicni«ions is to The whole apparatus being oi^nized
be cut, calculaLed to let tlie water, with and adjusted so as to be ready for action.
which the rcscr\oir is fUhd when in use the regnlatinp; rescr\oir is' filled "willi
and operation, d^schar^c itself. This water, till it discharges the same at the
a})erfure is cf»%ercd o\er with a hollow orifice or aperture of tlje external -vi'astcf
i\-ooden trunk on the outsiile, and is or trnnk above described ; and then the
fitted to the external side of the cistern mould, being at its lowest station, has -
with a water-tight junction, and is con- the wire sunace immerged, as before
tinned up abput one quarter or half an obsen^ed, above one quarter or half an
inch above the surface of the paper- inch below the level of the surface of
mould within the reservoir, when the the water : and the valve or lid whick
*aid mould is depressed to its lowest de- .covers fhc piouth or apertjirpof the said
gree. At tliis line of ajtitu.de, the top waste or trunk being then shut, it pne-
of the said external tnmk or waste-pip^ vents the escape of tne water' from The
is cut horizontally, or has a vertical hole interior of the reservoir. And while
made in its side, the lowest extremity of the machine is in this situation,' the
which must cut t^ie saine line as above, sluice which opens the cninmunicsLtioa
so that the internal water may always between the feeder above the mouldy is
be gauged by this discharge equal to tne then lifted up, and admits the stuff, (the
swne level, m either case that may oc- proper ten^r and consistency of which
casionally be adapted to accommodate nas been poevjkMuly adjusted) ffom the
the various circumstances of local po- feedjngx^istern to flow upon the surface
sition. This aperture in the trunk is of the mould to any limited g^axi^c of
closed by a lid or valve, which opens quantity required for tlie sheet ; ajid
v.hen the mould within the reservoir is when this quantity has flowed, which
raised, and shuts again as It descends, is instantly done, the sluice is shut, ^ad
..by virtue of the action of the same ma- then, by the motion of the apparatus,
chinj^rv. Matters being thus provided, which lifts ^nd lowers the frame aad
thfjre Is snothcr cistern placed on one mould, it is gradually raised more or
hide of tlie reservoir already described, less, as exfxirience niav dictate, up to it*
.oi* any li^arc or dimensions that may highest point; and by opening the valve
he -thought most commodious, or best or hd of the waste trunk at the instant
.;;daptcd to the situation, and having its the mould begins to rise, all the water
ba?is nearly on a level with the brim or is instantly discharjicd fwm above the
upper surface of the former one above- inould, by passing throngh the wire into
mentioned, called the regulating rcser- the lower part, and is curried off to thp
voir, so that the upjier one may be com- former level of the waste, being tlius
])etent to discharge itself into the lower prepared for a second depression of thp
9ne. To this upper cistern, Mr. Bra- mould, or rather, to speak more cor-
mah gives the name of the feeder or the rectly, for another mould, because tlic
staff cistern, in which there is fixed loaded owe, when - raised to its highesj
what is called the hogy or a small agi* point, is made to push awav on slides^
titor, which is kept constantly moving to meet the coucner's han3, who fur-
in the usual way, in order to prevent nishes, at the same time, the alternate
the subsiding or unequal AQi&turc of the mouldy and wbeq the mould is a^<u;(



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Modem Discoveries, andtmprovemenis in Arts, Sciences, t^c, $4f



[ • depressed, the valve or lid on the waste.

' beiag shut, the machine is fitted for a
second change, and thus the process is
continued with unerring certiuaty, ease,
and success.

Another improvement consists in an
invention for making paper in endless
sheets, of any length or width whatever,
by means of a circulating process,, de-
scribed at length in the patent, (or tlve
ingenious reader may consult the last
number of the Repertory of Arts, iSJa.-
nulijctures; and Agriculture, or the
number ior December of the present

A third improvement consists in Mr.
Bramah's having c-ompletely superseded
the necessity of employing so great a
tiumber of presses for the dry work ; a
^-ant whicn is absolutely unavoidable
in works of even but a tolerable extent:
this must be attributed to the length of
time that the paper is required to con*
tinae in them, in a compressed state, on
which account a larger capital is indis-
^ peiisable, as likewise extensive buildinjzs
expressly for tlie recepSon of sucn
presses j both of which objections are
removed by Mr. Bramah*s newly in-
vented plan, as he makes one press or^ly
competent to supply the offices of al-
most any greater number constructed
J on the common plan. For the means
and machiner)' whereby this is produced,
see as above. .

Alrw Bramah's fourth and last im-
provement consists in having so con-
trived the interior of the drying house
of a pa|x:r mill, as to render the mi sing
aiid ukiiig down of those ponderous
and cumbersome frames, on which the
paper is hung, wholly. unnecessary -, by
which said miprovement, Mr. li. not
only enables paper manufacturers to
employ women or chlldjen to do the
duty of the drying house, in lieu of
men, but he likewise adds considerable
facility to the process of hanging and
re-hanging the sheets intended to be ex-
posed to dry. By this means, jmper
makers will be less dependant on men
of unruly tempers and disorderly beha-
viour, who yet have heavy salaries ; and
moreover, the young and more feeble
orders of society will be enabled to pro-
cure employment and a comfortable
subsistence : and lastly^ considerable
savings in the general* expenditure of
the establishment will b^ a udtund azid



Patent to Sir George JFright,Bart.
of Ray Lodge, in Essex, for an instru-
ment or machine intended for the cut^.
ting out of so/id stone t woody or other
materiali, pillars or tubes, eitJier cy-
Itndrkal or conical, uifJi a very con-
siderable saving of lalaur and mate-
rials. Dated March 30, 1805.— The
said invention consists iii the application
of a saw or saws, or other instruments,
in a hole or holes previously drilled in
the stone, wood, or other materials for
that purpose, or of saws or ijisfcruinents
for sawing, working, or cutting, from a
centrt: or centres, or in a tangent of azi/
given cirdc or oval, without chipping or
hollowing;. The specification is accom-
panied with plans or pbtcs,«exhibiting
the principle of working, on which
these instruments act, in a hole or holes
drilled at given distances, according to
the diameter of* the tubes or columns,
or according to the nature of any other
work that is required to be performed ;
the shaft through which the drill runs,
having both a rotatory and a perpendi-
cular motion : it also contains a plan of
the saw or instrument proper, to oe ai>-
plied to form tl>e tube or column re-
quired, &,c. &c. The above invention
and process will also form pipes, cis-
terns, cantilivers, chimney-tops, arches
foF- sewers, Gothic work,, semi-circles,,
and, indeed, aH other .circular vrork of
every description.

. Patent to JXJr, Isaac Hawkins, of
Glusspp, in Derbyshire, far an inucn"
tion apfilicable to musical instrumtnts^
the principles of which are also a^}pli^
cable to various other af licks, wherein
machinery is concerned. 'Dated Nov.
13th, 1800. — ^llie said improvements
(which, it. appears, were communicated
in confidence to Mr. 11. by his son Mr.
John Isaac II. now or late a resident in
Philaddphia, XoriK America) consI>t
(among other particulars), in metallic
elastic strings, to be formed by wiro
being turned into a sj>iral, cufved or ser-
pentine form, pr made with links like a
chalp. and. in tended to produce a bass^
sound, and to occupy a much shorter
space than by the or Jinary constructions.

2: Water proof strings are herein
directed to be <^j>pjlccl .to all musical in-
sirumenis," wliereyer ihcy can be intro-
duced and nsi-d. *

3. . Tlie striiiss of pianofortes, and
all oilier linger-kcycd instruments^ are
rcqwircd to be^Jixcd in a perpcudicuUr



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S48 ^Modem Discoveries, mid Mprovemmt^ in Arts, Seiemef, 45V.

poskioti br nearly 90, e^ctending frdm pul^eef, wbidr all ^e portiev c onee mBi
itbout three or (bur feet high to wirhin in might naturaliy wish to see Imrard-iR
t few mch^s Of die floor. This wiil oblivion, k 19 a ctrcuRntanee not a Itttiv
hawe xht effect to render the shape of ttxtSQonHnar\% that yowngr Mr. Irc4mil,
piano fortes, &c. more eonvcnient suid the von' person whose falshooci an^ hw
elegant than hcrbtofore. One end of posture nave jusftiv hiionwi so grest ft
each string of all stringed insftumonts is proportion of the pitWic hlame^ should
to be connected with a spnn». It is again be in fauU, shaiildagaMreodc a t o u r
fcrther intended to make an imprcw^ to revive the agitation of it. • In.- th e p r e* *
mentin piano fortes, harp*}> violins, and sent work, if Mr. I/s a^otrat aajr be
kideed all musica! stringed ii»tramems, safely believed, a bnrdcnsome- share «f
by constv^mtng them without any hoar the guift and the blt^e must be il B ilj^ '
ot hoWow spac« under the sound boani, lerrcd to several other persdm. It i*
•r, in other words, the soutid. boand is dismal that %ve are oblts*ed to dcpo ii p c e
fo bec3fpo«Bdon both sfdes. in this manner, information that we &d

9. It is designed to- chaw a Icngdienr Aot need, atjd t» proclaim that, ** a liar
«d tone from a string or belf^ orotiwr is commonly disbeHevr^dynreff dithoo^^-
vibrarting bwly, by the revolution of a* like the boy ht the fable, ht should fiir
hoop or ring, on the inside of which once speak the truth."** 'Hhr accoant
haire dre stret^htnl, in equal chord* of which Mr, I. gives to Wr. ChalnreTS^
dte circle, intersecting; each other, and' rrfarirc to the origin of his imposture^
tiiepeby describing awf forming a regular dtjes not appear^o adH^any* weight to his
polygonic elastic surface of hiiir. testimony oh cny subject. " itw«s,'*

il. The fraaw which contnins the sayh he, *" at first to me ihe moeatex^
inger keys of piano ft>rles, oi^gans, ftc. ercise of a leieute hour in boyhood, iti
is to tnrti on pivats or a^es, with anetr please an indulgeut parent, nn^ {pvtify
io shut tip> and so cotitrived as to con- a biameiess ranily." What is this hot
tract tl\e space which the instrument telling the -puhlic in plamEir^ish, that
occupies wflen not in tune, &c. &c. after all the disgrace which Mr. I. has

Patent to Air. Benjamin Batfrf, justlV involved himself in^ as fikcwisl
Sttgar-refiwr, of Queen-street, cky vf pis ^ther ami his friends-— after afl the
Loml'm,Jhr a nen'bj difcoreri^ metfjod nrisvry which he represents Ik'unself vnd
of ref»ntns[ sugars. Dated July Sih, family as having endured on that ac-
iSG5. — ^T^bc 'process of this new and eomit, what is this but telling us, that
improved method oC refining supars with Mr. I. regards /aAAW as innocent; and
milk, is to be performed in the following »ajn'(y as b^amctrss?^ What! Is Mr. I.
manner: llr^t, clKiTg|e the sugar pans then to learn that truth and integrity
with tlie usual t^usTrtity of lime water, are indispensable'to the mcmcomda rtctti
and (or cacl\,tmi weigln.of su<«ar to be or to justite, and a sense of coostrioos
^(rned, -allow at the 'rate of tew gaifomr Tectitude- that these are mocal i-irtues,
c»r skimmed milk, more or leM, a^ may and that King ami imposture are odious
be judged necessarj', accoitliTig to the vices? bInlessMr. I. act%iQUv designed
qualitv cf tlie sugar. Mix. five gjdlons and imended to injure his fi^low ciea-
of such milk with the lime wntcr ; then tures, he holds WinseM' guiltless. Un-
^kip the sv!gJaT, tend' ler rt reni«m in the Jess the autltor supposes that the Bibfi^
pens, aft^ fhrs operatron, til! the fol- fike his own Shakspearian papers, is a
Kwnng motnin?, when the whoie mass rissue of cunningly devised fables, let
#o mi^ceil fs to be stimxi up together; him advert to tlie fiiiHowing passages in
9nd after taking off ehc first scum of the it: Prov. vi. 17, aud xii, 2% and to
eugm-, add rrroTc siaunfied miH?, and Ep^osians, ir. 25, and t Tina, i: 10^
contimie to tqx^t the same crperation Rei-. xxi. S. 2^., and xxii. 15. Ad-
aft^resch c\*ttac»td sewn of the sugar, tmtting, then, that every sentence of
until the great hodj- of die liquor be per- Mr. Ps present -work is untiue, yet
fcctly deinrd, 8fc. '&t, unless ttw intended to injure afiy per-

— — son, he will' still, foreootii, consider it

A work hsii beeti Ictcly published, as an innocent exercise. And yet it is
ent'tled, **The Cunfessions of "^'iHiam very possiblt, that oih»irs may liavccxe-
Henry Ireland," contaimng- the particu- cmcd those foraeries, for the composi*
l&T?i fit his fabricafiioa of Ine Shwspeore tion of which, ne t^kes so much cie^t
MSS. Sec. See. Af^ a silence of at to his own sublime genius; and yet his
least nxsit years on a very dis%re«able assertions on this sa(>jeci wiU k - — '^

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Modem tHscovmes, and hnprm^eincnls in Arts, Sciences, ii^i?. 549



Mitiit af excuse in his ownconscieoce,
aTtid before God and man* as being de^
sijgned only to '* graiify a barnikss va-
iMtv." ^ These iaiereDces ane thenaturaJ
and . necessary result of suck a strange
doctrine; and we regret that we fed.
ourseives under a necessity of pointing
out the baneful eHects ot disipgenuilv
in all its forms. Wheiefore shouid it
l>e said that tiic author,, after having ex-
perienced the said effects U>r a period oi'
nine years, shouid not yei have learned
the necessity of moral piinciple, even to
^rBnder human intercourse sausihptory or
secure, and thai even gisnius itself is de-..
spicable without it? One would liave
thought, that Mr. I. must long since
have discovered f the man who first
i Invented 4he art of speaking tnuh to.
hove been a cleverer fell9w than he had
ever stipposed him. to be." Mr. I. hns
stiil this grand discoveiy to ^lake. We
aoe not unwilling tp give credit to the
account wiiiqh Mr. 1. reports of. his
^^cacUial and unintentional- progress in
fraud and imposture,; but neither in the
conunencemeot, the prosecution, nor
tlic close of the present work, can we
see the slightest grounds for acquitting
tlMs author, however easily and smooth-
ly he. seems to acquit himself, nf anftct
of moral turpitude, i>f'gailt towards God,
towards his fellow creatures, aad to*
wards his own conscience.

We are happy to leani,that a very
splendid edition, in Kngfish, of that
ancient and invaluable work, Giraldus
Cambrensis, edited by Sir Richaid Colt
Hoare, hart, is now in the press, and
will be published in the course of the
ensuing spring, lliis celebrated per-
focmiance contains the curious Itinerary.
or Progress oi' Archbishop Baldwyn
tluough the. Principality of Wales, in
the year i 1 1 8 : it was undertaken by
the desire of Henry il. king o£ England,
fw ihe purpose of recommending and
preaching up the cause of Crusades,
ilie details of the ioucney, and of the
viirious iocideuts which occurred to the
mission, were faithfully noted and qax^
fuUy conimitted to writing by Ginddi^ .
who V travel led in the train ols the arcih
bishop. • To. this Itinerarv, Giraldus
added ^ Dc^saknUon of the l^riocipality,'
in ulse.4>coii(8, .descdbiog the topograiihy
of 4he country, and the then urevailing
manners and customs of its innabitant£».
The \k\uM of the above work will he
siirtrUy subnnttcd^ for the hrat time, in
the EugUfihlaaguage. to ihe considera^
Vot.lV-



tion of a Britisii public. The (cxt will
be illustrated by numerous. al)notatio^^ ;
by a map, delineating the tour of the .
crusading missionaries ; by thirty-orie
views taken from nature by Sir Richard
Hoare^ and engraved by the late Mr.
Byr^e ;. also by plans o'f the cathedral
churches of LiandafF and St. David's : .
also by jportrails of Rhvs, Prince of
South VI ales, and of |he VVelsh author
of the work, Giraldus, and by many
other architectural and monumental an-'
tiquities, drawn i)y Carter, and engraved
by Basire. Prefixed to the wT»rk wiH .
be given a co{>ious but succinct Life of
the Author, together with ah Intro-
duction io the History of M^ales, de-
scribing its state, revolutions, &u. prior
to the date of the itinerary; and like-
wise particularly noting such of {he
Homan roads and stations as have been
liitlierto discovered tliroughout the
principality.

At the same time with thd publication
of the above work, will be republished
a small impression of the original Latia
edition of the Itinerary and the Djescrip*
tion of Wales, together with the Critical
Annotations of Dr. Powell. To this
will be added, the second bpqk, entitled^
Dt lUaudahmbui fVailial, originally wrh-
ten ^ Giraldus, but omitted in every
preceding ddition of his works.

M. Tielker, an artist of Berlin, who
proposes to accom|)any the Russian
Kmbassy to China, with a view to ex<^
hibit the panorama of Petersburg to the
const an J others in the capital of that
empire, pnoposes, as circumstances anet
tlie ordinary distrust of the Chinese shall
permit himv to take {)Ians of the priu-« -
cipal yiews in thj»t extensiv;e country,
and particularly of Pekin, for the piiV*
pose of painting panoramas of them,
wltich hev|Mropose« to exhibit on his re.*
turn, ia the European cafjitals.

Sei'ecal accurate editions of the Clas-
sics have latdv been publi»lied in the
city of New Vork ; anions^ these are,
CiBsar's- CommetUaries, Virgil's W'ofks,
aodrthe Orations ol' Cicei ->. These ha\ia
been edited bv Mr. Malcolm Campbell.
In Philadcl))liia also, an edition of
Virgil, Cssar, and 8aHiist have bceii
published for tju; use of the lower lofm§
m the schools of tlie New Continent.
Editions of Corderics Colloquies, .&80j>'s
Pables, Erasmus, aiid Sclcctae^ Profanis^
are announced, and adverli^d as ready
for publication.

.^.D. Starck, esq. of tlw Royal navy ,
4B

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656 Mddem Dhtoveries and ImprovemeHtls in Arts, Sofixxesy ^c.



has lately indented an application com-
.. pass, for the purpose of taking bearings
on a chart. This instrument consists
of an inner and outer brass concentric
circle, the latter of which is to be ap-
plied lo a chart iu such a manner, that
Its cardinal points may coincide or agree
with those of the drauf!;tit, aod with its
eentral or metallic point, adjusted ^i-
lecdy over the ship's place, llie inner
circle is to be set to the variation, and
the tliread from the centre being also
adjuaicd or laid, it will shew cither the
biiririgsby comjxiss,or the true liearings
according to the circle upon which tliey
are read. This said instrument is of
such a nature as to be likewise appli-
eabfe to the purposes of delineating,
plotting, and various other uses.

It is a fact well known and ascertain-
ed, of late years, that the gus ohtainefl
Irom the distillation of coal, wood, and
other inflammable substances, bums
with a sulftciciitlv steady light and a
high degree of brilliancy/ In the year
17()2, it appears that a' Mr. Murdoch,
a UHilve of Cumnock, ill Ayrshire,
North Britain, and who. has Iwcii em»
ployed in the semce and \vh\*^ of Messrs
Jjolton and Watts, of Soho, Birraing-
hanx, made a numix.*r of curious and,
at that time we believe, original experi-
ments, with a view to ascertain whether,
in soiue cases, thi« gas might not be
used With consiaetable oeconomical ad-
vantage, as a substitute for lamps, can-
dles, and the like. It appctrs that these
experiments have beeo since rcjieatcd by
others, in consequence of which it has
been found that the gas produced from
* tlie distillation of )Ht coal is, in &ct»
preferable, in a ^reat variety of respects,
to that which is obtarncd from otner
substances, and more especially because
it affords a whiter and denser flange.
From the numerous trials that have
been recently made, a strong presump-
tiOfi is induced, that the light afforded
by the combustion of this gas may be
employed very advantageously in the
Fighting of theatres, tnanufactofies, pub-
lic buildmgs, streets, &c. &ic. In the
laudable prosecution of this idea, the
necsssaiya;>paEatus has, wc understand,
been fitted in several shops in the city
of Glasgow^ and in the great manufac-
tories in its nciahbpurliood; and indeed,
for some months nast, ' the Inhabitants
liayc been gratified with seeing a num-
bei" of different p!accs(amofte; others the
Icont of the e^chan^c)^ btauufuUy il-



luminated^ on tH'r principle, wl'icn tKe"
light appeared' with a btiliiancy very
much superior to tliat of the cammoo
lamp. — Should this mode of illuminat-
ing the streets, public works, .&c. Zee.
take phace, it will, prove an immense
saving to the public at large, and to io-
dividuaJ*, in jioint of expcnce. llie
mans^nsent and -process of this QHxle
of lighting i* extremely simple, and it
'moreover possesses some incidcniaJ pro-
perties which confer upon it, in certain
situations, snch advantages in respect f>f
security, as common lamps and caii-
dies do. not possess. Three or four
pounds of coaU yield gas enough to illu-
minate and enliven a large apartment for
several hours ; and Uiis savmg will re-
sult, that the coals need notbedcstroyvd,-
but may be coavcrted into diarcoftl, and
so will bccom(^ still lobre valuable than
even at first. In a situation where a com-
mon fire i« uniformly kept burning, for
other and. stated purposes^ a shop has
not onlv been kq)t brilliantly iUumi-'
nsited^ ^ut also a sufficient degree oC
light has been- emitted, to eiialde fire
or six working men to attend their U-
bouTs for four hours successively, whcft
the retort was charged with no more
than seven pounds of coaU ; which, m
some districts, amounts to considerably
less than a halfpenny worth in point M
expence. The apparatus is attended
with very little cost; and in raanv in-
stances, it will be found that little Or
no additional fuel wiU be requisite above
what must be einployed fot other neces-
sary purposes, llie apparatus consists
principally in a strong iron retort, with
a cover to it, so 'constructed as to bar-
air-tight; and to a hole in tb^ cover, a
str6og tube of iron or copper, a few
Feet. in length, is adapted, tor the con-
dncting and conveying the gas*. When:
the retort is filled up about thtee parta^
in four, with small coals, shut up wiib
its cover and inclosed tube, and placed
in a good fire, the gas will very sf>eodilv
begin to discharge, or diseneage itself^;
and when it is found to be inflammable,
it then begins to be fit for use In this
•cate of the process; the supply of air is
constant', and consecjuently wbtei light-
ed, it will not continue to bum. On;
this^ccount, chietly, it has been thought
fit to make a small addition to the above-
mentioned apparatus. Tliis u^sually con-
sista of a vessel placed, in an inverted
position, in anoilier vessel co&tainini;

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Modern Dhcoveries <i7idJwjnovements in Arls, Sciences^ &c. 551



-cover of the rftort, wtcylie brought im-
mediatcly muier the in\*eried vessel, ii>
'.CO whicK the pas is discharged ; and as
the said vessel tills, it will be &tcn to .ex-
trude, or force out the water. With the
top of the .said inverted \e&^el is con-
nected another conducting tul>e., which
anay be fon&trueted of anv form or
length wliatcver, arid must lie so con-
nived as to convey the gas to tlie iJace
where it is intended* to be burnt. This*
^be is moreover to be fitted with a stop-
cock, which shall be competent to
<lischaTge or confine the gas, at the op-
4ion of the 6|)erator. When the stop-
cock is opened, the gas will be found
4.0 discharge itself at the end of the tube,
where it is to be burnt, with a qi^antuip



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 100 of 108)