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by exposure to the air, if such bleach- plate. .

mg be tho\;^ht necessary, with an Piatent to. Mr. Jactob Bi^ngtffi,
ec^ud quantit]|r of strong lees or so- gentleman, of the ci^ of Bristol, for
lution of caustic alkali, stirring it con* a new method of straininjg or stretchr
stantly, and after boiling it three, ing, (commonly called mbiting) all
four, or five hours, as may be neces* kuids of woollen doth, for cropptng
saiy, pour it when hot, and in a gluey or shearing, and for stfetchii^; or
state, into the boikr c^soap, prq»r« straiQing ail other kinds of ^ece*
.ed with tallow, fiit« or oil, as befm, goods. To strain cloth, or «iy otbcr
being also hot ^ and bring the whde atofB that require straining* the list9
again into a §ktey state, or liquid of tfaa ck>tk most be aecmred to ooa
state, by pouring into it abcfit 29O edge of stiiong web, by ladog of
pounds wdght of the lees, or suck otfiarwise^ the other edge nf the ww
quaatitK as may be thought sufiid*- is taade fiut to a small rope or cori
ent. Then keep it tursing and boi^ that passes through apermres infranes
ing gentt^ for about an hour ; then to made as to sufter the web to pass
let it bepouf ed into the fi-ames, Hrhere fiwely when raowd forwards, «d t»
it must >e left to cool tiUthtMst prevant the Mpe oronrdftomdra^

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Modem Discoveries and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, ^ tfTc. 5/



ing out in (he act of straining. Al-
tbDoeb the construction of the frame
ma/ oe varied, if thought necessary,
it ii requisite Uiat the principal object
of the invention be adhered to, which
is .to strain the cloth or stuiB from
diatge to selvage, or from list to
Jilt By this means the operation of
cropping, shearing, 8rc. is much fa-
dfiiatec^ and the workman enabled
to produce better work, and in less
time than he could by any former
ffletbod.

Mr. WiUiam Haidy, of Chapel-
rtreet, near White Conduit-house,
Islington, has lately discovered a new
net^ of banking the balance of a
time-keeper. The following ts his
own account of it, as it lately appear-
ed in the Transactions of the So-
ciety for iht Encouragement of Arts,
Manufectures, and Commerce : —
" It was at first imagined that a
fcttiking to a watch, with a fi-ee es-
capement, was quite unnecessary, as
the Jimits of banking were so great
as to admit of almost twice 3&0 or
7^ degrees; but, on trial, the ba-
Ittce was frequently found .to exceed
this quantity, and that a very slight .
motion given to the time-keeper
(particularly when tlie axis of the
i»bnce becune the axis of that mo-
tMO,) was sufficient to alter the
itzet^ and figure of the pendulum-
fpring, and position of tne pieces,
in respect of the balance-wheel, so
as to change the rate of the time-
tep^j ^^^ what was worse, re-
We a new adjustment of the ba-
6nce, to accommodate itself to the
daises made in the spring and other
pate connected with it. Hfence it
kecarae necessary, that some means
Aould be used to stop the balance at
certain limits beyondf its natural arch
jf vibration ^ and various attempts
MFC been made to effect it. One
^•ay is, bv a moveable piece on the
axis of the balance, which banks
against a pin, yet so as to suffer
*^^lance to vibrate more than 360
^pees. Another method Ls to have
apiece moveable on a centre in one
w the arms of the balance, and
applying itself a9 a tangent to the
jeMuium spring, which passes
j^vish a hole m the piece. It
MS aliio a knee which almost touches
the plate, and just passes free of a
pnpiacedinit But when the ba-
Vouy.



lance vibrates so as to approach its
utmost limits, the action of tne springs
while in a state of unwinding/throws
tlie piece outward, so as to fall in the
way of the pin, and stop the balance
from proceeding fartlier. Another
mode IS, by a straight spring, screwed
upon the plate, having a hook at the
end of it, mto which a pin placed in
the balance slrikes, when, as before;
the pendulum- sprinjg, in unwinding,
touches the straight spring, and
moves it a little outwards. There'is
also a way of banking* by means of a
bolt, which is thrown oack by the
pendulum-spring, and made to fall in
the way of a pin placed in the rim of
th<i balance. .These are the principal
modes of banking now in use, and
they do not differ materially from one
another in principle. But the weight
and friction of so many pieces on so
delicate an organ as that of a pen-
dulum-spring, are, perhaps, nearly
as hurtful to the time- keeper, as the
injury it may sustain when it is left
without any banking whatever."

The following technical description
of the fossil called Phonoltthe, or,
.the Klingstein of the Germaiw, is
abridged from that given b>' M*.
Daubuisson, in the Journal de Phy-
sique. The phonolithe is prmcipally
remarkable for containing a 12tn
part of ^oda in its composition ; and
IS found in many parts oi France and
Germany in abundance. Tliat of
Mount Milli.schau, in Bohemia, and
which has been analysed by M,
KJaproth, contains, in the opinion of
that eminent chemist, soda sufficient
to supply the demands of all Europe,
if any means could be devised to se-
parate it fi*om the substances with
which it is combined. He circum-
stance whence tliis fossil derives its
name, is the dear sound it emits
when struck pretty forcibly by a
hard substance. Its colour is a green-,
ish grey, varying frequently to a grey,
sometimes light, sometimes deep.—
It is found in great masses traversed
by fissures, which affect ^ regular
direction, and divide it "into plates of
different thickness, and into irregular,
prisms. It has big, grey and red-
dish scales, and in the larger por-
tions it is schistose. Its hardness is
Txpdy so great as to produce a few
sparks, "Wien struck with steeL—
It is very transparent at its edges.

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58 Modem Discoveries and Improverkenis in Arts, Sciences, tS^c,

Its sfpeciiic gravity is from 25 to 27 ; his conjecture. This of Italy seem*
that of -water being 10. The ac- to be the true species of corundum
tion of the air alters its surface, and hitherto found in Europe. The stony
«oon covers it with a .whitish, earthy substance found in Germany that had
crusty which is a property peculiar to been mistaken for corundum, was
this substance. When exposed 'to found to be feldspath or leucolite.—
the action of fire, it loses its water That in the British Museum, Ibiind
of composition 5 in g violent fire it on the eastern coast of Scotland, was
;iielt8 into a thick glass ; at the blow- far from possessing the hardness pro-
pipe, it passes into a white or thick per and peculiar to this species. That
enamel. The substances with which of Chesnut-hill, near the city of Phi-
it may be compounded are basalt, ladelphia, North America, which
petro8rlex,and«ome species of schists. Mr. Smith announced, was found t6
— fts schistose appearance, and parti- be a fragment 6t quartz, badly crjs-
culariv the substances found with it, tallized ; tliat discovered by M.
and clie circumstances of its position, Boumon, at Forez, in France, was
prevent its beiu^ compounded with by the Abbe Hauy, found deicient
petrosilex, to which it bears a strong in specific gravity; but this of Italy
resemblance in other respects. The is deficient in no one circumstance,
phonolithe of Miilischau, in Bohe- The following are the properties of
mia, has been analysed by Klaproth, the corundum of Italy ; 1 . it cuts the
and that of Mount Or, in Auvergne, hardest rock-crj-^stal. 2. It does not
south of France, by Mr. Bergman. — frise by the blow-pipe, "either alone
The loilowine are the results : or with the addition of borax. 3. Its

Bohemia. - Auvergne. substance is formed of laminae, in.
Sflex - - 57,25 - - 58 diflerent directions. 4. It is cleave-
Alunfitn - 23,50 - - 24,50 able three ways, and when it is ait
lAme - - 2,75 - - 3,50 in tlie tlircc directions, its form is
Oxydeofiron 3,25 - - 4,50 arhomboid, of which the acute angle
Oxydeofraan-1 Q25 . . " ^i degrees. 5. Its transverse

ganese - j ' " ' fracture has the brilliancy of adia-

Soda - - 8>l6 - - 6 mond, and reflects the licjht in the
Water - 3 - - same manner, and the reflection has

Loss - - 1,90 - - 1,50 almost tlie colour of silver. 6. Its

si^ecific gravity is 3'-87, which is the

100 100 same as tliat of tlie true corundum.—

■ Sometimes the phonolithe contains If rubies and sapphires are actually
a greater proportion of iron, in which of the same gemis as corundum, aj
case im colour is deeper, and the sub- niost jntneralogists seem inclined to
stance itself is heavier, and less trans- suppose, it is probable that Furope
parent. likewise possesses mines of these

M. Pini, inspector of Italic Mines, precious stones, as it has mines of
has lately aimounced the discovery emeralds ; witness iliase of Limoges,
.of a substance in on^ of the moun- discovered by M. Ldievre, counsellor
tains of that country, to which the of mines. But these stones will con-
name of corundum stone has been tinue to be the rubies, the sapphires.
~*ven. It appears tliat he first saw and theexlieralds of the mineralogists

among some fossils that had ba^ and not of the jewellers, until mey
obllectedin the department of Serio, are found of a proper transparency,
by M. Brochi, professor of Natural which M. Pini hopes will be the re->
History at Brescia, who, at first, con- suit of fiirther researches,
sidered it as ^ species of feldspath, Mr. T. C. Banks is preparing for
as the corui}dum has been only hi- the press a work, to be entitled,
•therto supplied from far distant coun- '' The Extinct Peerage of England,
tries ;—but on a more minute inves- on an entirely new plan, giving an
tjgatioa, he found its colour so en- account of all the peers who nave
tirely to resemble that fi-om Madi^ been created, and whose titks now
some of which M. Pini had in his are either dormant, in abeyance, or
possession, that he began to suspect absolutely extinct; with their de-
itto be the same 5 and on trial he scents, marriages, and issues, public
fcuud he bsA not been mistaken in euiployments, and most memorabie

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£



Makrn Discweriex and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, tfc. 5^

actions, from the Norman conquest souri, from its influx .to its source^

to the year 1802.*' and then to discover the nearest river

'^TTie Memoirs of Richard Cnm- that is situated ta the westward of it,

berfand. Esq. written by himself, and to descend thence into the Pa-

and oontainiogj an account of his life cific Ocean. The present expedi-

aod writings, interspersed with anec- tion, consisting ' of aoout twelve per-

(iotes aiid characters of the most dis- sons, are expected to return aoout

tingniJied persons of his time, with the end of the ensuing year.

nm he h&d intercourse and con- As any attempt to simplify the

iRcdon," are announced as being practice of merchants' accounts, can*

in the press, and shortly to be pub- not fail of being received with plea-

Mtd in two volumes 4 to. sure in a country so distinguished for its

Mr. Southey intends speedily to extensive trade carried on with every

pobHsh a collection of Specimens of known part of the globe, it is not

English PoetT)', in the manner of without a degree of satis^ction, aris-

Mr. EDis, accompanied with biogra- ing from the utility of the worK, as

phical vketches. M^ell as from the known abilities of

' Dr. Griffiths is now employed on the author^ that we inform the pub^

a translation of Lenoir's French Mo- lie, more particularly those in aay.

numents, which will extend to six way concerned in commerce, tliat

TohimesSvo. Mr. Dubost, author of a small work

As a number of labouring men entitled, '* The Merchants' Assist-

were lately employed in digging up ant," and which receives universal

the earth in the town of Dover, New approbation, is in the press, and it is

Hampshire, North America, for the expected will be ready in a few days,

PGipose of making an aqueduct, thev Commercial Arithmetic, adapted to

fliscoyered a vein of dark brown sana, the exclusive consideration of the*

ranning in a direction from east to practice of commercial operations,

vest, much impregnated with quick- and intended to serve as an mtroduc-'

sihrer, considered as of the best qua- tion to the elements of commerce. —

l:ty. Globules of the metal were He has also in the press, which is

found dispersed about the soil, from expected to appear in about four

tfae size of the smallest grain of sand months, Elements of Commerce,

to that of a duck-shot, which induces bein^ a general treatise upon thB

>pn)l»ble supposition that upon fiir- monies, weights, and measures of

fe investigation larger quantities every foreign country and commer-

ffla? be discovered. ciaJ place, by companson with those

Mungo Park, Esq. the celebrated of England, demonstrating, mathe«

African traveller, arrived at tlie island matically, the science of commercial

cf Goree, on the coast of Africa, on calculations, and shewing the advan*

uie 28th of March last, with an in- tages renilting from a knowledge of

*«^on to penetrate, if possible, still them.

nffther, and to make fresh discoveries Mr. Nicholson, of Ludlow, will .

ffl themiexplored interior of that con- shortly publish a New System of

^t. In his passage they touchy Stenography, included in a single

^tbe island of St. Jago, where Mr. page, and comprehending uncommon

M purchased 44 asses for his jour- lineality, legibility, simplicity, and

jey- On the 6th of April following, shortness.

M intended to proceed from Goree, An individual, at Petersburgh, has

Dp the river Gambia, with 40 sol- now in his possession one of the most

^, who are to accompany him in ancient Russian MSS. extant It i^

nie ship Crescent wl^ich he sailed in, m LecHonarium, or an extract of the

itjQwnen they have ascended as high gospels, for the u«e of the church.-?-

^p the river as possible, the Crescent The format, or siae, is a folio, on

*«tolandMr. F. and his suite, and very fine parchment, adorned with

^^*»ni to Goree, from whence she miniatures by Greek artists : a cy-

^ttpectedtosail for England. , pher or flourish of letters indicates

A journey has been lateljr under*' that it is of the year lOiyt). Several

^^ by order of the American go- amateurs of antiquities have made of*

. Sy®'^^ the primary object of fers to purchase it ; but althougli thj^

^^ is to exphore the river Mis* snmof30,000 roubles has been tender*

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Co Modem Discoveries and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, ^c.

ed to ihe possessor, he does not seem done so,) a new, eenera\, and corn-
disposed 10 partVith it at that price, plete chart of the kingdom of Hun-
- There has been formed, a few gary, of Croatia, Sclavonia, TransyU
years ago, in the same city, (Peters- vania, and of the military frontier,
burgh) a literary society, under the in nine sheets, which may be com-
title of The Free Society of Lovers bined into one, the size a large royal
of Literature, the Sciences and Arts. {qAao, M. Lipszky has been em-
— Its member^ have lately published pjoyed a great number of years in
a volume of poetical pieces, and a collecting materials for this Work, ^
• translation of the marquis of Bee- apd in arranging the same ; but some
Qarias Treatise on Crimes and Pu- particular reasons or motives seem to
nishmems. They are further prepar- have deferred the publication of it,
, ing Russian triinslatious of tlie po- and which have originated on d«.
liUca> works of Filangieri, Mon- part of the government of Vienna:
tesquieu, Tacitus, Seneca, and Ci- — At length, prince Charles, himself
cero. has accelerated the publication, on

. Two literary societies, equally dis- - the grounds of its pbvious utility.—
tinguished by their useful labours, Xjjis chart will contain an accurate
have for some time past existed ia designation of all the cities, towns,
the city of Rouen. These societies, villages, farms, rivers, great or small,
from the unanimous wish of the mem- and even running streams of any
bers, have been lately consolidated consideration : it will exhibit the
into one, under the title of The Free lakes, the marshes, the highways.
Society of Emulation, for the Pro- post-roads, the physical totality and
gress of the Sciences, of Letters, and parts of the mass, of mountains, the
of Arts. * names of the principal mountains, and

. The tree called Gingko Biloba, of other remarkable objects : it will
which came firom China, and has indicate the limitar of the different
been planted about twenty years, was counties or districts, and, in gene-
in flower in the month of Floreal, ral, of all the divisions, whether ci-
year J2, in the garden of M. Cle- vil, miUtary, or ecclesiastical j the
^enti, of Rouen. This tree is 12 boundaries of the dioceses, tribunals,
feet in height, has a tortuous or wind- &c. As far as the extent of ih^ chart
ing trunk, and is about as big as a will permit, the limitrophe parts of
man's arm : ft grows in the shadow the surrounding provinces will be
of a fine cypress. This is the first given, such as of Gallicia,^ Silesia,
time that it has flowered in France, Moravia, Anstria, Stiria^ Carinthia,
although it had done so in England i Camiola, Turkish Croatia, Bosnia,
and for this reason, probably, it is that Wallachia, and Moldavia. Thb chart
the English have changed the name will be" accompanied with a r^^&er/ory,
which Its bears in its own country, which will enhance the value of it,
and which Linnaeus had retained, to and facilitate its use.
that of Salisburia CEdiantig Olia. Domenico Viviani, of Genoa, has

A society of engineers^ at the head commenced a periodical work, in
ofwhom is Don Salvador deXimenes, 4to. under the title ' 'of " Annali
have been lately appointed by the di Botanica,** which contains no ori-
chancery of state of Madrid to draw ginal papers, but is calculated only to
plans ot the principal cities of Spain, make the Italian botanists acquaint-
and, at the same time, to construct a ed with the discoveries of other
general chart of the whole kingdom, nations.

—The society has elected two of its A number of agriculturists, in dift
members to superintend the geome- ferent counties, are prosecuting, we
trical and astronon^cal operations, are told, with success, a system of
who liave under their direction a clearing bean lands, by means of a
nmnber of pupils dejxited to inspect flock of sheep, which, when turned
and visit the said places. in, destroy tlie weeds without pro-

M. John de IJp.szky, captain in .ducing any injury to the beans, by
the regirrient of hussars of tlie prince which not only the great expence of
of Hesse- Hombourg, in the service hoeing is in a great measure avoide<}#
of tlie emperor of Qermauy, intends but the land is thereby likewise con«
shortly to publish (or has actUfiily siderably improved.

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Modem Discoveries and tmprwemtnU in Arts, Sciences, ^c, 6l



A new and imprpved edition^ in
quarto, considerablv enlarged^ of
MotberVs Medical Dictionary, is
sow in the press. It will be publish-
ei in foup- parts, and will make two
fobuaes. The lirst part is expected
a Norember next.

Mr. Serle, author of the Christian
lemembrancer. Parent, &c. has now
io the press, a new edition, consider-
fildjenhrg^, of his Church of God ;
alsoa tliird vohime of that invaluable
work, Hor{e Sotitarice. Both of these
works are in a state of forwardness,
aad are expected to be published in
September next.

Mr. £. Donovan, has just announ-
ced a new work of Natural History,
elegantly printed in quarto, entitled,
*' An Epitome of the Natural Histo-
ry of tne Insects of New Holland,
New Zealand, New Guinea, and
otter Islands in the Indian, Southern
and Pacific oceans: including the
figures, and descrip#ns of 138 spe-
cies of the most splendid, beautiful,
and interesting insects hitherto disco-
vered in those countries, and which
for the most part have not appeared
in other \^Qrks.*'

The British empire in India, is con-
tinoally ttoning with new and diversi-
fied sources of unexplored literature.

Mr.Maurice is now preparing a vin-
dication of his HiHtory of Hindostan,
^nst the attack ot the Edinburgh
Keviewers.

We are happy to inform our readers
that Mr. Beloe is preparing for the
press, anecdotes of literature, from
rare books in the British Museum and
other rare libraries.

Mr. David Macpherson, is about
publbhing a new work, called, *' An-
mIs of Commerce, Manufactures,
*idieries, and Navigation,*' in 3 parts,
^th brief notices ofthe arts and scien-
ces connected therewith, from the ear-
liest accounts, to tlie meeting of the
Union Pariiamenl, in January l80J.

Anew and elegant edition, embel-
lished with engravings, is preparing
t tor the pfress of Oberon, by Mr.
Botheby.

The Rev. Theophilus Brown has
w depress, a selection ofthe devo-
tional parts of thye old and new testa-
ttJents, from the most approved
' p«l«m versions ; for the use of fami-
♦j*^; It IS expected to be ready for
\ felivery in about six weeks.^



A new and uniform edition of tlie-
works of the late Richard Graves of
CJaverton, is preparing lor publica-
tion ; — the author left considerable
additions and notes for most of his
productions. The spiritual Quixote
will be the first that will be published,
forming three volumes, which will
contain the life of the alitlior, prin-
cipally written hy himself.

Mess. L. W. Dillwynn and Dawson
Turner have in the press a new bo-
tanical work to be called the Botanhts
Vade Mecum through tJie counties of
England and IVales ; containing the
habitats of the raier plants, with au-
thorities.'

MrX.W. Dill wynn's admired woi-k
on the British Confervee is now resu-
med, and will be regularly continued
till complete.

Mr. Cuitis,fiorist, of Walworth, is *
preparing for publication a new bota-
nical work, on a largre scale, intended
to represent faith fullikenesses ofthe
best specimens of fancy flowers cui-
tivated in £ngland 3 they are to be
accurately coloured from living spe*
cimens.

We learn that the excavations at
Pompeii, at Fresola, in Thessaly, and
in Sicily, in search of antiquities, are
carrying on at present with active and
successful energy. Several MSS. long
lost, as well as statues, vases, <ioins,
&c. have been recently discovered ia
a state of excellent preservation^ '

The essential oil of hops obtained
hy distillation, and afterwards mixed
with a small quantity of sug^, is an^
pounced and recommends in some
journals, as the best way of using thii
plant in brewing, and the most ef-
fectual method of preserving it fi>r a
term of years.

Bark, which has hitherto boen
considered as almost destructive in
cases of the consumptive malady, has,
it is asserted, in numerous recent in-
stances, been administered with sin-
gular efficacy and aiccess.

Certain artists have oeen lately^
employed by order of the prefect of
the department of the Seine, in clean-
ing and embellishing the fine sculpture
of the fountain de la Rue de Grendle.
Messrs. Quatremere de Quiucy,
Molinos, and Le Grand, charged
with this undertaking, have emp£y-
ed in their operations the encaustic
process descrioed by Valvulrus and

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e% Staie qf Puliic 4fairs;

Fltny, as applicable to antiaue sculp- >¥ax, and the public are doubtless m.

tures. This revived methoa, consists debted to the magistrate and to the:

ifl closing up ail the pores of the mar- antiquarians and sirtiiits that assisted

ble> by a mixture ot hui/e d^oeillet or in the above useful experiment to'
a oompusition made of pink flowers, ' revive tiie application of a process

iatusea in oil of olives, and virgin long out of use, and to which, if ge-

wax applietlhot on Vhe marble, which nerally adopted, we shall owe uic

is likewise heated ; this will preserve preservation of our finest sculptures.

it in future from those black .spots. A composition of tar and &>h oil,

which humidity occasions, and which mixed in equal quantities by niea-

are nothing else but a vegetation of sure, and well rubbed upon- fnik

lichen, the roots <rf which get im- trees with a brush, has been lately

planted into the pores of the marble recommended, in some of the con-

and afterward.^ spread themselves and te^mxirary journals, as a sure method

corrode tlie surface. The success of of extirpating that destructive race of

this first experiment on figures of a insects which assume the appearance

large proportion has pertectly answer- of white mould oo the bark and



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 11 of 108)