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€d the expectation of the prefect. The branches.' •

figures have not experienced any alte^ Some of the dinrnal prints inake
ration from the heatipg of the marble mention of a machine for cleaning
by hand-chafing dishes, made for the gravel walks, which has been lately
purpose, and fcwnd to be veiy conve- mvented by a Mr. Thompson, serv-
Dient to difiiise heat through all the in^ now or late in the corps of Perth-
parts of a figure, or of a groupe, shire Volunteers, of North Britain.—
previously to the coating of it with a This machine ti|fns, rakes, and rolls
mixture ofoil and wax, and afterwards the gravd by a simultaneous opera-
to repew the heat, and to make the tion, or by one and. the same act,
layer of ^]^ melt which remains on and has tliis i^eculiar advantage at-
the marble, when it gets cold. The tending it, that it can be wrought by
above operation, wnen performed a small pone)r, and will perform as
with precaution, completelv stops up much work in an hour, as a dozen
the pores of marble and fills them to men can do in a day.
a certain depth. The superficies is The new mode of reefing, now ge-
afterwards besmeared with cold wax, nerallj adopting througli the navy,
and then rubbed with a fine linen promises to be attended with extra-
cloth : all which then forms a kind ordinary advantages. By t^his im-
ofvarpish, over which water slides proved plan, the main-sail of a first-
withoat making any stop, and no Ion- rate ship may be reefed bv two men
fer permits the intrusion of the lichen on the yard, witli raorej facility thaq
or its roots. There can be no doubt when forty yere before employed to
that the best executed antique figures efiect the same purpose by the ordi*
such as the jintinous, the Apolloy and nary method.
others, ba\'e been thus polished with

STATE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

AN end has been put to the lonff knowing that the country is full of
sittings of the parliament, and suspicion on the conduct of public
its noembMers are returned into the afliiirs, and that its money profusely
country to receive the expostulations voted is wantonly squandered > that
or congratulations of tlieir constitu- there is the utmost irregularity in the
cms. In this recess, both they and accounts, and that tlie liouse of
the people have much to do. The commoas, whose duty it is to at-
members have, in this last sessiori, per- tend particularly to the public purse,
formed a great and an arduous task 5 have i^ernoitted the nwnister to go on
but they nave separated, leaving at his own way, have agreed to his mo-
tlie head of administration a man tions for tiixes, and Tor an expendi-
whp has been the great fi"iend of the ture of seventy miHtons, without hav-
delinouent, whose crimes are to be ing had die opportunity to understand
brought before the highest justice of the revenue and the expenditure of
thQ country : ihey have separated, the preceding year.

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Slate of Public Affairs.



&



In such a case, it is the duty of
the public to look to rhemselves, and
to the fate of their posterity ; and'
since they have the bravest men the
\m\d ever saw exposing their lives
tbroad, to sit idle at home^ and to
take no care for tbepublic cause, is
tenfold drsmceful. The evil and the
cause of the evil are known. Both
irise from the violation of the con-
stitution, settled at the revolution,
which has thrown immense power
into the hands of the minister, or ra-
ther the oli^richVf whose tool he is ;
ind thus neither king nor people have
the influence whic3i good govern-
ment requires. It is in vain to ex-
pect better things, while this system
lasts, and the representative looks up
to the minister and not to the people.
—To bring the people and the repre-
sentative to their ancient connection
is the first thing to be obtained, with-
tmt which all the rest is nugatory,
«uui this cannot be done but by tlie
unanimous voice of the public for
restoring the duration of parliaments
to the accustomed term of three
years, and in all their meetings im-
pressing upon their- representatives
the necessity of not votuig a single
farthing to the supply of a future
T^ar, till the accounts of the last
year have b^en perfectly balanced. —
Indeed what can wetliinkofa mem-
ber of parliament, who goes into the
bouse of* commons without any in-
tention to perform this great duty>
and what greater injury can be done
to their kmg andcountry, than by
members regardless of their trusty and
feitliless to their duty !

The impeachment of Lord Mel-
tilie occupied much of the attention
of the house, and Mr. Whitbread pur-
sued his course with indefatigable in-
dustry. The diange from a prosecu-
tion in the law courts, to one before
the brds^ is not a thing in itsdf of
much importance -, but the manner
in which it "^-as done places the mi-
nister of the day in a very auk ward
situation. He is the friend of the
delinquent, who has done every
thing in his power to support him,
who voted against botli impeachment
and crirninalprosecution, at last votes
for his impeachment ; and one friend
thus impeaches another, not out of
HI will, but because of two evils the
impeachment was thooght the least.



This conduct of Mr. Pitt occasioned
some changes in administration.—^
lx>rd Sidmouth seceded from tlie
cabinet, carrying with him, whate-
ver may be thought of his abilities,
the character of honour and integrity.
— He was determined that the fla-
grant deeds of lord Melville shoOkl
not go luipunishedi and he resisted
to the utmost the grant to the duke of
Athol, which had been repeatedly
resisted in the council, and by e^'ery
great law officer, for the^last fortj
years. What could have occasioned
such a chan^ in the opinion of his
majesty's mmistcrs, it is not easy to
ascertain ; but suspicion will be on
flont, when it is considered that lord
Melville was in the privy council
when the claim was recommend-
ed to the consideration of parlia-
ment.

A more melancholy thing has oc-
curred. The commissioners for na*
val enquiry, whose reports liave been
the means of bringing to light so manj^
enormities, find too mpch reason to
complain of the obstacles thrown in
the way by those who ought to ht
their supporters ; and one of thena
has expressed himself very warmlv
upon tins subject in parliament. To
the-n, and the continuance "of their
services, the people look up, arid it is
to be hoped that they will pei-severe
in the discharge of their office in 8pite
of every impediment. A compleie
examination, we repeat it, of^ the •
immense expenditure of Mr. Pitt's
administration, is absolutely heces-
saty, and the more it is opposed, the
stronger must be our suspicions tliat
they who oppose it have reason
to dread the enquiry. The bill of
indemnitv is passed to Mr, Pitt, for
lending forty thousand pounds, with-
out interest, to^ two members of
parliament : — what other bills of the
same kind may be necessar>% it is
much better that tliey jshould be
passed, than that the nation should
continue in its present state of uncer-
tainty with respect to its accounts —
They may, and ought to be, kept with
the same exactness as those of a mer-
chant ; and a simple and plain e^jcpo-
sure of the whole would save a vast
deal of expence and trouble, which
are now occasioned by tlxe calling for
and printing separate papers fur each
article of enquiry.



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64, Slate of PuBHc Affairs.

Wliilst administration were en- send it, there is little likelihood of
ga^ed in its parliamentary warfare the treaty being completed j for Prus-
and internal disputes, the fleets of sia threatens Sweden with an imme-
Fr^ce were at last discovered, and diate attack on Pomerania, if it should
with the'knowledge of thej^r situation, attempt to- bring the war into the
arrived the ne\^'s that Lord Nelson north, and this salutary tlireat will
was in pursuit of tliera. This brave probably be the means of keepingtiic
officer lost no time, and with a small. Icing of Sweden on his throne. The
bat well manned fleet, disdaining the two kings have amused the jmblicby
difference in numbers, he crossed the their variance : the king oi Sweden
Atlantic. His arrj^val was liailed with having sent back the decorations di
i}[iQ, utmost joy by the inhabitants of the order, which he received from
JSarbadoes, and his name alone gave Prussia^ and the .king of Pru6«a in
security to the islands. A short time return writing a laconic epistle lo the
only he staid to refit, and this country king of Sweden, in which the cha-
"has been in a state of great anxiety racter and imbecility of the latt^ are
for farther hitelli^ence. Reports are strongly delineated,
daily made, and me stock-joobing of Russia seems inclined to negociate
the alley is alive in this state of nn- with France, and a minister has beten
certainty ; but it is probable that, dispatcl^ed to Brussels for tlus pur-
lefore tnis magazine can be delivered pose. What are the points of this
to the public; our brave admir<il may negociation, and whether we are to
bring himself the intelligence of his be interested in it, time jnust dis-
victory. cover. ^ As the French sovereign has

If we entertain little' dread of the ma^le overtures of peace to the king
French preparations on the sea, we of Ejigland, and has even written a
camiot but observe, not without alarm, letter in his own hand to the latter,
*how regularly, and with what success witli tliis view, he may, and with
their sovereign proceeds in all his at- reason, refuse to listen to any over-
tempts on land. Scarcely wa^ the iron tures which do not come immediately
.cro^*^l of Lombardy placed on his from this country. The war is by no
brow, when Genoa was declared to means injurious to liis interests ; for
be annexed to the French territpry. it is a pretext for the large army which
Lucca is intreatiog to retain its con- he keeps up ; and as by it we are ef-
stitutionil republic j biit its request, fectually. throwit out from negocia-
is not likely to be granted. Every tions witli one half of the continent
dlay will manifest some new aggres- of Europe, he has no gjreat reason to
fiion, and the powers of Europe are desire a cessation of arms. ItissaioJ
too much divided in their interests to indeed, that the popedom is to be an-
concur in any plan of resistance. — nexed to the Italian throne, and that
.The conduct ot the English ministry the pope is to reside at Avignon.—
is not calculated to encourage them, Tlils will make Buonaparte eftectu-
and the hint thrown out by them in ally the spiritual sovereign of the Ca-
• the speech from the throne, of foreign tholic world, and the Neapolitan do-
negcK:i3tion3 not being brought to minions cannot tlien escape his grasp,
such an issue as to be communicated j—rWlien he has thus establislied com-
to the public, gives no hope of sue- pletcly his Italian kingdom, he may
cess in their plans, nor indeed is any turn his thoughts in good earnest to
wish entertained on the part of re- the invasipn of tjiis country ; unless,
fleeting people that they should sue- though the Grand Seignior' has writ-
ceed. Poor Sweden seems to be the Jen him the desired letter to eodgia-
only power that is willing to take tliat tulate him on His accession to the
inoney which this country is so ready thro^je, he may choose to join with
to throw away ; and it was said that Austria and Russia in a partition of
a treaty was on foot for a subsidy of Tiirkev in Europe.
two millions to its monarch, and in Of Spain we bear but little. Its
.'return we were to have twenty-five eftbits aie continued, and Gibraltar
tliousand of his metn at our command, is to be the point of attack. Moreau
iThis poor supply could be of no use conducts Xlie operations, and the giin-
in the war; but small as it is, and boats, brought into the bay, lia veal-
impolitic as it would be in Sweden to ready annoyed our 9l)ii>pi»g- i*^^*

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ParUameniary Proceedings,



land U effg^ged very deepjy in the

cndeiTOiir to restore its finanoes to

tlieir JDicieDt state ; and their new

head, inde&tigable in this business,

is vanned with the true spirit of pa-

tapCifln. Nothing will, however^

mse his states to their former emi-

Offloe in Europe. The United States

of America continue to enrich them*

fid^es, and their little differences with

S^atn are not likely to be attended

nitfa serious consequences.

Parnameniary Proceedings.
On the 2<5th of June> a memora-
ble day in the history of British le-
gislation, Mr. Leycester brought for-
ward a motion for the impeachment
of Lord Melville, prefacing it, by ex-
pressii^it as his wish, and the desire of
the bouse, that the crimes of lord
Melville should be judicially examin-
ed; but declaring it to be his opinion,
that the house iiad not had a suilfici-
ent opportunity of deciding upon the
qoestion, which . was the best mode
ctf treating the delinquent, whether
by an impeachment, or by a criminal
prosecution in the lower courts. —
The former was more consistent with
parliamentary proceedings, and was
a more solemn and diniified sort of
tiial : it would, indeed, be more in-
jarious to the delinquent, if he is
&and guilty, but xgote advantageotis
to him, if innocent. To the house,
also, it afforded greater advantages :
the quantity of time is their own ;
tl»r are unembarrassed with forms ;
?pcl every part of their transactions
may be equally examined. The re-
iofaitioiis^ot the house ought not to be
Kt aside lightly ; but in this case it
vould appear that the house was
RsUy ui nvour of impeachment, in
CQinparisQo of any other mode ;-*fQr
tliejr who voted against the impeach-
. OKnt, did it with a view of setting
aside both impeachment and criming
{Riceei&ies j out had it been a ques-
tioQ merely which of the two was to
be preferred, their votes would have
beai in fiiyonr of impeachment. —
Ifr. Bond rejoiced to find that the
Innse was unanimous in the necessity
tf some. criminal proceeding; but was
mpriaed at an attempt to rescind a
moo pasaod in the laigest liouse
ever seen. The Question lies in a
•anow coBpaas. A criadDal into-



f5

mation in a court of justice is prompts
and the decision as little liable to er-
ror as human judgments can be.*-
Impeachment is cumbrous, produc-
tive of great evil in delay, both to the
public, and to fndividuals. The crimes
of the delinquent were not of a nature
to require impeachment. ,The ques«
tion was merely of the misapplication
of public money, and participation in
unjust gains, derived from it. For
this a jury was perfectly competent,
and after the house had decided ujpon
the mode, an alteration with so short
a notice would attach a decree of
levity to tlieir proceedings. The So-
licitor General contended, that tlie
question on the mode of proceeding
had not been fairly before the house.
— For tlie impeachment, 1^5 had
voted : for criminal prosecution, 43
had been added to this number } an<^
as th? 195 had voted tor crimbal pro-
secution rather tha^i fail in any^ it
was evident that there were only 43
in favour of criminal prosecution
above the* other mode. He saw,
therefore, nothing derogatory to the
house in now adopting impeachment.
^Mr. Panks considered it to be very
improper to rescind a inotion passed
in a full house, when so many mem-
bers had left town under the impres-
sion that the question had been com-
pletely settled : in tliis argument he
was followed by Lord H. Petty and
Mr. C. Wynne. Sir R. Williams
stated, that he had voted against both
impeachment and criminal prosecu-
tion; but he could not now approve
of rescinding a decision of the house
on such light grounds. Mr. Wind-
ham ti^ought the case against the de-
linquent a plain and simple one,, on
which a jury vas pertectly compe-
tent to deciae. His crime was such
as juries try, and though the crime of
a statesman, it could not be called a
state crime. To change a measure
adopted by so full a home, was inde-
corous on so short a notice, and no-
thing of this kind ought to h^ve been
attempted without a call of the house ;
for it should be coQsidered, that not
only the delinquent, but the house
itself, was now upon trial, and the
ch^'actef of both would be determin-
ed by the result. Mr. Pitt entered
into a tedious detail of dat^, from
which he oonduded that M^ houM
K

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65 Parliamentary Proceedings*

could not be said to be caught by sur- recommended the case to Mr. t^itt j
prise, and contended that the motion and Mr. Vansiltart declared, that the
nad in view the dignity of parliament. Irish go\'ernment would be proved, on
With respect to himself, ne wished investigation, to be free of any charge
that the tribunal might be the least re- of severity or oppression. The pe-
pugnant to the feelings of his friend, tition was ordered to lie on tlie table \
who must be hurt at the mode which and how long the untortuirate man
had been adopted by the house 5 and will lie in prison iiiitried, and what
indeed a )iiry was incompetent to af- compen-sation will be offered to him,
ford the subject the ample investi^a- if he should prove innocent, time
tion, that it required. Mr. Whit- must discover. Aftef some business
bread was satisfied, that the only ob- of no gieat importance, Colonel Craw-
Ject of this motion was to defeat all ford intrcxluced his promised motion,
that had hitherto been done to brin^^ on the national defence, by apologis*
Lord Melville to a fair trial. He liad ing to the house, for bringing it lor-
been originally for the impeachment, ward so late in the season, but clajm-
but when a contrary decision had been ing, from tlie magnitude of the subject,
adopted, it ought not on slight gi'ounds its attention. He paid compliments
tobe relinauished. There were in- to Mr. Fox and Mr. Windham, and
deed diflaculiies in the criminal prose- gave a concise view of his subject, in
cution, resulting from the conduct of declaring it to be a description of the
the Attorney General, who, if he was forces, on which the country might
not prepared to fulfil the wishes of relj In the hour of danger, on our ef-
parhament, was unfit to hold his office, ficient means, ollensive and defensive.
The Attorney General vindicated him- conipared with what they were, when
self on the score of coming to the Mr. Fitt came into oftice, and with the
house for instnictions, declaring, that similar means of the enemy,
he never entertained a doubt of thele- ll^e first thing tliat occurs in this
gal guilt of the delinquent, but he was enquiry, isthe war with Spain, which
decidedly in favour of impeachment, was severely reprobatea ; but the
as by it the ends of public justice question now was, Itow we stand in
^ould be fully accomplished, and the consequence of that war. First, the
delinquent would be enabled fairly to enemy's squadrons now sail undis-
meet his defence. Mr. Fox repro- turbed, in almost every direction, and
. bated this change in the proceedmgs France derives from Spain an acces-
of the home, as a bad precedent, whidi sion to her navy, of no less than t^en-
fiiture ministers would turn to thedis- ty-five ships of^the line'. In the mean-
advantage of the public. He viewed time, we nave added only one ship to
the motion witli a jealous eye, as be- our line, and the military means, ob-
ing supported by those who had uni- fainedby Buonaparte, are evidently, in
forraly supported the delinquent, and otlier respects, very considerable,
from whom no rational co-operation From a calculation of troops, it ap-
^uld be expected. Some other mem- pears, that the French have dispatched
bers spoke, but witli no novelty of ar- to foreign stations, 15,500 men, and
gjument. When a division took place, our increase amounts to 1 6,600 ; but
flie question for impeachment was of this increase, the 1()39 sent to
carried by liyQ, against 143. Gibraltar, do not place it in so good a

On the 28th of June, Mr. Fox pre- state as it was before, without tht
Bented a petition from W. T. Jones, Spanish war j. and many others locked
dtating, that he had been in prison up in the Bermudas, New Brunswick,
twenty months in Ireland, confined and other places, are a real diminu*
fpr subsistence to the prison allow- tion of force. For force misapplied,
aace, of having suffered various harms, and useless, is not to be reckoned upon
thdt he had been offered a release, on as the instrument of hostility. Si mi-
condition of leaving the countrv', lar observations were made on the dis-
\yiiich he had declhied, as it would position of otlier troops, from whicB
presume guilt, and had requested a it was concluded, that there was suffi-
speedy trial. Not having been able dent' ground for enquiry, .with re-
to obtain either an unconditional re- spect to tlie army 3 and tne same was
foa^, or a trial, he requested the in- maintained of the nav-y ; ^othatitap*
teriere^ice of tlie house. Mr. Sherkkn pcared> that our danger was- increased^

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ParUamentary Pnceedtngi,



67



vfailst both cur naval and myitary
forces were dimi Dished in comparison
with (hat of the enemy.

What is to be done, then ? Undo
all that has been already done, even
Mr. Pittas parish bill, respecting the
military, and a great deal is done to-
wards improvement. Having removed
such an obstacle, the regular armj
may be raised to its former state of vi-
gour. The volunteer corps come
next under consideration, the appoint-
ment of whose officers was asserted to
be in the last degree ridiculous and
absurd. As individuals, they may be
respected ^ but their modes of lire do
not consbt with such a military estab^
lishment What must military infe-
rbr officers say or think, when the
whole of their proceedings are to be
directed by a pastry cook Colonel ? Is
iuch a man fit to command the de-
iendersof the freedom of their coun-
try? Tarts and cheese-cakes have
nothing to do with the subject, though
they may enable a man to make a con-
liderabie figure, who would otherwise
have been hid in bbscuritv. From
trifling railery on this suoject, the
^>eaker adverted to the mode of en-
listing, which he contended ought tp
he for a limited time 5 to courts mar-
tial j to the pay of the anpy : and then
moved his first resolution, that the ar-
9iy should be kept up as nearly as
possible to the establishment Which
has been provided for by parliament.
. LordCastlere^gh saw no necessity
for a committee on the expediency of
the resolutions, and denied the accu-
racy of the Colonel's military state-
nicnts, asserting that the regular ar-
my was greater now than it had ever
been before in this country; that, in
comparing our present with our for-
mer strength; he saw no reason for a
cbarge against government, which had
done its duty, and acted on a system
which, without being injurious to
other parts of the service, had very
considerably e;!ktended the military
strength of the country. Mr. Fuller
saw no reason for alarm, whilst we
had six hundred thousand men in
anns, and declared, that as to pur vo-
lunteers, they wei'e many' of them as
good as regular troops. 4 man 's pror
ft*ssion does not prevent him fi*om be-
^% a good soldier, or a good cora-
nander. General Moreaii was a bar-
Bster, hut we had not seen any one



who knew better h'ow to command
an army j and tlie regular troops of
Europe had been beaten by those men
whose professions the mover of the
question affected to hold in contempt.
Sir. J^ Pulteney was for unlimited ser-
vice. Sir. W. Erskine considered
compulsion as a measure absolutely
found to be necessary in all countries,
in the formation of a military force.
The volunteer corps he- highly ap»
proved, arid he did not think tliat om*
cers in the army felt hurt at seeing of^-
ficers of volunteers. For'himseR" it .
gave him pleasure to see men active
in the service of their country, and he
considered the volunteer system as the
sheetanchor of the state. Mr. Wind^
ham advocated limited service, and
dwelt on the immense promises, but
trifling performances, of Mr. Pitt.
The Secretary at War, detailed the
state of our force, and, firom the dilfi-
culties attending limited service, in
the case of men in foreign countries^
was against it.

Colonel Crawford replied, siiU
maintaining that the volunteer sys*.
tern was absurd and ridiculous, and
that it was viewed bjr regular officers
with disgust j and bus motion was re-
jected without a division.

In the house of lords, on the* 9th
of July, an animated debate took
place, on the Dukeof Athol's bill, the



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