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to seek for men; the double embark-
ation ; the length of time between the
first and second arrival of the troops in
Holland ; the deliberations on advancing
to the attacks o: the enemy, and the
delltierations on the retreat trom that
enemy j these, with the articles for the
escape of the army, would form the
materials for the historv of tliat expe-
dition; which, if Mr. l)undu.s has not
burned his pafiers relative to it, may
hereafter aftord much amuse»^':nt to his
leisure hours, and no baud! instruction
to posterity.

But in spite of all his militaxy skill
and exertiojis ; in spite of every efibrt
for the deliverance of Europe, and the
restoration of social order, the internal
affairs of France went on in their o\7a
train, and its external warfare stript the
house of Austria of its richest territories^,
and Germany of all its provhices oa
this bide of the Rhine. The domain
of Fiance was extended beyond thc'

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Bogropfttod Sketch of Lord fielvUte. 109

opct sMiauine expectatioiis, formed hj were mtroduoed by Mr. Wilberforce*
Louis XfV^. in the wildest moments of who was supportea by the honest an>
hiatffibition. £ugla»<l» kft to itself, dour of Mr. rox, and apparent enefgy
^w tired of a war, in which its trea- (,^*Mr. Pitt. All the talents almost of
sures were cxpeixkd to no purpose ^ the house appeared in favour of the
sad it now lamented, tliat common abolition; but it was resisted by Mr,
pdencc had not been employed to Dundas, who to the pleas of huxkiantty
peveat an unseasonable irAcricrence in objected those of policy, and preferred
emtinental politics. Peace became ab- the safety of the West Indies, to what
ieluteiy necc-ssary, and the continuance he called misjudged philanthropy. His
oL\Ie>sr8. Pittaiul OundasintheniinitH influence was superior to that of Mr.
Uy ioespedieut. They retired, or were Pitt; and though there could be no
dnven Lorn it ; and their retreat was dithculty on the merits of the question,
cwered with the pretext of the inipos- it was hy the decision of the house
sibtlity of kcepine up the engagements ck^arly evident, that the premier held
made \*iih the Irish catholics on the only a divided empire with his col-
lyuon, which promised to them an en* . league, and that, in an important ques-
taz emancipauon from the shackles, tion, he must bow to the decision of
imposed upua them on account of their Air I>unda».
relizious teu^its. Wheiher Mr. Dundas is right on the

The iriaiL affairs make a very impor- side which he hiaa taken, time vf ill de-
lanl part of the history of administra- termine. Two questions were con*.
tion, during the French war. We will founded in the arguments upon it:
bope dial Air. Dundas did not conn- the aboUtion of the slave trade, and
tcsance the abominable system which the emancipation of the blacks. *llic
was pursued in that unhappy country, two are distinct from each other > and
when men were so lost to social feelings thoui^h no slaves wore, in future,, to be
aod to every seniiment of humanity, as introduce<l into the islands, it did not
to use a variety of tortures on the ob- follow, that the blacks were to be re-
jects of their suspicion ; to flog them stored immediately to their, freedom.
camerdfully; to hang them for a time; 'Ilie latter would have been a measure
iQ terrify tkem by a view of others full of inhumanity ; the former might
under torture. If the recital of these have been attended with ^eat advan«
eaonnities excites horror in every hu- taees, preparing the islands for those
laaae reader, let him consider wliat salutary steps by which they might be
muit be the effects on those who were preserved from evils, inseparable from
vitnesses to such atrocities ! An en- the continuance of their present system,
quiry into the nature of them has been The delmtes upon it, if well studied, lay
resisted ; and the British name is not\ open the character of Mr. Dundas^
&CC from those aspersions which were who in this, as in all other qiiesrions,
thrown on the French, for the cruelties proved clearly, that he was qualified for
oercised in the beginning of their revo- the post of a subordinate minister, but
lulioa, and the Snaniarus deserved in had never attained to those qualttiet
the time of Alva, for their cruelties in which distinguish a great statesman,
the low countries. His exertions, however, were thought

Bat in whatever manner Mr. Dundas worthy of a peerage ; and Mr. Dundat
united with, or differed from his friends assum'^d the title of Lord Viscount
in the cabinet, on the conduct of the Melville.

war, and the aHairs of Ireland, ■ there The change of ministry gave to Lord
was one point w^hich he contested most Melville a dec^ree of quiet which he had
strenuously with Mr. Pitt, and in which not enjoyed for many years ; and he ro-
be gained repeated victories. This was tired with his lady, the sister oi Lord
tile celebrat&i question on the propriety Hopeton, whom he had married some -
of continuing the slave trader a qu^< time after the decease of his (irst wife»
UOQ ori^natmg in the humanity of into Scotland. On this lady some be*
aoQie quakers, and diffused in various neficialarrangements were made; and her
pablications over the whole kingdo^i^ name, on this account, has lately often
pioducing petitions for its abolition from been brought before the public. It was^
fczreater number of persons than pro- not likely that a man of nts active mind
laoly ever set their name) to aiiy public could rest, nor did circumstances admit
^ttis'iiou. Th<; debates on tliis subject it. The new miuis^er^ Mr. Addio^os^

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104 Biogrdpfucat Sketch of Lord Melville,

lyas of a Tery rlifTcrent temper from his duty. The blow could not be panift*
pi\ideccssor : ihe first eriect of liis ap- Lord Melville resigned his poet of firet
pointnient was a complete change of lord of the admiralty; he deprecated
^steiu, with respect to the internal po- farther attacks, but it was in vain. His
licy of the country; the prisons, in friend, Mr. Pitt, \vas obliged, after every
which so many jjersons had been con- eifort to the contrary, to inform the
lined on suspicion, but without trial, or house, that he had advised the king to
intention to bring them to trial, were strike the name of the noble lord out of
Qpcneii ; espinage was no longer en- the list of privy counsellors. The crime
amrai;ed ; and the nation bepran to was of too deep a die to be thus passed
won<ler at the ease with which diii'erent over. Impeachment was threatened,
p^irties of diflerent sentiments could live Lord Melville trusted to his own pow*
peaceiibly together. The next etioct of ers; to his knowledge of the house of
tiiis new adminibtration, was still more commons; to his influence with the
jXfillint]; to Mr. Pitt and Mr. Dundas ; members. He appears in person to
fijran enquiry was instituted into various make his defence; out the facts remain
abuses, that had taken place in the uncontrovertible; and by a very re-
conduct of the navy. Such acts were niarkable want of judgment, he ag-
enouwh to excite cver\' species of indi^r- cravates instead of palliating his crimes.
nation against Mr. Aldington; and the liis friends, and all connected with his
o()positi(:n was ea^ilv, but stran|Tely, de- system, support him to the utmost of
luoed, to unite with their ancient ad- their power : they ward off the im-
Tersarv, in aitackin'^ the new minister, peachment, but in so doinjg, invoke
Tlie charges of imbecility were made iiim in a criminal prosecution. The
with the utmost confidence, and re- krtter measure was most painful to his
peated till they were believed : yet both ft»elings ; and liesides from the number

• tin^ and ii-.uion had the grpatest reason of peers made during his administration,
10 be satisfied with the change ; and no he hopes for that support in the boose
one has occupied the place of minister of lords, which was not to be expected
with greater proofs of integrity He had from a jury. His friends retrace their
not, however, the resolution to stand steps ; and Mr. Pitt is zealous for the
as!;ainst the vigorous attacks in the house impeachment of his colleague. The
of commons. He retired from office house rescinds its former resolution;
with the regret of the country ; and and whilst Mr. Fox, Mr. Whitbread,
Mr. Pitt was re-eslablished in his an- and the whole body of opiwsition vote
cicni post, to the complete mortification against it, Mr. Pitt carries thts motion

. of the opposition, which, in this respect, to impeach of high crimes and misdc^
^▼as justly punished for its want of meanors the person with whom he had
jud«;ment. acted most confidentially for nearly 20

. iSIr. Pitt could not be premier with- years.
out the assistanceof Mr. Dundas, who The trial now remains to determine
letumcd to the cabinet with the post of the -quantum of guilt incurred by, and
first lord of the admiralty. The effects the punishment to be inflicted on, this
of Mr. Addington's administration, nobfe lord. The articles of impeach-
wcre, howt ver, strongly felt ; and the mcnt, eight in number, are drawn up
commissi(jn for*naval enquiry had pro- ia the most masterly manner : th^
ceeded too far Xo be stopped. The fatxj charge Lord Melville with having frau-
tenth report was brou^nt into the house dulently converted 10,000L of the
of conmions, and all the energy of both public money to his own use, or to
Hit and Lord Melville was requisite to corrupt purposes — of having connived
vrard off the blow. Both were confident at his agent's drawing the poblic money
of success ; and when the promised mo- from the bank, and keeping it at a pn-
tion was made by Mr. \\'hitbread, it vate bank — tliat the money so drawn
was not doubtfd that the afi'air wciuld was used to private piirposes, to the
be hushed up: the quesiicn mi^ht be great risk of the public money — that he
strongly contested, but the minister and his agent burnt all the papers rc-
itra^t Be triumphant. Noihinjy could lativeio their joint illegal transactions— -
exceed their mortification and disp.p- that he received from his agent sums of
pc.intmcnt, whtn the sentiment c{ t:ie mrr.c\' illegally drawn from the laukf
nouse was declared to be, thnt 1a rd and kept at a private bank — thattfiesum
MdvUle wa» guilty of a hi|^h breach t f of 22^0001. was advanced to him,in thii

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Mnnefv-witiioat interest — that the sum breach indifferent cdaiitries, is drfTcrentt

of 22,0001. was advanced in the same In Prussia, in the rei^n of William th^

nunnery for which Lord Melville al- First, one of his receivers dreiv out of

^ed that he was to pay interest — and the chest ten thousand crowns fbr his

tbt his agent did his private duty with- private use, and left a note acknoW-

«ut pay, and advanced him various l^ging himself indebted in that sum 16

fums from the mixed account of pub- the state. The kfrig unexpectedly vi-»

I lie and private money. In all these sited the chest, read the note, and mund

acts, dilated upon with great clearness, that there was the specified deficiency.

Lwd Melville is chargira with being The receiver was immediately hanged.

guilt)^ of high crimes and misde^lea- The trial of Lord Melvill<; will priv*

HOTS. duce many ingenious arguments on th*

Lord Melville is not cxpfccited to give nature of political and moral guilt j and

*ay to these charges without vigorous the facts that will . come out on this

c£orts in hia defence. Some of the trial, will shew the countty'the ne-

&CU are not denied ; the guilt attached cessity of lookiiis better into its ac*

to them is palliated by many public pa- counts, atid the folly of placing that

pefs. The breach of law, m diverting imjjlicit confidence in ministers, fot

public money to private purposes, is evi- which Lord Melnlle was the most stTji*

(teat; but tne mode of treating that nuDus advodate*


THOUGHTS ON AJDULTEKT. aiialogy "between science and virtue j

LETTER I.* Or, in other wotdsj thdt a nation

To the Editor qf the Universal Mag* which has earned tlie splendour of

Arirrx $.^Bosta, niv awrtr (pvciv scientific research to the highest pui*

Or2» >siwjjyric, Soa ra *cr| r^ocr^*. »acle of exaltation may, at the same

x^^ r^iviaiy Tif, »ex TO fi.Ti i^^^u^tt ^^^^^ ^ characterised by a total de*

5C^*- '^^^' *"**•• reliction of social duties, and a gene*

sia, tal turpitude of public manners* The

IT is a task at once both pledsing annals of history, indedd, inform us^
•nd edifying, to mark out the variety that the advancement of science ift
of improvements, that the sagacity totally independent of the habits of
ofwisdoni, and the hardihood ofhu- virtue, and domestic discipline :-«
man conjecture, have successfully Science, it would appear, thnves best
wrought, and thereby enhanced the in a vicious soil : we all know that
comforts, and exalted the condition Greece achieved the most meniorabJe
of our being. But if we turn our at- of h6r actions, and could boast the
teotion from the natural state of man- tnost illustrious of her statesmen and
kind, which, at the beginning of her scholars, when she was gloating
time, crude, and helpless, and im- on voluptuousness and luxury. In tlie
perfect, has been adorned in regular first ages of tJie RomaU republic, not
gradation, and by regular improve- Only the mefa, but tlie ladies, were
aients, to the highest pitch of per- remarkably abstemious ^ and the in-
fection and refinement : if we turn junction of this absurdity was so se*
our attention, I say, from this aspect vere, that it became a law of Rotaan
of mickle delight, to the conteitipla- politeness to salute one another, that
lion of the moral ^nduct of human it might be observed whether the
Iteings, and search for the same ame- prohibition of luxury Was attended to.

lioration of principles, we shall dis ^Xhen, Sir, it is no solicism to say^

cover that mere does not exist any that the enlightened age of that em*

pire was an age of debauchenr, unless

• It 15 the authoifs intention, very you can prove to me tliat tne works
Aortly, to publish a novel, cntitlca, of a Virgil, an Horace, or a Cicero^
*' The Victim of Seduction;" and if he were written in times of temperance
•bould find that these letters are not un- and virtue. Farther, let it be added^
acceptable to the readers of the Universal that the piTophecies and ancient pe-
^li^^oe, and the public in Kneral, he ems of our British bards, whochtefiy
^1 prefix the substance of tncxn to dot subsisted on acorns and water, cannot
^^ 'be Compared witb the productions of

VUIV. P "^ r- T

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10(J Thoughis on Jidulle^.

the licentious age of Charles II. or us by what fatality ft happens >!Eat ft
the sensual reign of Louis XIV.— should be the divine, and ever-to-be
I have ventured to make this prefatory revered wish of Providence, that ha
observation, because it seems to be a creatures should have the roost rest-
true, tlipugh a sorrowful, reflection, less and goading spurs to amlwtion,
tliat. from the experience of tilings and then that the attainment ot Xbat

S[ist, we may almost be induced to ambition should be dashed and con-^
link tiiat there cannot be formed a founded by the accompanying com-
coalition between the perfection of rade of profligate viciousness. But
morality and the perfection of sci- so it is 3 and to us the experience of
encej and certainly I do think, tliat the present age presents the woeful
they liave never hldierto been found truth, that no exaltation in power, m
to subsist together at the same time*, arts, or in literature, can secure U4
If, then, habits of simplicity^ arismg from the contagion of iniquity, or
Irom a state of ignorance, give rise fence oft' that torrent of depravity,
to virtue and moderation J and if, on which is constantly running through
the otlier hand, a progress in science the vitals of an enlightened const!-
is sure to b« synchronous with a pro- tution. I have selected, for the sub-
gress in rampant and oyerbearing jectof these letters, a crime, the most
wickedness, let the philosopher tefl mischievous of any that can aHeet t|Hi

sons of men. I shall consider it,
♦ I shouiJ iiot have intruded these with your, permission, somewhat at
piciatory observation*, bad I not bcea large, and t hope the estimation of
aware that a very general report prevails your Magazine will ne\'er sink, n
with regard to the growdi of arts and sci- you sometimes allow an admixture of
cnccs in the soil of a vicious country ; the serious with tlie entertaining, and
namely, that iIk! thing is supposed to be suflTer it to become occasionally a ve-
inipossible. Pretty moralists entertain a hide of instruction. I repeat OflO
ridiculous idea, that the existence of pro- more the word *' instruction," for
fligacy and vice is the certain token of a the accomplishment of that purpdse
declining state -, but the annals of every is solely what I have in view on Uia
country must convince us of the fallacy of present occasion 3 and I lay my claini
this argument, and that the existence of to this merit, not from my over^
those crooked and unfortunate principles weening confidence in my own abi-
are the characteristic of an cncreasing and lity, (for no talents, and no acqd-
powcrful people. Can we account for sitions, can be more humble and in-
thls philosophically ? Let it be answer- significant, than thgse of your humble
. cd, that as the augmentation of animal servant) but because I am conscious
•pints enlivens and succours the bodv of of acting witli the most upright in-
an individual, the mischievous sprightli- tentioas, in endeavouring to add my
pess of immorality supports the power of feeble voice to the eloquent thunder
a nation, and inspires die people who of tliose good. and great meq, who
compose that nation with courage, and a would arrest, could their wishes be
spint and soul for enterprise and adven- heard, the general decay of public
ture. Temperance, on the otber hand, manners, and send us steadily to thp
creates a solidity of temper, which sup- goal of amiableness, and of peace.-j
presses the heat of imagination, and'curbs On a subject so grave, so bis and
the impetus of a lively and emulative important, I shall disdain to Tavisii
inclination. I would add also, that Q^e decorations of language, and my
no nation can be great without being ci- endeavour will be simnly direciecl tp
vilizcd, and that civilization brings in her shew, that from tlie dawn of society
train a never-failing spawn of wickedness, ^o the present diiy, the sin of adultery
generated by luxury and refinement. — \^^ been unanimously" Stigmatised by
Longinus, in his great passage, as I think moralists as the surest bane of public
It, speaks in the strongesttcrms of the vo- virtue, and private happiness. YoU
lupiuousncss, and abandoned baseness of ^ju consider this as an introductory
Jiis own age. See. 44. And yet that age jitter ; my next fehdl commence wita
of voiuptmv*^ncss and abandoned baseness jjj^ sUDJect.

|)roduccd a L6neinu«. I recommend to Gaunt NotEGOKB, ,

all the perusal of that splendid section. ^ Oxford, May 18, 1 305 .

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Luadralkris of USTt -tller^ lOJI

tcccitiTfows OF AT? iDLEi.' WO. I. surcs of winc. Not ^o be deficient
TothfEdiUcrofthe Universal Mag. in testimonials oftriendship, Hnmlet,.
SIR, surprised into a moment of mournful
AS the writings of the phjlosophisr pleasure by the sight of his fellow-
are acceptable to the votaries of student, assuredly means, in this line,
dulosophy, the amusements of an merely to tell him, that the strictest
Idler may possibly in some degree re- rites of hospitality shall be observed ;'
Icre the tedium of the indolent. — or that, in other words, *' they will*"
Fully persuaded that ot all the evils drain the cup of convivi.ility toge-
" flesh is heir to," the horrors of in- iher."

lalence arc the most lamentable, I In act ! sf, s:iys (in the c»r.

•iicerelv hope such of your readers fected edition,)

^are unfortunate enough to have no- u The dram oF base

aiMtodo, may find some httlem- Doth* all the noble substance of wonh out.

*T. ^ restlessness m the tnfling Xo his ownscandal,"
crudities of. Sir,

Your's, 8cc. The sense of this passage h ex-

ScaiCLsaus Quietu?. tremely obscure. The more conse-

quential commentators aj)pear to

<* Not 10, my lord ; I am too much i' th* evade the examination of it. D3-

s'm." vies strives to elicit a meaning, by

This retort of Hamlet, in scene 2d, ^^^^? « }^^^^\ }^ «?« ^"'"^^ an4

Irt Jst, is explained by the commen- ^^"g^"? two etters for one m ano-

litOR. '' I am so far from being ob- ^^^' "« ^'°^^^ ^^^' ^

ICDred with shadows, that 1 am The dram of base

IQorched with the rays of your sun- Doth all the noble substance oft work out,

ibine." A much more easy solution To his own scandal.

will be cfifected by the alteration of a " As a amaU quantity," says he,

couple of vowels. If we read, « of certain medicmes, by its potent

I am too much <? ih' son, operation deprives the bodv of strength

there appears no difficulty in the pas- f?-^. ?""''!!?; "^ ^^'\alW o< ^-^ce,

«ge. Hamlet, bitterlv averse ffom trA^f^\J^^l\'J^^

t£ second marriage of his mother, .tT'^.'^i^;;'' ^^ the noble qualities of

wry naturally termed himself " too ^"i^PJ? ,. ^. r*i * .

m4 o' th' son," ^ince the conduct u^^J^U^'Ji !l^'^^

of his surviving parent had rendered ^ "^l"^ f,V^ f possible the addi-

him son-in-law to the being he des- If^ ^^^ 'ff^ *" '^"^ ^'^\r^P'^^J^^

pUed. The words, *^® ,s^?^«^ ^^?^ may simplity thia

r,„ .. . ... , mysterious sentence. If we read,

* We'd teach you to dnok deep e'er you ^.^ , p.

depart^** —The dram of base

taed by Hamlet, when he addresses ^^^*\^" J^ '^^^'^^ *"^^"« ^ ^^"^
Horatio, our players pronounce with ^^ u^"^ ' * j » .
a deep and ominous emphasis, as if To his oWn scaftdil,
Hamtet intended to pour streams of the sentiment is obvious. It is cer-
Aicp intelligence into the ear of his tainl v possible for the circumstance
f;iend, before Homtio returned to of a blot, or torn margin, in the first
Wittemberg. But, in fact, he had copy, to have produced the ifiutila-
nothinj to coramunicnte, except a tion. How far the rudeness of mea-
trembling suspicion. That Hamlet's sure, in case mv emendation were
feher was dead, and his mother re* admitted, would be supposed pro-
banried, within '^ a little month.** bable in this composition of Shak-
Horatio knew. It would be a strange »peare*8, I leave to the reader,
method of teaching^ Horatio to drink The contempt with which Hamlet
JQ^ of information, to impart a wa- treats Poloniusi is. occasioned by the
tenng and' unacknowledged " appre- serrvility of the old man, in retaining
loision alone. It was the custom his otfices at court under the assum-
tf Denmark, " thoigh a custom ing successor of his more noble mas-
Nwps more honouredin the breach ter. By the great intimacy between
^^n the observance," to ent^ertain t^e king and Poloniw, it appears pro-
tfjj stranger with inordinate mea- bable that the latter was employed in

?2 ^

108 tucuhrations of an Idler.

bringing about the stoond marriage of changed into a pillar of salt, becans^
the queen. Allowing this, Hamlet's in cooking the victuals the night he*
treatment of Ophelia no longer ap- fore, she nad been sparing otsalt iQ
TCars unnatural. That he ardently «easoniug the meat! A more pro*,
loved her is evident ; yet tlie impla- bable suggestion is, that her surprise,
cable aad iust resentment which he on seeing it rain salt and sulphur on
entertainea against her father, smo- the city/ was so great, that her blood
thering the suggestions of his fond« congealed, and she became as stiff as
ness, and agitating a conflict of pas- a stone. The scripture, to express
^ioias within his breast, produced forciblv her situation, might nave
those paroxysms of anguish to njad-. used the term pillar, or stone, of
ness, in which he vaiiily essayed to salt, because all the objects in the
tear the ionocent offender from his neighbourhood had partaken of tbe
affections. salt which fell. It may, however,

Taylor was the original actor of be remembered, that PUny asserts
H^mjet, Downs says, '' That Mr. there were formerly some mines of
Betterton took every particle of Ham- wit in use, of so firm a texture, that
let from Sir William Davenant, who they were invulnerable to water,
had seen Mr. Taylor, who was taught though the salt dissolved in fire.— ■
by Mr. Shakspare liiraself." Ac- So pure and solid was the produce of

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