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cording to Cibbei's description of these mines, that Pliny assures us
Bettertori's deporanont in this cha- sculptors and statuaries preferred it to
racter, Shakspeare must have be- marole, and used it accordingly m
ttowed his directions with exquisite many of their works. By the term
judgpnient : - as a proof of which, pillar of salt, therefore, the book of
Garrick's masterly delineation of Genesis may merely intend to affirm
Hamlet is said to have nearly resem- that Lot*s wife was turned into a sta^
bled Qetteiton*ft in its leading fea- t^^, aa a punishment for her dis«
tures. obedience.

Images borrowed from art, it is One of the most absurd mistakes
contended, may aptly illustrate cir- of ignorance is that of the Nimigua.
cmnstances of nature. They must, Africans, who term brandy " the
however, be selected with cautious water of the White Man's Country/*
delicacy. The reader would be and really seem to think the £u^
tempted to suppose the author a ropean rivers abound with it !
bricklayer, when he reads the fol- Huet supposes the modem copies
lowing sentence in Glover's Medea j of the Encid incorrect, in that verse

f* Hope, whicl^ ^nts the stmcture o/'tAe''^^ ^^ ^^ ^""I^i^lt ^'^^ ^^"
j[f^ ^ ^ scnbes Harpalyce, the Thracian ama*

From mine is nmldei'di w4' despair i, ^"l' «« ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ river He.

ifFitAin the r«/«j.*' Volucremque ftiga prcvertltur HeSrm,

Many incidents highly affecting in For Hebnyn he would substitute
Oarratipn are glaringly improper for Eurum. This, in the first place,
the tablet of the painter, ijf this would b^ takincr a ^violent freedom
class is the circumstance of tlie Grcr witli the origiqal j and, in the ^-»
cian daughter affording nutriment to coqd, appears wholly unnecessary.—*
ier agecTparent, from the breast in- Swifter than the w;nd, is certainly

¥'nded for die succour of infancy.— - a more common hyperbole than
he story is barely tolerable in the '* swifter than the most rapid strean^
hands of tlie seriouS dramatist j but, flows j" but perhaps not pio^^e pro-?
on canvas, the figure of an old man perly so. When Virgil speaks ot th^
placed in the situation of an uncon- horses driyen by Mars, he says,

scious inf^t, is perfectly disgust- .„. _ ...

iiig. IT T -R o hIj 3pqyo^ apcrto, ante (uros 2St^yrwn%

On tlie twnsmutatiqn of Lot's wife ^ volant j

many curious opinions have been ha- hut, mfeht not Vireil deem the graccf

zarded. Of these the most enter- ful flow of a quick current a more

taitting is that of a speculative ilabbi, apt illustration of the sw\fUiess^ of %

who a&ierts that U^ po^ ^0{p%n w^ Tlir^iaxi feQi^, {

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Lucuhraiums of an Idler,



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A^ter of sensibilitj points out person in the act of rising. The
the peculiar beauty of a phrase of li^re was formed of a particular sort
ViipPs, in the Georgics. " Virgil," ofgranite, hard and porous, bearing
m$ be, " gives to the spring the considerable resemblance to the eagle

fliet of L'lashing fvere, ruhentij^^ stone The pedestal was tliirty-three
his translators and commentators feet long, by nineteen broad. . The
bve paid very little regard to this, dimensions of such other parts as re-
ps well as to a multitude ofsimUar mained, Pocock thus specifies :
tooc^, I was long impressed with a Fromthesole of die foot to fr«^t
Wicfthatthis epithet was mtroduced the ancle bone - - 2

merely to fill up the measure of the prom the same to the instep 4
WW ; but having remarked that early F^om ditto to the knee - - lo
in spring the shoots and buds of most The foot 5 feet broad, and the
trees assume a ruddy appearance, be- j^g ^ £-g^^ tliick
fore they throw out tlreir leaves, I ^

was thence enabled to Comprehend Respecting the circumstance of thin'
the precise moment of the season prodigious statue emitting sounds at «
which the poet intended to desaibe the opening of morn, St. Pierre ha-'
hyvereruberUi" zards a conjecture. He premises,.

A legend respecting the emperor with truth, that the colossal statues*
Tam, who reigned about sixt.^n of Egypt were partly hollow. This
hoodiped years ago, seems to sujggjest figure he alleges, on the testimony-
theprobabilityor the Chinese being ot Pliny, was formed <rf a basaltes,'
far from ignorant of the principles (which possesses the hardness and the
of aerostation, in the times of that- colour of iron) and might, therefore,
emperor. The festival of the lamps he supposes, have the power of con-*
is well known as an annual exhi- tracting and dilating itself, like that
bition, in commemoration of the metal, on the approach of heat or*
down£Ul of die emperor Ki, who cold. Thus might the statue possess
ihut himself firom the light of the within itself a principle of motion at
am, in a palace perpetually iilumi- the rising of Aurora, when the con -
nated. This exhibition the legend trast of the cold night, and of the "
describes as so splendid and allurmg, first rays of the sun, has most ac-
that the emperor Kam felt an irre- tion. Should this supposition be re«
sistible inclination to become a spec- jected, he submits the possibility of a
tatorofit Not daring avowedly to long iron rod, inserted in a spiral
Quit his court, he put himself into line, and susceptible, from its ex^
the hands of a magician, whoena- tension, of contraction and dilatation,
Ued him, seated on a fine throne, to acting on some metallic substance'
s^il through the air, and contenrplate with sufficient power for the produce '
i^ from above the whole solemnities of tion of this wonder.
* tiw festival. Whether this magician On this subject the reader will ex- '
were any other than a philosopher, ercise his judgment ; but we must
Bad the throne more than a balloon, confess that the labour of ingenuity
perhaps some few may be sceptical appears mis-spent, in attempts to elu-
CQougih to dispute. The Chmese, adate a mystery, the very existence
Pici£ aod intelligent, were certainly: of which is not rendered certain by '
erudite in the intricacies of science, the uniform testimony of contempo*- '
while other nations were busy in ex- rarv writers.

pbring the elementary data. at. Pierre has some exquisite

Some idea of the magnitude of an- thoughts on painting. The system,
dent colossal statues may be gathered if I may so term it, of the following
from the account given by Poeock idea, may be adopted in every branch
of die fragment^ of the statue ot of the art. '• There midit be ex-
Vemnon, said, when perfect, to pressed, through the whole extent of
^e emitted an oral sound at the a battle-piece, the denotations oftljc
ming of Aurora. It was in tlie form discharge of artillery, repeated by the
of a yoong man, sitting with his eyes vallies to the distance of several
tonied toward the rising sun. Both leagues, by representing in the back-
feet were parallel, and the hands grounds the terrified shepherds driv-r
9ss^ on U^ thighs^ j||i those of a .mg off their charge^ fi^cks^ df bitds •

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iiQ Letter Wthe Sfgi^ Hm. George Rose. /

fljnng tonrird Utie horizon, and the rqglio, and embrace Ghttstunify^if^^
«'ild Deasts abandoning tbe woods." would nrocure him awhite womad

Grey he supposes a preferabJe tint to be his ^ife. The zealous mis-
to green for ine grootulof a picture sionaiy inMnediatdy repaired to tbe :
galleiy. '* This tint, formed of nearest Portuguese setUement, and
Slack and white, which are the'CX-. having enquir^ whetlier there might
tremes of the 6hain of colours, bar- not be in it some poor, rirtuoos dam-
sncxiizes with every other, without sel, who might suit hU purpose, was
exception^ Nature frequently cm- informed of such a person, tlie niece
pLoys it in the t^eai'ens, and on the of a very indigent man of family, who
Bonzoo, b^ means of vapours and lived in a state of great privacy^-^
clouds, which are generally of that The missionary waited for her, one
celoor;'* But experience snews that morning, at the door of the churdi,
pictures of every subject detach them- as she was returning fi'om mass, with
aelves, with an admirable harmony her kinsman i and addressing hhnself
<if effect, ftwn a grovlnd-work <» to tiie uncle, before all the pecj^e,
, dark green — in which are blended the chained him, in the name of God,
tints of the heavens and the earth. and as be valued the interests of re*

On the subject of colours a singu* ligion, to bestow his niece in marri^
)ar circumstance cccurs. It I as al- on tbe Negrt) kinp;. The gentleman
xrsys been considered that th«^ Ne- and his niece having given their con-
groes prefer then- own colour to that sent, the black prmce married her,
of the \Vhite9. The snoty tint of the after having cheerftiUy dismissed his
Ethiopian is Apposed a peculiar ad- seraglio> and received public bap-'
Tanta|re, since it absoros the re- tism."

fleeted rays of the fierce sun beneath How £ir contmual opportunities of
which he exists . What nature con- comparing his own mental imperiec-
atitutes useful, she generally renders tions with the excellencies of tne En-
acceptable : on the testimony of se- ropean, may operate on the Negro to*
\eral FVench voyagers of credit, the wai^ds prbducing this partiality, is
Africans, however, entertain a de- well worthy of consideration. It does
cided partiality for the tamer pom- not appear compatible with the de-
plexion of their conquerors. This ipency of nature, to place tbe germ
preference might be presumed to ori- of passi(Hiate desire in tbe bosom of
ginaie in the reverence excited by the the tributarv African for an object
superior arts of Europeans. In- con- that unavoi(»bly beholds his race with
firmation of which might be adduced emotions of diigast. Perhaps, on in-'
the instance mentioned by St. Pierre, vestigation, pride will be found the
. of a Negro, who had beien aUnpst flayed chiet stimulus to this alleu^ partiality
•alive by tiie scourge of an iphunHan of the Neero : but wbife he aspires
Christian, rejoicing when the scars after an alFiance with his tyrants, fet
of his sores hefan to whiten, because him be reminded that he l^rters sim*
itsuffgested ahope that he was going plicity and content for a fldlaciinis
to ^aoge his coJour, and continue apd insatiable spirit of refinenoent.
Negio no longer I This pitiable emur *

lation may be rea'djly ascribed to the For the Universal Magcxxn$.
smse of inferiority iiec^sarily enter- LGTTEaTo t^e bight hoit* gbohoi
tained by the fsaptive; but, in re* bose, m.p.

peated cases, the natives of Africa, bib,

from the independent prince down to I i?avb read, with attention, yoor
the lacerated slave, have evinced ah remarks *' upon the Poor Laws, and
luiequivocal ihclination towards the the management of the Podr,'* and '
females of Europe, in preference to if your pamphlet had not been evi-
those of habits and complexion simi- dant^ designed to introdoce,' once
lar to their own. As a proof, the more, the favourite system of year
following little anecdote is extracted right hononrable friends, I shoi^
from Labat's History pf Ethiopia i-^ have applauded you, for what may
*' One of the kiqgjj on the coaat of appear to many, a deep research into '
Africa promised a capuchin mis- your subject ^ but as my prac^oe
sionary, who was preaching the gos- hath induced me to look a Kttle bfc*
pel tn fa^ j presei^ce, todisqiisa tifcis^ ^ood tl^ aqriiice, I am led Id cccr*

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Litter /o tke J%1/ Mm. Getrge Sott.-



lil



tittft 4faer*are qoacks in polN
tical (£ooDomy> as well as iit medi<«
eue, who endeavour to fofce their
pieteoded remedies, for counteracting
uaeasing and alarming evils, into
ootioe, withottC knowing any thing
«f the caoses which produce them.—
fiat I lind that you are not the only
penop who publielv declares hb dis-
approbatioa of workhouses ; for those
oracks oi wisdom, the Monthly Re-
TJewersi who are so deeply teaal in
political, moral, philosoplucal, and
every branch of knowledge \ they also
call the mansions >^hich have been
erected at a great expence, hi several
districts, for the reception of the poor,
biunderiag expedients, glaring errors.
They think you have authorised them
to use theise unqualified epithets, by
the nrofound remarks vou have made
OQ me returns to parliament by the
fsnAx officers ; and they take it for
granted yoa have clearly proved, that
the propcHtion between tne maintain-
iog of 9 person out, and another
within a workhouse, is as 3 to 1 2
nearly; and you say, that the ad-
mittance of every poor person ;s a
loss of nine pounds a year^ each pau^
per, to the public.

The man who can draw this con-
cIosioB from the premises, is eitlier
biassed by prejudice, or grossly ig*-
oorant of the method pursued by em-
ttra for relieving petitioners ; and if
sudi a blundering result required a
coofutotion^ I would not let it pass
Boooticed.

You very humanely acknowledge^
** chat sucn multitudes as form Uie
great body of the poor, ought not to
perish ; bat that they should be pro-
vided for, without destroying the
comf<Mts of the rest of the commu-
nity ;" and as it is your opinion, that
the abolition of workhouses will pro-
duce this salutary etfect, I shall be
giad to be informed by you, if your
ff eject should pass into a law, how
overseers of large/ populous, and ma-
nq^urtuiing towns, are to proceed,
vitboui baving a house always ready
^ the reception of iufant and help-
leas chrldrw^ pregnant women, crip-
ples, sick, .and drunken persons,
aod those who are brought to them
b a dying state ?

As a ^eat number of diose who
tre admitted intoa workhouse, are to-
tally incapable of hel{)ing thciaBelveS|



where are officers to look finrnttrsek
and assistants when* wanted ? And
can any reasonable man suppose, that
three pounds a year will pay the ex*
pences of each peison who wants re-r

The common price for nnrsing a
GhUd, in a district I once acted m,
was four shillnigs a week, or tea
pounds eight shillings a year j and in«
stances may be found where the ave-
ra?e price is considerably more.

Wnat are officers to do, when filthy
vermin, and disease, aU meet in the
same person i and they are so loath-
some, that the poorest cottager, though
perished with poverty, could not re<*
ceive them upon any terms ? Must
they take them to the magistrate of
the district, or to tlie esquire of the
parish, or to their own homes, or
leave them to perish in an outhouse
or a bam ?

There are cases continually oc^
curring of sick and diseaiicd patients,
where they could not be nursed -and
boarded for ten shillings a week ; and
I know that thirteen, too, has beea
thought insufficient^ How are the
officers to dispose of the worthless,
who will not submit to any restraint
out of a workhouse ? Are they to be
letl to die in tlie stceet ?

I will venture to assert, from some
years experience, that without a heubc
for the reception of such persons, witii
nurses, ana every tiling ready to rtv
oeive them, that the community
would soon feel the ejects of it ;
and the wretclied sufferers not only
be deprived of the comforts, but albo
oi the common necessaries of life.

You have anotlier scheme, which
will be attended with serious coni^^
quei^s, if it should ever pass into a
law. t£ your intention of giving a
stated-sum, at fixed times, to a cer-
tain description of people, be not
clearly limited, and the .section in tho
statute, which is to establish and con-
firm jour intended bounty to be paid
out cf parochial assessments, be not
cautiou&Jy worded, and confined only
to deserving objects, it will requue
no foresight to bay, that it will piove,
what the American philof^opner so
shrewdly and aptly termed the money
raised in England for the poor,
namely, a premium to encourage
idleness and drunkenness. Instead
of looking, as you fa^X, ought to have

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BXa Liiier to tht. Right Hm|. Oearge Ikiie.

done, ifita die present disorderly their .owii> they ai^ kd into

state of the poor, and their manage- errors,

ment, you nave been anius'uig your- Before you advance any farther in

Belf, as the late Mr. Gilbert, and this arduous undertaking, you should

.some others have done before you, enquire whether the innocent sim-

bjr reading Lord Hale, Sir' Josiah plicity, and purity of manners, sung

Child, Messrs. Carey^ Alcock, Field- by the ancient poets, have not for

in^, and more I could name, to find many years forsaken our lields and

U'hat they have said upon tins great our lawns ; and whether you are not

and importajit subject. While you now to provide for a very different

were consulting those philanthropists, description of people, and more espe-.

you never reflected, tliat they wrote cially near large and manufacturing

to point out measures of liglitening towns.

their own burdens, witiiout const- You may, perhaps, get a glimpse

dering what tlie manners, customs, of the evils you will have to eucounr^

and nabits of a people might be a ter, by demanding another return
century after them. If the morals of from the palish olhcers, if they will

the lower order of tlie people are faithfully answer tlie following^- or

■more corrupt, we may rest assured., similar questions,

tliat new and increasing evils will rel I . How many paupers have been

quire new and vigorous exertions to admitted into your workhouse in any

counteract them. given time, and how many in each

But even Lord Hale was in favour class, from one to live years of age j
of a workhouse for the reception of from five to ten 5 and so on upwards

the poor. Fielding was so partial to every ten years to ninety ?

tlie ])lan, that he recommended one 2. How many, from fifteen years

general house in each county. of age and upwards, married, w-

The Rev. H. B. Dudley, late an dowers, widows, pregnant unmarried

active magistrate, in Essex, says — women, prostitutes^ drunken, and

*' He feels it incumbent upon him- idle?

" self, to retract an opinion he too 3. How much each man might

" hastily opposed, some years since, have earned a week, if sober and in-

'' to a parliamentary plan offered by dustrious, before he sent his ^uiil/

f ' the late Mr. Gilbert, recommencf- f6r relief ?

" iog tlie adoption of general work- 4, How many, with their consti-

" houses ', but he Is now convinced, tutions injured, by intemperance, and

" that some such mode would tend the venereal disease ?
*' considerably to tlie diminution of 5. How many, with palsies, con-

** narochial grievances." sumptions, and otlier disorders, wlu>

If you have read all tliat hath been are incapable of helping themselves ?

written of the Poor Laws, and tlie 6. How many children brought tx>

management of the Poor, it appears the parish through the vices of their

tliat you have withheld from the pub- parents ? and how many bastards }^

lie eye, all that militates against your 7. How many sober, honest, and

8} stem. industrious persons, of both sexes,.

I acknowledge that such omissipns, whpm sickness, old age, and unavoid-

arc little imperfections, sometimes able misfortunes, have brought to po-

discoverable in tlie works of autiiors, verty ?

by those who are capable of detecting 8. What it costs weekly for each of

them. To shew my impartiality, 1 tlie infant poor of tlie city of London^

can even lind an apology for a Re- including the officers expeuces for vi-

viewer. Men who have long been siting them ?

confined to their garret, and tinctured O. Are there aiiy charities with-

witli early prejucUces, by reading in held, or any part of^theai misapphed,

their youth the highly finished scenes and the reason of it ?

of rural felicity, painted by the po- ^ I can assure you that tlie answ^ers,

ets: they, by a kind of instinct, re- if obtaiqied, wili0|)en toyouaeloomy

probate every plan which will, in prospect ; for you will find the total

oases of necessity, take their Dapline nilniber of sober, industrious persons^

from the shade of his spreading beech $ a very small ope, in proportion to th^

and estiinating the feeUng of others by nuQibers in the Qther colu9ins4



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Rmar& cm f/tBRep^ 8f Ordeveh

\ Here be feafiy evil^ \^itL ttift in- atjdxfoi'd Is \('ickea ^poug]

1 niht



tftikv wHl tot re^fch,. tod vAnch can-[ d fndidrousparddy^ and l.ixit
flot be cofcipfreed >^rtfiin the limits or as to Sa^, mdt ft certain dan
te fetter, ii" wortvfrotises ard tb be nation, yria ttii^loy^d ih ti
ix^reberf, ahd th^ ptwr indBscrmir- sitioti. JP^ugh ! for shame !
tax€tf T^fiered in theh" own hbusei'/ Ifet a learned tnkn ^lone ? ^
fterfe Witt; m largfe towhs, be thmf enty ! Lfearnfcd meti are
•o redJivij, fthd bni few t6 pav r arid- plentiKil, an<J h^. would dr
pecjde of cotifinfed incorhe^ mvwt rfht the la^it remainib^ off the
Bn*t die burdens tiiat: af* IM lipoid Iris iii-u5ag6. A Judicroiia
flWn. - * '*1fy thi L6rd *tis a* gbod

llioajtlrtlii 6riAcijjte5 dfofe'r^|^ iver was rii^dfi : tH^tneasur
tofci ai^ krtifid and sdlntery; mW? exact; a goodVerS^, giDod sens
ird TicTotais habits in the lower ohSfer 6f meaning: dti bxcqllent vi
rf(bepeopie;-hateifendtr^dhnpro<'6^' ipod s'enstt." rrte'n. IV. pan
mcntsliecessary j but tf wepiffl dd^hi- ma^OrdeT^^exclaiittatsucfii
tbe present fahnc; We shalluot.buUd " Wij^t a fastf spirited rogu<
oK «o ^oky» iri its Jilkc^. - Saj[^ Voii ^ ?. ;s5y you ^o,. ]

, l^e conduct of every person con- torjfi 5 r^^y^int6 you aerair
«S«i A rhe f*ecufic«i 6fth6 JJor a shallc4, e6v^% hmd
h^, imghl €4 ttfe strictly scru^iffizM ,- Re.; '^ Wlkt a, lack ' *
AkI m ipcbtmls of all rtioney col- Crbtd.) Biit t filld/^
fccWd and dfebilHed carefullv eia- Grdevei's reply, Uiat L

toiW ; abd 'vtrbt>ever wilfciny ne- somi^diirig i:n this sdt^t :

^s th^ dut^ 6f an office he accepts^ what is ther6' in itth^it Ts not fi
oriA^plies ptrblic mgney, ought to for any gentl^niati iri the, I



be severely JJiitii^^d'. ' • Surtly it; is very ^it. and abc

It &' tMd?sfi t6 stumbW oii one tdnt^oVetsiat xVritink^, .iii W
«lftct, drid to ffiihlt of pVe\'€hting i feV*' YdU lies;" ^' Yoii^i
^ib ef ah (sHdrmbti niagriifnde, T^ltB '* If ydti cap' t!hihk ko*. ^oii i
a trifling expedient: tSe catraei^ ot inpsr sh^lfoV Krj^ih/' Jed, &c
Aem should be 'frs^ sought out, and sfcattered*,. ypii may. 'silence
Hgorous measures adopted ;' bvit even ^^t is not of ^ most un'tract
then tlfert wi51 be a diSicnlh^ of find- ftideed ! mi f^t me no>Xr |
ine xpen who will give up their, time fte sentence wjii^h t naVe
andtheit attention ih disdiarging'the ^e head of this' ifefehce <
<lntiesofatroul>ies6me, ao unthank- Indrgnsrtion rCaliy ni&d'e hin
fbl office, where' nb satisfaction can wouM liem^rlrnvfeb^eh a fo
ever be siven ; for ^' they whp re- fool indeed, to have kept i
ceiye/ana (Bey who nary. Will com- m his.'ov^n headj to be tw
plain," Nyctophvlax. turned at leisiire ? or jjfuck \

— u • ihe toutitet itf thfe s|iop,

Nee domi tantum mdighitioncf continebat. Afiighti h^ve regained for
_. - . LivY puz7l6'the brains- of tlie g

Vim Editor tftheUnivetSal Mag, hoy, to fiiid out '* >vha
, _ "H> , , Meant ?" jt would then n

• f WAS led to mak^ the" fbll6wmg Appeared toehlighteh the wc
remarks, by r^kdihfe the nm^iic JaaM ind^gnum ! Ut it
contrfl^tfsy that w4sM^ely cafried ^k^nof?
00 by two of yotii* dorrespondents. I have heard it ^id, that
w reply ofOrJeVex (Jh^rihed me nation does not make such gc
Jptrndrtieagiirei I Was rtrU(Jk ^iih' ais slie did in JuvenaPs im
toe depth of his' reasoning, the un- this is a mistake, and thus
portAoe of bis <^bnjeCttires, and' the it : there are two sisters be
Pb^s<!n* which fills emendafioii is' rndifenation ; tli(i one whic
likely to introduce into the passage in a cata and virtuous man to
qoesOotty but most >A^as* lastohfthed the wickedness of the world
gconyiwfed of his Naming, by th^t Other which provokes men c
g^fgtoUifl& and imbdaltertitea tabl^ disposition, to break c
Wry TOkfh app^afred at' the head of ratge, when thev are thwarte
««lirt-ne|>ly. BtattMs* s^aic fellow views. The first it was tJ
Vol. IV. ' Q' ^



114 EpUapk OS Mr. fhamas Baity e.-,

verses for Juvenal, andtheiatterfor fence of O. as I cannot see a learned
Ordevex *, and though perhaps she don't roan so flagellated, without coming to
tnakfiffuite such good verses as the his assbtance. And indeed I am indu-
tnher. what shame is there in that ? ced to think, that maugre tlie weight
Was It not enough to put the poor of his learning, we two shall be a
man in a rage, to deny liim the right match for him, since *' Ne Hercules



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 20 of 108)