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«) ead to the Chaldean empire, and Babylon was t^keu afl^ a two years

^ diver^on of the waters of the siege^in the year betore Christ 5^01

Enphnues had changed its ^tate,. The stratagem has given renown to

aw prepared it for gradual' dcotruc- tlie name, of ZopyruS;) who suffered

^i but tliis was Hastened by the himself to be maunedia a most hor-

(% of as inhabitants^ wlio were rash nble manner^ aad fleeing in this cour?

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ifition ta ihb B^hyhtuwi, wai tcf- was 6rer i hatiori tM hik^ be^ '^-'

^tv^ by thk^m as on6 the best ac- tinguished hf its conquests, shd war

quainted widi his master's secrets^ remarkaWe rar'thne tyranny of ifsj^

tfiid who had the greatest cause to be- vernment. Tht Babyloiiiinft mi^ht'

fray them. This treachery may be be suitercrs by the conquests dfCyj

^teemed to be a glorious act, and ros ; but the natiohs in subjection ta

iDotKircbs will jprais^ it, t)ecause it thenfi were gainers by the excbah^ of

encourages the devotioti of a slave to masters. A rematkable instance of

tJibir interests j but treachcjry is still tfiis wa« seen in the case of the Jei»rs,

trl^achery, tod the traitot is a despi- —They were cured of tlieir fdofcrtrf

<!abl6 character. Th* regai govern- by being i*ritnesses oi' the abominable

mfent of Rome was aboli3ied in the ^d filthy rites practiced at Babylon y

fear hefate Christ 505. Tlie $tory, and, wlien their cas6\Wi made ktwwh

iRrhich is sup][yos6d to haVe given rise to Cmw, tcho waA a worshipper o^

to it, is familiar fo oUr youth, dnd one Uod, and held idolatry in dbRdi* -

tiie revenge t^tkeh by Liicretia, on rfence, he woUld haturiUy enteh&x

herself, for th^ insuh offered to he^ a f'egard for a people, whose Ia#«, Fa

by the royatl villain, naturally eti- respect odf both fdigious dnd cittl po-

creased the aversion to his family. Hey must appear t6nimsd^mirabl*;^

-a-The great fauU in the nfew govern- — Othfer nations, al^,- felt probaWy'

Hrfetit was tlie want of i ptoper orga- the good effect!* of his feovernm^iitf

©iftatioft of the people 5 ato that it and even among the Brfrylorifeii,

might be fairly represiented in thtf se- when thehr religious tyxaiftiy wasabo-'

iwte : and hen<*e arose the perpetual, lished, and the worship Ot i<Sols wir

guarrds between the plebeidns and held at coutt in abhorrence, roatiy.

Aa piitrttiTim. Diarius headed hiii ^ould be led to' fthtertaiiV b*ltefr rt<y-^

Wrmtofj expedifion against Greece, in* tions of fheir Creator ; ind, if thiy

tiie year before Clirist 4t)8. The were not improved by thfe P^r^afe,

JH-upar^tions for it were immense. — tlier tvere at least pn^veititftd ftfum im-^

A miHioU of pfeople were sifid to be posing their IHthy ceremonies upotf

^thcr inarms, or followirt^ the camp, their Aeigiibours. Thi5 remark ii

ttpbn this occasion ; and Iwrius, who particularly necessary jit th&*^ times,-

eotild moralize very pfettily upon the when the 'rise of Bonaparte excites «r

sight, did not give himself the trouble much discontent. The question must

«o fenect on the labour which he im- be detcrmirtfed hereafter, whether his'

posiftdupon such a multitude, and the exaltation did hot tend r^ tlie' impfoye-'

Awi to be obtained by it. So difficult merit of his own couiitry, ^d of En-'

is k to make a sovereign know his rope j and it is certain, that the*

jlace in th6 creation 5- and it it both changes produced iA the world by

16!* his own intei^st, and that of his- great conquerors, have a tendency to*

people, that every check Possible <5orre^ the pride of sovereigns j ttf

^ould be pl^ed in the Wiy of his* ca- ti^ach them that thcir's Is a?t office of

priclons atid- inordinate de.<irds. high importance ; that, if it is notf

Quest, FI. To what reflections do execat<*d with wisdom attd virtue,

the above epochs give rise ? there is a power greater than tlieirt.

In reading thi^hisfoty of msiikind, v^hich will hurl them from their

the* dbsolation brought on by con- throiies, atid make then^ aii ejarople*

<Jiiereirs stVikeS tls Witb astonishment to mankind.

and horfor, ^dthe iffcohsiderate are The iMatry of Babyli6n'\^ *P^^
ipt to' br^ak oiit in' idle reflections' ovef A^Jia : the abjett superstition or
(6ri (hci providenfce of God, and some Egypt had a' siniilslr influence iff
m«" sd Ash a^ to irtipiSe* to him' the Atrica. Egypt! -^ts' over-run ^ith*
. character of mnWvoletice. . But all priests and gods j^nd it not only wor-
thU artse^ froM zH ihaperfect view of shipped the calf, but ammal>^ole\'ery.
the subject: the miscWef produced description. How was' the buniailt
hy the coriqodrot stWkes us tbrcibl}'; J^ind to be corrected of Such base*
but we do not reflect sufficiently on 6e8!s ! There are only two ways', by;
fhe mischief that ^buld have arisen, reasoh^ ot by force. From rdsojt
if the oJnmiefed risGon* had beeiVleft- there could be no expectation of sacf*
to themselves. Gyms Was a^ great^ eess, since the priests had too muctf
con<jueit)i: y bat kis principal conquest- ^ower to permib it» entnmce into thrf

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. Aiuwen io the HisU rtcal ca^ PfttlosofMcal.ijuesivm^i



XZl



jwonOy,



and the asgociatlons were sp may ^plead policy in his favcar, but.

.deeply rooted in fiivour of their bes- be may be assured, that he is actiii^

tial train of eods, that nothing but In direct opposition to the precepts of

some great calainity seemed likely to Christ and his apostles, and is guided

loake an impression on the inha- only by the spirit of faction.

Vitwts. This was brdnght on by ' Many are uie exactions and opnrei^v

T^lambjrses, whose mind was filled sions to which nations will submit

iDoly with ideas of conquest ; but his before they re\t)lt against the sovereign

Iwrth and education had taught him tp power in the state.; but there are in-

lK>ld in contempt the gods of Egypt, suits, which in an instant rouse their

—Of these be made a memorable use, fury to the utmost, and the death or

jdacing them in the front ofhisarmy 5 expulsion of tlie tyrant inevit-ibly fcl-

aod t& superstitious Egyptians were lows. Such was thecaseof Tarqum,

irfraid to lance their weapons, lest it the last king of Rotbe, whose son

sfaoold destroy a cat^ or adc^, or some would hardly have been guilty of the

^dier contemptible object of their outrage on tne person of Lucretia, if

worship. The famous bnll. Apis, fell be had not expected protection irom

Hito the hand3 of the Persian sove- his royal fether. But this insult, added

IrtigD. He looked upon it as a com- to the many which the people had suf-

aon animal — the conquered adored it fercd, was not to be borne, and they

ti a ?od But what must they think associate it with the royid name so,

cf goos, who could not deliver them- that the expulsion of the king became

idresj and with whatever abhor- necessary, and the form of government

rente they might regard the Persians is changed. In this tiie people were

fer destroying their gods^ and their, gainers, because, in the first instance,

priests, they could not fail of enter- tnenewgovernrtaentwastnorefi-ugal;

taining hereafter less veneration for but it by no means followed, that

those gods, and regard for their infa- their rights were in safety by the ex«

moiu priests. Thus human folly of cbangeqf regal to consular, dictatorial,

ooekind is corrected by tlie human or deoemyiral power. The form of

foHy of another kind— the supersti- government is of less importance than

tion of Egypt, by the re\'engeful tem- is iitiagined : the great point is, whe-

Vsr and naugh^ ambition of Cam- ther ^imes can be committed in any

Mes. But, if^such things are suf- 8tate,^>y great men with impunity,

fired by Providence, it does not ex- and it was found in a future age,

t]Dse ^ther £iult ; and if the destcuc- that a metpber of the senate might

tioD of superstition is good, the means act as atrociously as the son of a kinf.

hf whiclt it is performed mav be —In kingly governments, indeed,

enl; and one excellence of the Cbris- there b a danger of the sovereign

lisn religion b, that it not only pre- protecttnfl^ his son from judicial en-

Kribes ttat the end of our actions quiries ; ©ut then it is worthy of en-

nnist be good, but the means by quiry, wh^er any king's son shopld

^vdi it is produced, must be good be put into any office, in which he

tiso. A Christian may hold in abIioc«> can abuse his trust, and particularly

|«Ke die idolatry or superstition of in those in which the expenditure of

nil neighbour; but because he wor- the public money is concerned. If

Aips cmly one person as God, and his an enquuy into the conduct of a royal

owghboor several persons as God, he delinquent may be of the utmost^dif-

V Qot josttfied in pulling down his ficujty, or perhaps impossible, it is

.o^gbbour's Jbouse, or church, or in the interest, and indeed the duty, of

goring his person and property. — the soxereign and the state, po take

nwidence might see it right, that a more particular care that those of

Cwnbyfes should overthrow the su- royal blood should not be in a situa-

psmition of Egypt} but the same tion to become delinquents.

novidence has iaid it down as a law When a great power is established,

for Christians, that we should not fol- the prospect of its destniction is re-

ww bis example. We are to use rea- -moved from the eyes of common ob-

ton onlv with those who difier fiom servers. The empire established by

w Id their religious opinions ; and Cyrus, and enlarged by Carobyses,

•"eiyman, who wishes to use com*- seemed, .when Ijarius ascended the.

inlnon or restraint on this subject, throne, too great to be resisted, and

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142- Answers to the ^stdtitat ^^d Philosophkal Questioilts.



' much less to. be resisted by so Incon-
siderable and so disorderly a pfcople as
the Greeks, To ov€;r-run tneir ter-
'ritories was the natural progress, ac-
^cording to the language o? the Per-
uian court, . of an afnjylieaded by the
Persian monarch, llius universal
^omiqion might be established, and
-the destiny of mankind would be de-
plorable. But he who has said to the
.waves of tlie sea, thus iar mayest
thou go, and no farther — has set
bounds to the fury of monarchs, and
the rasg of the people* The ambition
of thejPersian court was not to be sa-
tiafied, when any resisted its power;
and tokens of submission were de-
manded from Greece. To obtain
them, what immense preparations,
what an immense ciLpenditure ! —
** Delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi.!*
Had Greece been conquered, this
• childish ambition would not have been
.satiaiied. Vet^ if the millions sacri-
.ficed for such an object had beep
expended in the interior of the Per-
-mo government, in the building and
adoramg of cities, in the makmg of
roads, in digging canals, in useful
.works of industry,, how ranch greater
•would have been the accession of
strength to the empire, . than by an-
'.nexiog to it a -small adjoini^ tem-
tory I But nations will run 60 in the
•same idle career : the blood and .wciilth
.of the many will be expended for the
.sake-of the few, till the maxim 13
.more generally known, tljat wisdom
is better than strength, ^d virtue
^conduces more to happiness than am-
bition and vanity.

Quest. III. what are the principal
occurrences -between the uniort of
Scotland and the peace of Utrecht ?

This period of time is occupied
chiefly with details of militar}-^ aiiairs,
-and the Duke of Marlboroiigh con-
tinues to add splendour to the British
arms, and is the soul of the confede-
racy against France upon the conti-
'.nent. At home he has many ene-
^uies, and the powerful general is
mortified by the intrigues ojf the ca-
.binet. His glory is, however, tar-
•atshed by his own acts, and avarice,
a vice nvo in great characters, leads
him to take those low advantages,
wbidi brought on him the censure,
and the deserved censure^ of parlia-
ment, together with the necessity
of miskinc; restitution to the {Jublic oi



money which he had devoted to hSr
.own private use. The union of ihh

treat Dnke of Maflborougb 'W'ith Sit
olomon Medina the Jew, of a com-
mander in chief possessing irtimense
wealth, with a contractor tor provid-
ing the army with bread, is so pitiful^
that we look with surprise at the mix-
ture of such great ana mean qualities
in one and the same individual. Com-
pared with his fortune, what was this
small acquisition of an annual income,
which, by diminishing the just pro-
fits of the con tractor,, must put him to
the necessity of taking measures inju-
rious to die army : and it is not likelrl
that the commander in chief should
look very keenly into the bread dcr
paitment, when the correcting of
abuses would curtail his own pro-
fits.

The fame of the Puke of Marl-
*borough was, during this period, di-
vided . between him and an obscure
man, who for a time was consklered
to be thegreat champion of tlie churdi,
and was, in fact, the pride and boast
of' torles and high-churchmen.—
The trial of this man. Dr. Sache%-erel,
occupied the attention of both houses
of parliament for three weeksj in 1 j70gj
and the preparations fot* it, as well as
tlie Doctor's progresses after it, ex-
cited an almost incredible ferment in
the nation. It was, in fact, a church
question, patronised by the tories,
and not sumciently discountenanced
by the queen herself. . The Doctor^
in two sermons, had preached up the
ridiculous notion of non-retistanc^
and passive obedience, and of course
threw out many censures upon the
revolutioB of .lO'SS. The danger cf
tlie church, from the toleration and
increase of dissenters, was another
grand topic; and tliis ' Idea of daDga"
to the cnufch and state firom the cG&-
senters and the whigs, was spread
with the utmost assiduity throughout ,
the kingdom. Under jth is idea, great
excesses were committed : many in-
dividuals were insulted, and meeting-
houses destroyed. The real fact was,
that the dissenters, by their conduct
at the revolution, had risen very randi
in credit, and increased in numbers.
— The tolerating principles of Wil-
liam the Third had been very favour-'
able to tlieir cause ; and the dersy
viewed with a very jealous eye tEb
'secession of their flocks tothexneet«



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Answers f ihe^ Histemal <ffl4 PHlpsopkiffil^QftiStipv^ 12$

W-house. With the usual zea^ of riched hiiusdf by, various, indirect
priests^ and eagerness to overcome means, which his situation afforded
resistance, they took every step, by him— the example pf the censure
sennons and. prayers, to inflame the passed on tlie Duke of Marlborough
populace agauist their adversaries -, would act with redoubled force, and
and their tnumph was in one sense he could not escape with so slight a
complete. Tlieir preacher escaped punishment. This example, also,
from puiiJsbmentT^his sermons were teaches us the folly of that maxim,
ordered t« be burnt, and he was sus- so much preached up by Mr. Pitt and
pended from preaching for tiiree Mr, Dundas, and their partizans in
years; but the violence of his Ian- their late administration, tliat im-
guage, and the conduct of his parti- plicit confidence w^s to be placed in
2ans. excited much enquiry, and those at the helm. Such confidence
thoogh the disseiHers suffered a cpn- can never be placed in men. We
siderable degree of inconvenience, have seen that tlie i)uke of Marlbo-
yet it was but temporary. High- rough betrayed it : it^ is no wonder,
church principles from thjs moment then, that inferior characters should
'grew to be odious ; and there is at be guilty m a similar manner j but
uus day hardly any one, even a priest, no confidepce should be placed in any
•owealc as to entertain, or boldenough man beyond what is absolutely neces-
to profess them- sary— he should always be presumed

Quest. IV. To what reflections do to be capable of falling, and the true
these occurrences give rise ? means to prevent it, is to keep over

When we ^re in&rmcsd by the his head the salutary terror of rigid
feithfiilpagecf history of the nume- enquiry. ^

rous deUnquencies of men in high The madness of the nation in Dr.
ttation, and of the difiiculty there is Sacheverel's cause, shews the ease
to keep individuals within the line of with whicli a people may be deluded,
.their duty, the necessity of watching, — ^We have seen a similar instance in
*in the closest manner, the conduct of the case of Lord G. Gordon and his
all persons intrusted with great power, riots, in their idle rage, or pretended
is appaient 5 and we caimot but won^ rage, against popery. Such attempts
4cr at the folly of any nation in ne- cannot succeed, to a great degree, in a
glecting so particular a duty. The well^nformed nation, and the aim of
neglect is not only injurious to the those, who set tliem on foot, will In
nation, bat to the individual intrusted ' the end be baffled. The high-church
vnth power. If he is convinced that party, by tlieir mad zeal for Dr. Sa-
his actions are not likely to be in* cheverel, only led to a more accurate
vesrigated, tlie temptations to guilt are enquiry into their conduct j and reli- ,
so great, that they are not easily over- gious toleration, instead ofbeing weak-
come. The disposition of the Duke ened, was more firmly established.—
of Marlborough to amass, and the fa- No one now troubles himself about
cilitywith winch it could be indulged, the church, and its . pretended dan-
naturally lol to the union between gers, any more than they would about
him and a Jew contractor j but, if he the dissenting interest and its dangers,
lad been convinced, that it would tlie kirk and its dangers 3 and it is
have been brought before tlie parlia- conceived to be as ridiculous to trou,-
mcnt, he would have^ been saved ble oneVself about tlie place of ano-
from the stigma which now attaches ther's taking his religious instruction,
to his memorv, and which nothing as it is to quanel witji him about tlie
bat the splenaour of his other actions coflee-house hp frel^uents, or the
can efface. But let us suppose a fu- joint of meat he prefers at dinner.—
ture commander in chief, uistead of "In the same manner, tlie rage of Iiord
succeeding at tlie head of his armies, Oeorge Gordon's mob was injurious
to be disgraced by perpetual defeat, to individual papists, but useful to
and to be discovered by the nation, their interests as a community .-i'
soured with calanjity, tphayebeen as Every one was shocked at tliepror
Deficient in the interior management ceedjngs of those days, and saw the
of his office, to have joined in the necessity pf preventing tliein in ili-
pns made by contractors, to have ture. The right of the papist to fol-
;ttealt in peculation^ and to have en- l<-vhis convictions becaxucgenerajl/

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1 24 Atiswiri to the^Hisforieat and JflUbsopXkal QuesAtu. (^

acknowledged/ and when the papists tired to a recess, where oashions were
of Ireland petitioned foV farther in- spread, and the Jew oomnQexKred bk
dulgences, no mob could be raised in narrative.

England against their demands, and M)' eountiyroan, Sbelomo, im-
the greatest abilities of the country parted to m^ the solicitudes of the
appeared in their favour. Thus, son of Achniet; but sickness has
though tliejr did not carry their point, prevented him from removing them
the disposition of the united kingdom in person. On the couch, I fear df
was made known, and the faction in death, he infonned me of' the ^aixis
Ireland in opposition to toleration, be had taken to gratify your desires,
must speedily acquiesce U3 the gene- and he urged me instantly to leave
ral sentiments. every other concern, to traverse the

Quest. V. Does London afford to howling wilderness, and to seek the
a reflecting mind the greater number mansions of AbdoUah. I lost no time,
of proofs in fevour ofcivilization, or and seventy suns have seen my ca-
the want of it ? mels hastening to accomplish their

AbdoHah spent his time in fruitless master's wishes. Eveiy tninjj is pre-
iBtudy, jn the mountains of Jarcha. pared, should Abdollaa persist in his
—None of the voliunes that he un- resolution 5 but his life is too predoiis
rolled could give him information, to be exposed to the sands x)f the de-
and he was lost in the maze of his sart, the stormy waves of the ocean,
thoughts, on the uses to which the and the brutal rage of an uncivilized
colder regions of the globe could be people.

applied. The faculties of man, said Ihe countenance of Abdollab
he to himselC must J>e benumbed by brightened at this intelligence : — the
cold : the eiirth under their feet must menaced dangers were unworthy of
be iron : the sustenance they can get a wise man's thoughts, and he was
must be derived only from the sea : most solicitous to know in what time
their whole time must be employed he might reach the country, scarcely
in defending themselves from the in- visited oy the solar beams. Shelomo
clemencies of the weather, and they did not dimihish the diflSculties of a
can have neither opportunity nor in- ioumey to Tunis, and explained to
clination for intellectual researches. — nim tne intercourse between Ihat
Ten mcons had perished, and been town and the metropolis of Britain j
renewed, whilst the sage was occu- that vessels were frequently passing
-pied in these contemplations 3 and he between the two cities, and sarcefy
gladly mounted his Nubian steed to more than^six weeks need be spent en
return to his friends, and to the court the sea. With tlie Jews originated
of Ouli, now for the first time more bills of exchange, and Abdoliah ea-
anxious to meet a Jew, than to re- " silv comprehended the process by
ccivethe embraces ol his family. which he might receive, at the end

The two months allotted by Ab- of his journey, whatever sums of mo-
I'ollah to the enjoyment of his friends, ney he might devote to the salisfac-
had nearly elnpsed, and the Jew had tion of his curiosity. Refreshments
not appeared. Abdoliah was the only were ordered, and Shelomo was in-
tneianciioly person upon this occa- troduced to tlie tamily, in which he
aion : — ^lie dreaded the idea of re- was requested to take up his resi-
turning again to the mountains of dence, till the proper airangeroents
Jarcha ; vet the day of his departure were made for his return. Abdollab's
arrived, his Nubian steed Wi.s order- heart was at ease, and the day wa«
ed, the family was assembled toge- past in social intercourse j but he
ther as usual, and the serenity of previously had requested Shelomo to
Abdoliah almost forsook him, whilst omit, in the account ofliis travels,
be was imparting to them his usual e\ery circumstance of danger, which
benediction. At this moment a cx)n- might excite uneasiness m the fa«
foaed murmur was heard— a crowd mily.

of attendants thronged to the pavil- In the mean time Shelomo, in-
lion the arriA'al of die Jew was an- stnicted by his countryman, in tlie
nounced, and Maasah ben Salmai consequence of the trattic he \visJied
fell proj^irate at the feet of Abdoliah. to promote in this pait of the wori<j,
•r-liie sage raised him, and they re- had ircqueut inte^iewswith iheuii*

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Answers lo the Wstoricat and P/uIosopMcal Questions* 1 25

'listers of Ottli, and the sovereign phraseistnodernised,'' manners makQ

Itimself condescended to give him an the man." The proverb does honour

audience. It is needless to say, that to the nation; for whDst in other

every request of Shelomo was grant- countries they have a variety of fan-

ttij but the care of AbdoUah's per- tastical distinctions, by which one set

soDwasmade the conditions on which or cast is separated from the other,

the favour of the court depended. — man is with us an object of respect j

Ouli, also, had more care ot Abdol- and it is by his manners that we de-

]ah*s wants than the sage himself; termine with what degree of respect

for having diligently enquired into he ought to be tpeated. By man-

tfac suitable expences of such an ex- uers, we mean the general habit of

pedition, he ordered forty thousand acting In the individrml, from which,

ounces of gold to be annually paid we determine liis mode of thinking

by the treasury to the demand of Ab- and thence judge w hat station he is

dollah» besides insisting on his taking fit to occupy lu life. Hence, then,

with hmi a treasure in diamonds, we find in evety walk the manly cha-

which, in case of necessity, he might racter: it is not confined to rank, or

use for his immediate wants. profession, or birth ; and, on the otlier



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 22 of 108)