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Thus prepared for his expedition, hand, the unmanly character is to be
AbdoUah saluted the thigh of his so- found in individuals, wiiose rank*
vereign, and departed with his guide profession, or birth, gives tJiem high
forlimis, havmg with him a very pretensions; and we are not from
numerous escort, ordered not to quit those circumstances deterred from
him tili he arrived at the shores speaking the truth, and denying to
of the great sea. The usual difficul- such individuals that respect which
ties of a journey occuiTed : clouds is to be claimed only by manners,
of dust, atucks of Moors, roarings We hav e pretaced thus much, be*
of wild beasts ; but of none oi these canse oiir question arose from the
did our philosopher take heed, as they language attributed to a Scotch co-
were familiar to him in his former loriel. lu the house of commons; —
travels, and he rwas a stranger to language which we cannot beiieve
that fear, which in every busti sees him to have uttered, or, if he did,
a robber, and in every agitation of we must make some allowance for his
the sand, inevitable destruction. — birth and education, and his total igiio-
The morning saw him ever alert, and ranee of the English proverb, ** man-
in the evenuig notfiitigued; he pro- nersmake the man/' It is time, hov»*
portioned liis daily journey to the ever, that he should learn it; and
strength ofbis animals and men, and every one iu the united kingdom
Shelumo was surprised to find him- should be taui^hi the estimation in
self under the walls of Tunis, wiui- which an Englishman holds manners,
out having felt the least fatigue or in- —Manners are very different from
coBvenieuce, though two days less p6liteness ; for the latter means only
were consumed on his return. His a certain Quality by which an indi-
former jouraey had been marked vidual makes himself agreeable to a
«ith various disquietudes, filled with particular class, and Lis laws are some-
&:!edless apprehensions; and fatigue times ridiculous in the extreme.—
of body, and harrassiug thoughts of Manners r&sult from a good head,
mind made him daily iameni, that and a good heart ; and where the head
he had set out upon such an expedi- and tlie heart are good, though theie
lion- So true is it, that tlie wise man may be defects in the body, and the
never increases the ditliculties of jife ; cut of tlie coat may not be iu fasliiou,
and what to others is a scene of hurry we say, there is a man.
and confusion, excites no emotion in I'hat a man is very much changed
lus mind. Order regulates liis steps, by tlie circumstances in wuich lie is
and lie is as well prepared lor exertion placed, no one can deny,, who sees
at the eud^ as at the bcglnutng of his tlie awkward plowman converted,
jouniey. after a few months discipline, into

Qaes/.VI. Can a pastry-cook make the' upright soldier, and his vulgar

agcxxl colonel r stare mto a look of confidence ; but.

An old proverb teaches us, that on the other hand, tlie profession or

*•' uianitre* maketh man,'* or as the rank cannot by any me^is eficct al-

- igitizedbyCjOOgle

f 36 Anstv^s to the JTtsimc^ and Philoso^ical Qifesiiom.

y^ays a change of manners -, for the If a pastry«cQok has become a bi^,
inanners of Lord Ellenborouch in the shop, were seems no reason for con-
liouse of lords are exactly Oie same eluding, that he may not also become
rfs they were when he was a fellow of a colonel ; for, is the employment oft
pcferboiise. Manners result from colonel more opposite to the art of
the head and the heart : reason and making pastry tnan that of a bishop?
Experience tell us, tiiat in every sta- The mancEU\Ting of a regiment is not
tion of life, the qualities of both may very difficult to be acquired : and the
l)eimpro\'ed or deteriorated j but it is inspecting of the regimental accounts,
certain, that with the mass of indivi- the examination of the soldiers' cloth-
duals, the general train of action to ing, his quarters, and his food, th^
which they are habituated by their care of him in his encampments, and
mode of life, will have an effect upon the attack of a tort, are none of them
them, and prev^ent them from entering unattainable by a man of tolerable
■with success into anotlier sphere of education, tolerable talents, and loler-
action. When the plowman has ad- able courage. But why should "w^
yanced into years, and his limbs have confine ouiselves to colonels only,
grown stiff by hard labour, we shall when the events of the last dozen
in vain expect him to make so good years completely answer our question:
an appearance as a young recruit ; for by whom were the great princes
but tliere are plowmen at the age of of Europe, the admired generals cf
sixty, whose graceful demeanour is the age, the famous masters of tactics,
superior to that of some generals or your Cobourgs, your Brunswicks,
colonels of the same age. your Yorks, your Macks, by whom

Some men have a happy versatility were they all beaten ? by postillions,
in their mind and body, which adapts by journeymen printers, oy barris-
them to verj' different stations : thus ters, by butchers and brewers. Who
Erskine was first a sailor, then a knows whether Col. Crawford him-
soldier, and is now at the head of the self, who is said to be so afraid of
;&iglish bar. Sir John Arkwright receiving orders from a pastry-cook
was a barber, and afterwards enriched colonel, may not have been pursue4
himself, and the nation, by tlie greatest by a pastr)'^-cook captain : and, it'unlbr-
hnprovements that have ever been tunately the fortune of war had corn-
made in machinery. Parson Bates pelled him to give up his sword, it
was brought up to theology — then niust have been into the hands of a
became editor of a newspaper, af- scullion general;
ferwards obtained prizes by his skill . Away then with these idle distinc-
in agriculture, and by recovering many tions! Let us not enquire into the
thousand acres from tlie sea ; and he occupation of a man in his hours of

f lined the respect of his county by amusement or business j but what the
is conduct as a madstrate. In- nian is in himself, and whether he is
stances innumerable of me same kind qualified, or has talents to qualify him-
mrght be collected; and it woidd be ^^^, for the situation which he under-
extraordinary, if the pastry-cook takes. What is it to us, whether at
should alone be exduded from the certain times, a man is making verses,
chance of recommending himself to niaking pastry, making speeches, dan-
notice by actions that do not seem to cJne widi a lair lady, trotting in Hj'de
be withm the line of his profession. Park, or rambling on the banks ofthe
— Probably tiiere are some now alive, Rhine, provided, when his services are
who have eaten the pastry of men, required, he shews himself properly at
risen afterwards to eminence ; — the head of his regiment, gives tho
and we know of one bishop at least, word of commaniTin a soTdiCT-like
that from raising pastry, was raised inanner, and sees that every man-
to be a head of the church. The cir- ocuvre is performed with skill and ad*r
cnmstance does honour to Bishop dress ? Whether Colonel Birch, the
Maddo^, whose daughter is the wife pastry-cook, can do this as well ai
of the present Bishop of Ely. The Colonel Crawfiird,whDeats his pastry,
Bishop, at his table, recommended we have as yet no opportunity of de^
some pastry to his guests, though, termining. And yet there are som^
said he, with a significant look, Ihey reasons whidi make us hesitate in tlic
arenotcf my own making. preference to be ascribed to either,

' Digitized by Google

'^Tfti Ujt of Seanderl&g. t4f

&tli colonels have appeared on the Salmagundi j many modem authors

public stage of lite, out of theit mili- hare spoken of him, and given thesd

tarf characters: both have spoken in specimens from Camden, but I am

])ablic; both have presented regula- not able to find from whence he bor-*
doDs for the state. In eveiy one of rowed them. He quotes also a prose

tbese things the pastrj-'-cook has shewn work of the same author, by the titles

himself to be not inferior to the sol- De Nugis Curialium. I have scea

dier-colonel. The pastry-cook is as- such a book, by John of Salisbury,* (a

suredly of the two tlie best orator, the cotemporary author,) in the library of

best writer, and the best poet. His Emanuel College; but never could

edocaiion and assiduity excite the pre- meet with any work by Walter M^pesi

ttonption, that, in whatever he under- Could t;he original be found, it well

takes, he will spare no p^ins to excel t deserves to be re-printed. * - *

and the soldier-colonel may, if he does ". I remain, &c. W.B.


toot take great care, be surpassed by Morpeth, Aug, 8, 1S05.

bis rival. At any rate. Colonel Craw-

ford has been very unfortunate in ex- the life of scakJdekbbg- ^

citing a comparison, in which supen- (Continued from page %i of our lastDumtcr.)
on^ can confer no honour, and defeat THE country which is now called

will be accompanied with ten- fold Albania, anciently Epirus, a;id in the

disCTace. vulgar diaJect, Attha, which once

Questions to be answered nett macie. a portion of Macedonia, Jies to

"^?r^ •*" \ . .^® ^^^ of that province, and is situa-

Wbatarc the pryicipal occurrences, be- ted between Dyrracliium or Durrazzo^

^des the epochs ahovc-mentioned, which and ApoHonla, formerly most poteni:

deserve to be noua-d, between thfc taking of and great cities, and much resorted to,

Babylon and the battle 6f Marathon ? ITie inhabitants speak a language dif-

To what reflections do they gi^e rise ? ferent from and alike unknown to both

What arc the ^nncipal occurrences bo- the Greeks and the Sclayonians j fron'i

twecn die peace of Utrecht, and the acces- which circumstance, some learned

iionofthc Brunswick family to the throne? men "have conceived them to be a

Docs London afford to a reflecting Sept or colony from the country of AI-

■ynd, greater number of proof* in favour bania, bordering upon Colchos, in

of civibzation, or the want of it ? * Asiatic Scy thia j as it is well known.

Was Wilham Tell (o be praised or that in former ages inundations of

Mwicd for canying two arrows into the fiarbarians liave frequently overrun

Idd, when he was ordered to shoot an the provinces ofbotli Greece and ltia\^

apple off the head of his son ? The sovereignty of Macedonia, toge-

- , ,. _ ' ^ ."TT. ,.* . ^^^^ ^'^^ ^^^ ^^ Epirus, was, in the

JomeEditor ofiheUniuersalMagazine. times coeval with the decline and fatal

wTw'- - ^ ^ ■ I'^Jii of the Greek or Constantinopo-
. THE attention of any of your nu- litan Empire, poss^sed bv three pnn-
.Otfous readers to the subject of the cipal families, all of which were suc-
iDUowing letter, will do me a favour, cessively destroyed or displaced by
which r shall be happy to aeknow- the Turks. The second of Uiesefami-
wfee, by the return of any informa- lies, was, that of the Castriots, a noble
ton withm mv reach.— The monkish signoryorfamily,the first of which who
rhjraes of Walter Mapes, the witty rose toa more transcendent distinction
archdeacon of Oxford, who lived in of state and sovereignty-, was John,
the reign of Henry II. have oflen surnamed of Dybra or the Dybrian,
pven me great pleasure, not bv their (to whom Francois Sanzouin, a French
poetry or their versification, but by historian,givesthename of Camusaj)
tbeir In^y sallies and pointed satire which said dynasty formerly reicrned
-and I am desirous to know where in Epirus, with no less glory than pros-
Jus enure works, oranypartoftliem, perity. With respect to the oriain
fflay be found in tlie original. Three and source of the noble line and fami-
speomeas of his poetry are preserved ly of Scanderbeg, autliors derive it
oy C^den in lis Remains, and from GEmathia, and as some add, tiom
wo of them have been translated by Umestia. a district which now makes
tluoteford, a congenial spirit, in his a part of Macedonia.

Digitized by


138 ne L^e of Scanderieg.

Thits John Castriot, who resided performed, (such as to fill the dyiUxoi
principally at Croja, although he had world with the glory of his name) naf
obtained great authority, ana his com- be singled out of the whole groupe ol
mand extended to several other cities, heroes in ancient and modem history,
excelled all the princes and lords, his as affording a noble specimen not om^
predecessors, in prudence, gravity, of undaunted courage, but of exqui*
magnanimity, courage, and in all the site dilijgence, ardent zeal, and the
be^t arts of ]ust and mwftil, of humane inost renned and critical military skill
and successifiil, government} he was, and policy — ^all which we shall endea-
Jikewise, gifted with very rare and sin- vour more fully and evidently to make
gularendowments of corporeal or per- appear in the following succinct and
fonal beauty, ^neas Sylvius, how- authentic account or narrative of his
ever, in his description of £urope, life.

thap. XV. , speciking of this John CSs- I think jt would be highly improper
tribt, under the name of Qrausa, oh- not to mention here a circumstance,
serves, that although bom of Christian which', if true, might have been right-
parents, he did not uniformly adhere worthily accounted a good omen, an
\o the Christian faith, but tliat he re- infallible prognostic of the mighty
Vol ted to the most gross and blasphe- fame which Scanderbeg, (for so we
mous doctrines and superstitious cere- shall henceforth call him, this name
monies of Mahon^et ; and that in the being a vulgar contraction or corrupt
sequel he again embraced the paternal lion of the jTmkish surnam Isechen-
law fl"om which he had apostatized, derbeg,) should advance to, when ia
choosing rather to die a Christian than the due course of time, he should ar-
a Turk. He died soon after the wo- rive at riper years and man's estate ,•
ful and miserable taking and sacking although some will probably consider
of the imperial city of Constantinople, it as bordering upon fiabulous history,
and the subversion of the empire of or the reveries of ancient poets j pro-
the East. digies or predictions of this description

His Wife, named Voisava, or Voi- being generally, in these oiu- times^
save, was a wortan, in all respects, looked upon as of very dubious credit
not unworthy of sucli a husband ; she and uncertain original. — Indeed, ac-
surpassed the general it j^ of her sex, cording to my own opinion, it is likdj
not only in a ^ir and beautiful aspect, enough that most of those dark, woa«
in her maiestic air and appearance, der-working oracles which we meA
and in an illustrious lineage, out, like- with in prophane history, wei*e posi^
wise> in her very great understanding nate, that is to say, invented by prie^ti^
and wit, her most strict attention to and not published amdnig flie cf^u-
manage all public concernments with lous multimde, until after the fact or
exact moderation, and in various ptlier event had taken place. However, aU
excellent and noble qualities of her though I can easdy believe, that Het-
mind and heart. She was daughter of a ven had made choice of this hero,, to
celebrated kingof tlie Trilaln, a lord- emancipate his cofuntry from the hea;
•hip or territoiy, formerly a sort of vy yoke of infidelity and extreme ty-
fidf to the kingdom of Poland, and ranny, and that Goa himself directed
contiguous to tJie province of Mace- him, and had plainly designed him to
donia, and the kingdom of Bulgaria, wield the sceptre of military empir^
Voisave was mother of nine children, when I consider the heroic airs, and
all of whom she reared or brought up ; martial genius, the lion-hke nature,
'five of these >^ ere daughters, viz. Ma- fierceness, and courage, that were so
ria, Jeile, Angelina, Ulaice, and Ma- peculiar to his character, and the nw-
mize; and the rest males, whose ny extraordmary difiRculdes and mani-
names have, likewise, been preserved fest perils, through which he was
and transmitted to posterity, vi«. Re- conveyed and conducted, as if by the
posius, Stanisius, Constantine, and the decrees of fate, or rather of divine pro-
most industrious, most pious, most vklence, as if led by the hand of some
prudent,G«>r5eCastriot!,theyoangest guardian deity, and invariably, to a
son, who fbr the generous example of speedy, sudden, and successfiu issui^
virtue which he . displayed, and the tis soldiers not only fearing to oftend
splendid actions which ne afterwards him, but rever'mg, and even loviiig

Digitized b^CjOOQlC

Sir AUM'^A Fragmmt, in the mddem Tdste.


*fcini zs a father, and following him credibility of his testimony for th©-
%ith an almost supernatural courage truth thereof. I cannot forwar, how- -^ .
and confidence, as if they had ever from simply « and can^dly re^
leallv conceived him to be inspired, marking, upon this occasion, that Bar*
Tet 1 shall submit and leave the fol- letius, &e priest of Scodra, if not him-
Kmring relation, -wholly t6 the grave self present at the performance of
and mature consideration of my rea* those difficult labours, important ac-
deiB, for such a degree 6f credit as they tions, and great ocairrences which he
may reasonably think it entitled to ; undertook the penning and compiling
contenting myself with merely de- of, yet he was, as it were, an eye* wit-
scribing all the circumstances of ness of the principal part of what he
(be matter, and quoting my autho- wrote, and therefore, of all other men,

%was the best able and the most likely to
e are told then that Scanderbeg's have bequeathed to us, the truth,
mother, during her conception of him, the whole truth, and nothing but tho
fat least it was commonly reported so) trutli, of history. This aumor hath
dreamed that she was pregnant with, set forth, at large, the memorabk
and had brought forth a serpent of deeds, the corporeal force, and al-
enormous magnitude, which covered ways victorwus combats of the noble
almost all All^nia3 his head stretch- Scanderbeg, in his most illustrioua
ing to the frontiers^ of Turkev, and scene of accidents -, and it would
having his tail immersed in tne sea, be unjust to omit adding, thai
and^ pointing towards the Christian he has been ever reputed very zealous
tmitories, and principally within the as a Christian^ but very faitliful, true,
limits or confines of the Venetian and genuine in his relation, never
•eimory — and that this great serpent, feeding the weak minds and vain ima*
with his bloody mouth, Ics englouHs- ginations of giddy-headed, frothy rea-
niidesa ^leuie sanglante, as an old ders, with gJosing lies, or robbing
Rench writer expresses it J that is to them of any part of the truth,—
•ay, a mouth tempered with blood, but, on the contrary, ever handling
deroored an immense multitude of his pen like an accurate and impartiaj^
Turks. His father John, hearing a very grave and sententious writer,
this dream, would not, says my au- The rather, as my author proceeds,
thor, seek for the exposition thereof, was not deceived in the good and
bf superstitious visitations to the reli- eager hopes which he had entertained
pons oracles of heaven, or by con- fr'om this dream -, but that which he
•diting tlie entrails of beasts, or the foretold, was, moreover, most won-
opinions of soothsayers, but with joy derfulJy, signally, and almost incre-
hegjns to cheer up and console his dibly confirmea and ratified", as it
Wife, telling her that he foresaw she were, in the actual birth of the child,
would be delivered of a son that when another much fairer, more no-
■boold prove an excellent warrior table, and evident mark or sign of hit
. md famous conqueror, a lasting, ter- future reputation and warlike glory
nble, and dangerous enemy to the appeared, viz. that the form of 9
hydra of Turkish force ana oppres- sword was so strongly impressed, and
•on, a most happy general of an ar- so well set upon his right arm, from
tiy, astoat, invmcible champion, and one of* nature's occasional and unac-
incomparable defender of the Christian countable.] iberalities, that it seemed
6ith and commonwealth, and always altogether like an artificial operation,
wdl-aiFected to the State of Venice, or rather, as if it had been designedly
This report, or tale, I deliver to the drawn, with the masterly, inimitable
Wader, exactly asmy^author, Marihus pencil of the most skilful painter in
fcletius, (who was liimself an Epirot, the world. , .
wing a native of Scutari, in Epims or f To he continued)

Albania,andwho,durin^aIl those trou>- — ^

We^orae times, resided in Scodra, a For the Universal Magazine.

^ of the Venetians adjoining upon sir alak. — a fragmbv^, m thb
Apinis,) in the first book of his histo- modern tasts*.

waldiscoorseconcerning the life and THE wind swelled, and. the rain
Jrtttt exploits of Scanderbeg* hath_ fell with more violence, while Sir
K it; le^ng m^rself wholly to tlie Alan continued stUl \^i^og on his

'^•IV. • S Digitized by Google '

StfAJSn^-^A Frdgmenh iff iM ikodem TastB.

ttnkno^tl twy. Every moment It
i^uired greater €(Forts to push on his
•teed, wearied as he was with the
unremitted toil. ' A slight flash of
Hghtning now flitted behind him,
^nd a low murmur of thunder fbl-
k>wed. The darkness thickened again;
tiie same unifofm beating of the rain
>continiied — the same hoflow wind yet
whistled in his ears. How far the
night had advanced, he scarcely could
conceive ; no moon had illumined his
path — no human voice had struck his
ears, nor^ habitation met his view. —
He was sensible he had rode many
hoars in the dark, and though it was
the latter part of the year, when night
most prevails, he concluded- it could
not be tar from the middle of it.— He
was astonished still not to find any
thruD, or clump of a tiee, or sign
t»f vegetation, in his tedious progress,
end it filled him with amaze and

His steed had becoriie more tardy,
tnd he was on tlie point of quitting
lt| when a faint stream of lightning
parsing before him, revealed to his
Wondering eyes an extensive pile of
^jruiosi How he had fDUhdhis way
so suddenly into the court, he could
not conjecture. He had not been
sensible of passing €iny moat or draw-
~bridge) or entermff any gateway. —
He immediately ^iffhted, and went
h>wards the iare^e door he had ob-
ilerved before htm. He soon found
he must have passed it, as the rain
Ho longer fell around him, but a still
deeper darkness prevailed. He moved
forwards, but no obstruction met his
way. The. same gloom, and a still
greater silence reighed 5 for not even
file beating rain was how heard-—
Along this level course he passed a
(Considerable time ; at length ne ibund
his way descending by broken steps.
This winding and narrowing for some
time continued, and on terminating^
bis hand met a door, which yieldoi
ilowly to hb pressure, and lie at
imce fell by a small descent. The
same flagged pavenoeut as before
•ounded under bisect.

The inconveniences and fatigues he
had before experienced, were not al-
together ancustomary to travellers,
and requiied little moi^ than ordi-
nary resolution ; but the strange form
ina construction of the great edifice
4m tni\'er»e4» in durkuMs^ tu aoli*

tndcf, its ruinous conditidnv Us intrt^
cacies, and the im(iossibilitv in th^
gloom of finding his way back, all
conspired to throw an awakening
alarm over his mind. His apprehen-
sion, ho^vever, rose into horror, when^
on passing forwards, his hand struck
upon tlie ribs of a human skeleton —
Involuntarily his sters 1^11 back, and
he struck against tie wall. A chill
tremor ran through his veins j be
groped along Its damp sides, ever
fearful of again meeting the skeleton
With his hands* He fonnd the place
a dungeon of small dimensions.—
Me passed round and round, but dis-
covered no door, no aperture by
which he could escape, and he was
terrified at the idea ot again touching
tlie dread object which lay along the
middle of the fkwr. Even the way
by which be entered could not bi
found,, or it was too high tor his
reach. I'he apprehension of remain-,
ing in tin's place, gave a fearful dili-

fence to his search, till he was mad-
ening with desperation. His hand
at length reach«i a few loose bricks.
These he pulled, and tlie wall shook*
After various efibrts, it at once gave
way, and fell befbi-e him. The whota
structure resounded in every gallery,
donxe, and apartment. Stunned witii
some of tlie hea\7 fnlling iragmentSf
Sir Alan, awhile, sat on me stones.—
I'he recollection, however, of the
horrors of the place, and hi? uncer-

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