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oiie proceeds fi'om an intuitive self- lous ana absurd in another. Her«
knowledge, or frt^raa foil and intimate again I must lay down a general rule
•cquaintance with human nature, and or principle which I ha^'e before incul-
«rith ourselves, and obviously imports cated, viz. that it is the proper business
tncb a proportion or degree of it as can and study of good sense and sound
ever make an accurate, an impartial judgment, to direct us, as a sort of
judgment, upon the quantum of our clue, throughout the whole labyrintli.
own merit and talents, natural or of moral and rational conversation,
acquired, our wit, learning, and ca- and of social inteirourse.
pacitjr of our real endowments of Many and glaring are theoversiglits ,
mmd or person 5 and it is always ac- in point of good breeding, whidd I
companied by an innate sweetness, have remarked, even among what -we
complacency, and benignityof temper, familiarly consider as the poater sort ;
•and a sincere, ardent, unextinffuisha- and although every one lays claim ano^
ble desire to please. The other Kind of makes pretensions to this gentle and
civility, wbicn is the mere effect of engagingvirtue, yet very few perhaiw
art, mav flow from several causes, bad are uose whom nature has made'
or good, less or more, and which it is eminent masteirs of it ; — or, at least.
Hot within my present scope or- pur- in the world ofmen^ we may boldly
tiose to take in and enumerate. I sliall and safely pronounce that the number
peg leave to observe, howe\'er, tliat of those who gain and who troHr
evenar/|/?cftf/m'i/i/y, when it is mo- merit tiie character of well-bred, laT
derate and disinterested, like the grace very small indeed ! In that of women
of Christian charity , will cover or ra- it is far otlierwise ! ^i^W^n it is certain
ther atone for, if not a multitude of are naturally more ^eeable, more
ains, yet certainly an abundance of good humoured and gractoos in con-
4)mi»sions, defects, frailties, faults, and versation, than men ; they are hkewise
foibles. ~ infinitely more civil, ana polite, and

Civility is sometimes, but not aj- infinitely more skimal m Ae art of
ways boniwith \u > it requires prac* attending to others ; as their tane '^

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• TheRtformer, I3f

iHRrefega»t> d^isite and refined, such I know/or hove formerly known
■0 thef are almost uuiversally« grand within the wide .\Vorld of this capital,
munaUans, in particular points of be- this great and royal city, this pictur-
ijiaviour, being well qualified to act esque range of numerous houses, pin-
aerenil dissiokilar diaracters, and as it nacles» sin, ^d sea-coal, and in diile-
irere, to change their habits according rent parts of this once famous and fiou-
to the diiierent parts they wish to per- rishing nation and bland) are naturally
tonate j they are likewise, much more so morose, untoward, passionate and
in^ious, and nlore dextrous in dts* whimsical, naturally so full of them-
.gntsing or concealin^their real, inward selves, and an inuneasurable spirit pf
.jendments and indmattons Indeed> contradiction, naturally so roughs
it is |MiDcipally to our dealings with hewn, uncouth and unpolished, that
them, in the conunerce of human life, whatever boncessions, abatements or
according to Lord Chesterfield> the sacrifices we may make-^whatever
Abbe Beuegarde, and others, and fi-om artifices and niceness of finesse wo
lite pleasure we find and enjoy in their may use, or have recourse to, in order
company, (which is confessedly one to please, or gratify^ or humoiu:, their
of the nM»t delicious seasonings of vain and self-sufficient and obnoxious
human soctety>) aoid fi'om the na- capridos, thdr very censorious ai)d
tmnal politic and honest ambition ill-natured gusto, we can never be
which we have to gain their good sure to know exactly how to accojt
opinion, and to insinuate ourselves them, or bow to manage their inaa-
iotothe^oodgraces, ofthelidiesfair, cessible tempers, or on what side
that we insensibly imbibe and acqture fairly to lay hold of them, so as^
a sprighdy and fashionable air, a well time our visits discreetly, so as to pe^-
Intermingled tincture qi diversified ceive, secure, and hit ofi' the critical
acoompliahments and perfections of moUia tempora JamU ; or in oth^r
gracefiil and. elerant pdit^iess. words, to maintain a free, regular, and

. The limits of this communication ^y correspondence with them> —
will not permit me to enlarge muoh being, to aecypher their mysterious
fiuther at present I. ^all conclude pliysiology, in a few words, most in«
ihis diaoourse, tlierefme, by suggesting Conunocfious, most incomprehensible*
three general rules, or necessary cau- most miserable, and. most pitiful
tions, to the p^ticular notice of my Hbautontimorouminoi, or self*
Toung readers of both sexes ^ and I tormenting egotists ; and being, if J
hope th^t they will give me leave to may venture to make use of such ap
reoommaid tnem to their serious and .expression, perfect and dangerous,
habitnal practice. malignant andliurtjui porcupines ^ on

1. Do not endeavour too much to tvery part !
iparklje in conversation, or toskine (as , Others again are more prions anii
we finequeatly express it) in company, sijent, .and solemn and sedate, and
As it Is the nrovince of art to concc»U so forth, and put od, what shall I call
art, so it is the greater province of the it ? starched, prim, formal, ceremoni*
mostsublimeand first rate taste, genius Qus, precii^, stretched and aifectod
.and wit, to conceal itself. 2. !Donot airs, which render them ii} a great
run into extremes. Some afiect a measure unconversable and not a little
laconic politeness, and are so much quaint and finical, and which wouti
afiaid or beiuf thought overceremo- be altogether unpardonable, and
nions, that tney cannot, well afford would look do^atic^, ludicrous, and
either tinoe or attention to study or absurd — even m . a court, usurping
practise tjie maxims and tenets of even sovereignty " of unprincely coblers ;
common civility : while others, whom or even in a '^ most wise and leamd
aiy readers will give me leave to set ;nob'' of tho^naost antique gentle-
forth in their proper colours, and to men, who compose, what m our vuJ^
desig|iiatB them as they well deserve, gar and unpoetical speedi or tongue,
that is. to say, as- petty tyrants in their .we call a college of cardinals. j.

domestic econQmicals,as very disagree- 3. Keep your temper at all times^
able, troublesome and crabbed crea- and more especially wlien it is your
tQresa/Aome,whateverthev may appear unavoidable destiny, as will not sel-
•«*n)arf; as pettish> peevish, splenetic, dom be the case, to meet with hu*^
Jod formidable characters, (and many inoursoane and untxacti^le, clownisk

Vol. IV.'' * ' T ' Digitized by Google

T3& On ihB Aihol Bin.

and brutish persons, of whom tWe best 5 bit even t^utf dd«s liM^loit
' are, alax ! too many amongst m, and justice. Hi« lordslrip*8 leacttng ^rgtt-
who will afford yoix so hobfe a subject monts are, indeed^ fkidifully detailed;
Ibi the exercise and display of that so- but tliey are divesrt^d of much of th»
' lid virtue, called christian patience and elegant phraseology in v^hidi the^
forbearance. When we sufter, not were presented \^ith so happy an
merely by the minor piccadillos, but by elfcct to his auditors: the origin df
the gross and palpable enormities of many of them is unnoticed/ and die
others*— when an outrageous ill office connection of some is broken; and
is done to us, and we are insulted his imagenr is held up to the poblii^
•with harsh, offensive, unbecoming stripped 01 nnich of^ita decoratioir,
language — on such critical and inter- and destitute of that ime shadinr
estin^ conjunctures, net to observe which made it at once 90> bold na
the Lex Talionis, or the Common gracefiil, in consequence of which it
I^w of Reprisalfi - -not to seek occa- appears naked, and almo^ barbarom.
•ions of resentment, or to indulge in —Hence the flippant censure of Lord
ciilumnious invective^ in ungratefiil Harrowby, and the petnlant abase of
noise and blustering ; but to have suf- Lord Mulgravjr, have been too 6^
ficient command of ourselves to su- vourably received thftwghout tht
persede- and restrain tlie intemperate country, and it has grown mto a cant
eifusions of gall and passion — to arm saying, even among those who haf«
ourselves, at all points, with a philo- not hitherto been accustomed to k)ok
^I>hicfil, heroic equanimity, and to up to lords or lordiihgs for their
retire within the fortress of unshaken standard ot good sense, eloquence, or
modei-ation: this is not only su- patriotism, that Lord EllenbonKigb^

Eremely commendable, but it is per- speech yfros trngentlemanly^ ifud^V <8hd
aps the very nicest test or touch- boisterous,
•tone of our politeness or civility. It is forgotten, Sir, by those ^bs$
whether it be, or be not, stamped of decbim most loudly against his lord-
• tlie genuine sort 3 whether it be real ship, that he was cdlra up to deltv«r
-current coin, or whether it be super- his sentiments, by Lord Westmoie*
. ficial, hypocritical, and counterfeit ; — land's appealing to certain proceed*
|ind c^^nly denotes a great and ings in me privy council, in tfaeca^lft
strong fund of good natuit, of good ofthe Duke of Athol, of which tb^
sense, and of universal merit, and as Lord Chief Justice, a member— 4)0
fn»t an approximation to that truly unim{>ortant member surely— <}f tha
.divine, ic^ving principle of charity, council, had ne^er 1MI that moment
which, as a sacred writer very pro- heard. His lordship* had been ar-
perly observes, Ubsrelh or endurtth duottsly and honourably employed io
mUihbigsl the dudes olhisotike, and the m^

A- ^« nisters were too tender, ftorsoodi, ^

' Clerkenwell, August \5, his ease, to sunimon him to take part

•— , — in a laborious job that was carrying

To the BdUor qfUhe Universal Mag. on in secret. Tliey well knew Im

sia, lordship'K principles and tempei*, and

THE public have been much in- they Dung up their hats in his absence.

ierested of late in the speech which A trick was thus scandalously played

Lord £llenborougb delivered on the upon the most venerable of the King%

Duke of Athol's Bill, in the house counsellors, the most solemn jguardiati

€>f lords, on July 9. I was fortunate of the laws, and his indignation ar it,

•aough to hear that speech, and I truly, was not courteous, orACCOrding

'think I shall semember it, without to the rul^ of etiquette!

the assistance of reporters, to the late^ I'he ifruit of these clandestine en-

liour of my life. I have heard the quiries of the pri\'y council was «

OBritish Demosthenes 3 but never did huge vohinie 01 papers, which were

I hear argumentation t so con vincmg, Jaia wet upon their lonklnp^s tabte

jor eloquence so ardent and glowing, ^ring the debate. It was, as Lord

vs I then heard tom the lips ofthe EUenoorough smartly observed, at

-Lord Chief Justice of Eugland.— Of the risk of their healths, diat th^

tiie reports which I hme seen ofthe looked mto it. This ponderous vo«

aipeocb, Cohbefa is u&oqnivottlly th» iuiM mm not to cuf^y (ho boon

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OntheAtholBiU. 130

%iAinlbrmatioi|« but to oppress their sustained; and I do tixts, though si*
yad^S"^x}t^tSRmty were called upon milar applications of mine have been
■ topgM4be hift be^ix Xbey c^ould have repulsed several times, and though tli4
nad throc^ the table ot contents — greatest and best lawyers of the times
And why this indecent hurry ? — To tell me that ray plea is invalid ; ana
cany a measwre which had been dis* that compliance with my request
€oiyitenanced by several successive would enoanger the security ofpro-
nuust.?rs, and bad been, and now perty, and, otcourse, tlie peace or sor
vas» opposed by the principal jaw ciety. Such being the state of the
authorities in the realm ! Lord Elr case, do you wonder. Sir, at the Lord
kiiborough pressed the house to grant Chief Justice opposing tbe Athol
—if for no other reason, yet for de- claim, and reprobating it in terms ot
cency's sake-<-a short delay ; and h» caustic se\-erity ? or at his declaring
cartainly did say — but not till he was .that he trembled whai hecontemplav
provoked to it — (that In spite of ed the consequences that might result
Lord Westmoreland^s insinuations irom this desperate measure of tlio
coDceming^ the name be, and they ministry j for it established a prece-
vhothoDgatwithhim, would bestow dent for rescinding the contracts of
upon the measure, insinuations in- centnries, and nuUiTying the most so-
tendedj Mr. £ditor, to stifle enquiry^ lemn and hoar)' agreements ?
and circunascribe debate) he would The period. Sir, which was fixed
not hesitate to assert, that i^ the bil) upon for proposing this measure, could
verehurrted thus precipitately tlirough. "ot escape the notice of his lordship—
tbc housoj it li-as the ipost mdecent, a period of unexampled difikuhy imd'
scandalous job ^the very word that unparalleled expence— a period whoh
Ix>rd Westmoreland had tauntingly our very existence as a nation Is at
employed) that ever came before par- stake, and we know not how soon w^
Ifivnent* may be called upon to give up the List

Nodelayi A^.your report for last mite of our wealth in defence of our
month inforooB us, was granted.— liberty -a period when, his lordship
lif^ £UeQborough took, therefore, observed, the judgments of Heaveo
tGs, opportunity., tlie only one that are thickenitiff around us^ and no-
r his.(iiu|)ortant duties wouM perhaps thing but' public virtue can save us
allow him, to protest in the spirit of from perishuig in the awful stniggle*
an indepeadent peer, a constitutional — ^It was here, the noble and eloqiient
lawyer, and a patriot, against a mea- speaker, made the appeal to ministers^ .
sope which he conceived to be cor- which has given so much scandal to
)nEipt,^dangerpus> and oppressive. the prejudiced and the timid j de*

His lordship's m^iin aiffument is. manainir of them whether they reaJly^
I conceive^

an estate 'wbi^ the government of fablef Promethean liver, wliich grew
thecpuDtry at that time peered to under the beaks that plucked it; and
purchase. Both parties con^r — ^and conjuring them not to ^ct like sailors
at length strike a bargain ; govern- in a storoi, who, when all hope of
Qient give all that is demanded, and saving the vessel is lost, madly hnak
^ demand is of course mea^red by open the chest !
tbe capacity of the buyer 5 and they The preamble of the bill is false,
l^ierously add, besides, to prevent and tlie provisions monstrous. Three
any fiiture dissatisfaction, a handsome times does the preamble assert th«
inmoitv to the person selling, and to Duke of Athol's claim to the sove^
hislacfy. Since the period when the m^»/y of the Isle of Man, whereas
^ttitrictwas made, landed property the laws of the realm will not allow it
^ doobled its value. — J, being tlie to be regarded in any higher point of
Rpresentative of my fatlier, form this view than a lordship 5— and so

S^^n^Jffi^^L^^^li^K!!' " i^^" «»»« «» bully lifu iu head,
soveroment, who are no more charge- 7 . ' „ ^

iWe with the acts of their predeces- *"

•W8 fifty years ago, than of those five J leave your readers, as Ix>rd Ellenbo-

orMeen hundred years ago, for some rough left their lordships, to supply

•jpinprawtiQa fer.tht i4e3 luss.lWi^ the remainder of the line. In tbe

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*4d. On the Sdenci ofD^encefir the Sword and BayontU

frovistOTis of the bill, there is exhi-
bited an almost incredible carelessness
Or profligacy. No fixed compensation
IS proposed to be givai to the Athol
ftmily, but a certam proportion of
the revenue, which is to be for ever
attached to it, and to grow with it for
ever. This proportion, it seems, is
'not defined, and may be drawn out
in the hand of some calculator '^f the
•Melville school, to any amount.
These observations, Mr. Editor, in-

tended to vindicate the cfaaiacfer oP
ot)e of the lights of tbefiajliilhr bench,
you will highly vobliee^me^ by pab*
lisfaing in your liberal Magazine. A
love of justice, and, I may s^, a sense
of duty, has led me to make them ;
and were it not lowering the dignity
of the words, I would iiiiir-h this
paper as the noble subject of it finish-
ed , his speech^ with saying. Liber avi
anitmun jMam /



** Nulli negabimus, nulli difiteremuf jiutitiam.**

6:* THE gciBNCE OF DEFENCE. momeut anyslijght rcnmnor, or s«s-

Azr, IT. Gordon's Treatise on the picion of popular tumult is bnzzed

Science of Defence, for the Sword about, all our arts and pursuits become

end Bayonet, ^c. inclose Action, instantly hushed and suspended.**

These reasons, advanced by Cicero,

(Condnued from page 50 ) seem to us to be perfectly applicable

to the present critical circumstances

CICERO, who has been the admi- of the British empire, menaced b)r a

ration of every subsequent ag^ and most fbrmid^le, craity, and inveterate

nation, on account of his transcend- enemy. These, and every reason

ent abilities, and his profound and convince us of the wisdom and ne^

multifarious erudition, gives his opi- cessitv of cultivating that scienee:^

nion of military science, in the fol- which instructs us m the mode of

lowm^ passage, which we extract actually] doubling the number of tfad

from his Oration for Licinius Mu- forces in the crisis of action, and

roenn . which communicates a power to each

", Ac nimirum, (dicendum est enim of them, sbty times greater than he

tjuod sentio,) rei militaris virtus pra- had before.

Stat caeteris omnibus. Haec, nomen If, therefore, we postpone our re-

populo Romano, haec, huic urbi fieter- marks on several ingenious productions

nam gloriara pepcrit : haec, orbem submitted to us, whether of contro*

terrarum parere huic imperjo coegit j verted points in historv, chron<^(>g)r>

omnes urbanae res, omnia haec nostra and Uography, or whether they refite

pracJara studia, et haec forensis laus to the discovery of the true meaning

et industria latent in tutela^ ac prae- of the inscriptions traced upon obtain

sldio beliicae virtutis : simul atque in- old coins, and bricks, &c. we trust

crepuit suspicio mraultus, artes illico tliat the reasons premised will be oiir

nostrae couticescilnt," &c. apology. *' Paulo majora canamus.**

'' Since I am candidly -to declare Major Gordon discusses his subject

my sentiments i-especting military in the following order :

merit,. compared with other kinds of " 1st. He traces the origin of the

merit, undoubtedly rtiilitary science science of defence, its effect upon the

excels all other sciences whatever. Romans, and the attempt of the French

This science has illustrated and eter- to revive it.

nized the city of Rome and tlie Roman " 2dly. The Roman practice found-
glory : this science, and this only, has ed upon mathematical principles^ and
established the dominion of the Roman the powers of the lever.
t?nipire over the terrestrial globe : all *' 3dly. The eflect of this practice
civic affairs, such as trades, arts, and against eitlier infantry or cavalrv,
^manufactures ; all our favourite pur- whether individually or collectiv&y
sviits J and even this our laborious and engaged.

honourable profession of the law, are f' And 4thly, is subjoined an Ap-

ail securely exercised under the tute- pendix, containing a copy of a letter

ligc and benign protection of military from General Burcoyne to General

K<^*; wrA it is evident, that tlic Pitt, ■ togctber witb a sketch qf «h»

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On the Sdenee tf Defence for the Sword md Smf^elt. I4t

Mnes and tniMdes of the arm, and of We observe, tbat our author ha«
it$ poven as a lever of tiie third kind^ fi(iven a character of the late celebrated
doddsting'the fiobject." General J. Bargoyne, and prefixed it

Oa the £nt cursory view of the to the general's Tetter.
fnbject^ we flattered ourselves that> However consonant to truth, and
hj fbUowiag^ the author step by step, the sensibility of the author, this de-»
and by iumishinfi; copious citations^ scription ot the virtues and accom^
«e should have been at4e to give a plisiunents of the general may be ;
ckir and complete idea of the ele- yet we deem it to be irrelevant to tho
aasBts of this science, and of the subject of the science of defence, and
Biode of destroying the enemy in therefore it might liave been . spared,
dose action. But from a closer in- But much less occasion or reason da
.^}ecfion, (for this subject will bear we see for the introduction ot the
to be viewed and reviewed) we do Marq^uis of Buckingham, the Earl of
utit conceive it to be the province, or Buckmghamshire, Colonel P. Robin-»
vidiin the power of mere words, son, and Captain J. Merry, Arc. at the
Irawever appropriate, and well ar- end of tlie treatise. These names,
laoged, by themselves, and without however respectable^ are nothing to
the aid 01 diagrams^ to give precise the.subject.

ideas of the principles of mis, or, in* Extracts of a letter from the late
deed, of any new subject Certainly General Burgoyne, to General Sir

icieiice is most el^antly conve3red in William Pitt, then copimander

gieiiend terms, to persons initiated, . in chief of the Forces in Ireland,
JUid in some measure conversant &c. &c.

tiieiein, bat not to persons utterly Both, November 20, l^S/. •

luacquainted with the science. In " My dear General,

tbis case, plates are indispensable. " The reason of thus troubling you

The terms, for instance, ,quarte, proceeds from a sincere concern for the
and tkrce, forte, and foible, however disappointment of Lieutenant Gordon,
dear and obvious to a swordsman, of the 67th regiment. You know my
voold appear (we are sorry to find it thoughts of his zeal, his activity, his
so) nnintelligtble jargon to our sol- depth of military theory, and his merit
&rs. For so far are these brave men in having reduced it to practice, in hit
from being instructed to defend them- bayonet exercise : but he has testimoniet
selves by Uieir manual, th^t t^lie. ma- of far greater conseouence in his favour^
noal recognizes no such language as viz. your commendation and very ho*
faorle and tierce i and if these terms nourable protection; the same from the
aie worthy of explanation, we con- Dukeof Kutland, marked in thestrong-
ttive it must be by dehnitions, and est manner, by word of mouth, and by

Ses combined, and by practice and recommendauon to the king ; and, lastly,
oent exhibitions of 'the thrusts a message from his majesty, after he had
guards. seen the experiment, by the adjutanv-

As we cannot give plates to elucidate, general, expressing his royal and high
we recommend, therefore, a^ain and approbation of the improvement,
^ain, intense application to the sttidy " In regard to his exercise, it is ad-
<n the treatise on this science, where- mitted by tne very few who have seen
in the demonstrations which are ma- and understood it, that it gives uncom-
tiienaatical, are elucidated by plates, mon vigor, dexterity, and confidence to
iDost admirably weU-executed. the men conversant in it ; that it actu-

But, although we despair of being ally doubles the number of the forces,
^ to give ctear ideas of the minnte in the crisis of action, by his ingenious
pnodples, to such of our readers as modeof introducing the centre rank into
uaye not been initiated in the science; the front, and by placing them in the
' yet> without the aid of diagrams, we strongest attitude, to act together, m
can 6imish a general idea of the im- offen& and defence.
foema utility of this subject to any '* This is a wonderful addition of
'nao* In doing this, we snail deviate strength, and not attended with any ad-
firain the order prescribed by the au- didon of ezpence 3 it requires only la-
jbor, as we shall begin with quoting, hour and attention.**
^om the appendix, with which jie has We cannot avokl halting a moment,
ioMUs^York. tovieff aad.admure this part of tlii^

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143 On t&e Science of Defence fir the Stocrd and BoypneL

nprorenialt, soemphaticaify noticed tioo cf adepcej ve havie ev^ i
by the geoefal* to conclude, from what his royalhigh*

. He says, that it is admitted that ness h^ already done in t&is bmiiw#ftt^
the bayonet exercises actually i>ov3lb that he will penevere uotii h» sets it
the number of the forces, in tlie crisis established on a firm fouBdatioo. Hin '

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