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of action, and that tliis wonderful orders that Major Gordon. should in*
addition of suength is not attended struct some ot the guards,, and after
with any addition of expence.—* that wiite, and dedicate his writing tm
This wonderful addition is not only his royal highness, renioves all doubt
without any expence, but it is a won- on the subject. The general proeoeds
derful saving \ for it doubles the num- thus :

ber of the forces without incurring Uie « i have advised Mr. Goi^n toimke
expence of a single shilhng. It ope- ^ncw and more concise stetcment of lirt
rates, at the roost critical and desihible ^„^^^^ ^^ ammced%& I am, from the
moment, that is, in the moment of experiments I have witnessed, of the »o-
dose action with the enemy; and we ijf principles upon which it is butft, I
are to observe, that, whatever the pre. gijall vciV rea<filv annex Ae tenuirk»
«ent strength of the forces may be, ^^ich occurred 'to me, when I ^im
and the expence of raising and mam- espoused it. Tliis paper, I shaO advise
taming them, certainly double the sum. him, with your concurrence, to 4ay be-
expended, would not double thenura- fore the Marquis of Buckingham, wh«
ber of the forces 5 and supposing that ^-iH ^e it, I am sure, due attention,
the national forces weredoublc ot what ^nd an opportunity ofxWfusing a kaowv
tliey now are supposed to be, yet nei- ledge of the bayon^ exercise, Nia mis-
ther that, nor anyj^circumstances of fortune is. that officers have formed
wealth and extent of dommion, could judgments upon hearsay, or e^awtj
ipve two men against one of the ene- thoughts. Upon sight, it would cairf
mr, m a given circumscribed space, mathematical demonstration ; and Lord
The wealth of the Indies would not Buckingham is a man, that, if tonvinced
accomphsh it. , . . would renew and support it; if not con-

But the general says, that it requires vinccd, the regiments would only have
labour, &c.^e agree with him, that had some addiuonal exercise of legs and
Bs the benefit is wonderful, it will be arms, which, considered abstractedly,
impossible to obtain it witliout labour musl he of benefit. -*

and exertion. What man ever be- « I >xpec^t you wifl find som* degree
came eminent in any art br science, or of coldness or slight amone parts of any
even in any little mechanical trade, garrisoh, to an attempt of ttiis nature ;
without labour, and even some ap- gut I know that will n« prevent your
prenticeship ? countenance, if you think an sssEirriAi.-

*^ Qui studet bptataxn cursu, contingere improvement in the service, or the

metam, protection of a wordiy officer, is in qtie»«

•* MuUa tulit fecitque pucr, sudavit et tion, &c. &c.

alsit." HOR. (Signed) T. BUROOTms.'*

But " the prejudice of party, of at- ^e are concerned to find, that all
tachmentto<^dpracuces, and pre-con- ^he sciences were first received- witk
ceivedcontempti)fmnovaUon,butabove similar coldness and slight j in manr
all, the want of a commander in chief, ^^^^ ^he professors w^e persocutei
tender uunpossible,atpre5ent, to revive baimeo was imprisoned. Howevcar.
Ihe matter on this side the water. ^.^^ extracU from thegeneralV letter

We sincerely deplore the existence give a general idea» of. the utili^
of party prejudice ; it is time for it to of tlie science, as tar as it Sublet
be worn out ; and we trust tliat there the uumber of our men engage^*
•can exist no party prejudice against by iutroducing and consoiidatiajg ihs^
truth and science, at this moment, centre rank with the fi-ont, as ex^ined
The Duke of York is now the com- by the treatise> and the plates to whicti
mander in chief. From the extent of we refer.

his piilitary genius, which we suppose Now, if the improvements had be^
to have been highly cultivated, by ap- limited to, and had terminated la
propriate application \ but above all doubling the number of the forces, s^
from i)i6 r^gu-d to tnttb^ ^ protecr as to giv» only the adv:i|utage 9f twt (•

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' ' thfhff'ickkce^ikfimeeJhrihtSumdiadBa!/^^ 14i

ftl»?andaMt the enemy,. oven so, we' third kind, whose prop or baae is tht
ihooJd have admired 'and considered lower end o£ the sum, viz. the pulley or
tiw^dianti^as the very greatest im- pivot, upon which the fore-arm ii
psov8iiieat> \wbSchbad been suggested moved -, and the moving powers are th^
m mttitary tactics, since the ume of muscles, -which from thdr uses art
Cfrat to this moment. But the ad- termed flexors and extensors, and pro-
vjotsges arising firom the extended nators and supinators. The wrist, com-
cdtivatloo of the science of defence, posed of eight bones, is articulated to the
treaotconfined to the simpJe doubling lower end of the fore-arm, upon which
the number of the men in the mo-, fulcrum it performs all the motions pe*
ineot of the charge : the practice in- culiar to itself. The five bones of th^
vigontes each and every man convec^- metacarpus are strongly connected to th«
oat in it, with a power add dexterity wrist. Upon the metacarpus, as a fulcrum,
io the just use oi the hana weapon, the thumb and fingers are moved. Hie
. iiitir times greater than he had bennre. thumb is composed of two, and e^ch

This we are forced to admire as a fin^r of three bones, which, from their
most wonderfol addition of power, articulation and disposition in close or-
Tbe^xtstence and the mode ofapnly- der« are termed Phalanges.*'
ing it is demonstrated by our auuior Our author gu'es a cursory sketclk
as manifestly as any of the proposi- of the pronator ;:nd supinator muscles^
IkBs in £a€wi. for the purpose of establishing the true

As the beauty and fooe of this his doctrine ot making cuts, thrusts, and
demoostnayon m» founded upon the guards, as well as to expose the ab*
jost and dexterousi (application of the surdity of the established practice,
powerB (^ the aims, as a lever of the ^hich is in opposition to common
tiwd kind, some little acquaintance sense an4 mufcuW motion. He then
vith the oonstinction of the arm, and gives a sketdi of the levef of the thirl.
tbe powen of the lever, becomes ne^ kind. Thus

ccanry, inorderto haveaclearideaof "There are six simple mechanie
&e demonstration. . powers, from the combination of which

" The whole hand or arm, firom the the most complicated inachines are con*
aeUar4M»e inclusive, to the ends of the structed.

fingers, is composed of thirty-two bones. " llie principal of tliese is tlie lever^i
Ihat long bone between the shoulder and which is of three kinds, on account
iUe booe and the elbow, is properly of the diflferent situation of the fulcrum
called the aim, (os humeri). or prop, in respect to the moving powec

" It is a lever of the third kind ; for and the weight,
its folcram or prop is the cavity of tKe ** In the tirst, the prop is bet\«'een the
iheakler blade oone ; its moving powers power and the weight, an4 the nearer it
ire the seven muscles which are inserted i^to the weiglit, uie more powerful i&
into it, and appropriated, for the purpose this lever. In this lever, and universally,
of laisine, extending, and turning it, the power and the vveight will be in
Ice. in alldirectioiis upon its base, wnich equiiibrio, when they are reciprocally
is the cavity dready mentioned. proporUonal to their distances from the

" The lower end of the arm is prop.
Imader, and opens into cavities for the *' In the second kind the weight h
leeeption of the processes of the fore- between the prop and the moving power,
mn. The tw6 bones, called the ulna as a sedan chair carried by twochairmeri,
•BdiadfQS,eoiistitutethefore-arm,wh.ich doors moving on hinges, Sec.
teacbr^- from the elbow to the wrist. '* In the third kind, the moving'

'* The ulna is on the outside of the power is between the prop and the
lidius, fai a line with the little finger, weight, and generally placed neai;er to
1^ radius is titrated on the inside of the prop or centre ot motion, and, in
lh( fore*ann, in a line with the thumb, some instances, (in the legs and arms) so
The nlnaand radius are firmly cemented near as to be almost indentical. Ther^
ts^ether, at both ends. The lilna fur- fore this kind of lever is the most disad-
ihhes the socket for that purpose, at the vantageous ; and more particularly^whea
tpperend, and the radius gives the socket the weight is ereat ana unhandy ; as in
Is the ulna, at the lower end of the fore** the instaiKfe of a ladder to be raised up
ml' Thefore^aiaitsaboaleveroftht against a wall. But for the oidiQar| ,

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144 IBnts tou/ards farming ihe Character of a Young Prineetf.

f\xrp69ei of life, it is the most duick, the powers of the diiferent parts orAi
and commodious. Hence, and also on compound.

account of the beauty and symmetij of " For example — ^Take the fore-arm,
the parts, the Ainughty, in his mfi- which extends firom the elbow u> die
nite wisdom, was graciously pleased to ends of tRe finaers, consider it as a aim-
form the legs and arms of animals levers pk lever ; dividie it into any nuniber of
of the thiixT, rather than of the first or aliquot parts, that is, into parta c€mk*
aecond kind. mensurate to it, say twentv : applf

" Now, as. the legs and arms are thus 20lbs. to the elbow, and im. to tM
dtvinelycomposed,andasall instruments, fingers of th<^ fore-arm, extended ^ual-
auch as firelocks, swords, and pikes, and lei to the horizon, and these wei^ns
aticks, &c. are levers of this kind; and will be equal. The powers of the tore»
whereas there is a great waste of the arm, the simple lever being thus dcter-
muscular powers, insomuch that not one mined, will necessarily determine the
sixtieth part of the power of one muscle powers of the compound. For, as the
is actually used and applied ; but, on the power of the elbow is to that of th«
contrary, it is either lost or misapplied, nngerS (20 : : I :) so is the power of the
as is ably observed and proved by Dr. -fort of the firelock (the fort of any
Monro, perhaps you may consider an instrument is the part held by the hand)
attempt to collect, contentrate, and me- in that same propo>tion, to the point
chanically to apply, if not the wkole^ yet which is distant trom the foot one cu-
certainly a conside'rable portion of these bit; or, as 20 : : 1 :
^wen, in a fiivourable iight« *' The power of the foot is to the

. '< Now, it is pot mere assertion, but power of tne point, at double that ilis*^
^u incontrovertible fiict, repeatedly proved tance, as 40: : I : and it is to triple^
l>y experiments, that the system of de* Quadruple, and to quintuple that same
/ence nere submitted, invigorates every oistance, as(>Oto l,a880tol, and aa
man conversant in it, and armed either lOQ : : 1 : respectively. Therefore the
'Vtath'a firelock or pike, with an addition power of the fort of tlie firelodc held by
(of power sixty times greater than his ooth hands, is above 100 times @]cater
/ormer power. than the power of the foible. There-

*' For, it has been premised, that the fore a person conversant in the oae of
whole anci, compoted of thirty-two these powers, that is, in applying the
bones, h a compound lever of the third fort to the foible has, a deciaed aairan-
}und ; that the lower end of the os hu- tage of 100 u: 1 : but 60 is less than
•yneri, is a base and prop for the fore 100 : bung but a part of it : it is most
arm ; that upon this prop all the mo- manifest therefore that he may have 60
.tions of the flexion,, extension, prona- to 1 in his favour, by means of the
tion, and supination of the fore ann, are science of defence, in all times ani
.performed by the means of the muscles, places of close action, whatsoever,
.vhich are acted upon by the nerves, ac- '' Quod erat demonstrandum.**

«ordin^ to the commands of the mind. (To be contnnied.)

" Now, the powers of the fore-arm ■

<for instance) are found by experiments, Art. tV. Hints towards forming the
in this manner : Append a weight to Character of a Young Princess^. —
,Che. elbow, the fore-arm being extended In 2 vols, London* Cadeil and

fKrallel to the horizon, and you will Davies.
nd that it will support a weight twenty THE probability that England xnaj
times greater than the fingers can sustain one day be governed by a female of
, in the same parallel position. Hence tlie present royal family, has givtui
arises the demonstrauon of the facility rise to these two volumes, in which
of invigorating a man, by the science of the author has gone very largely into
defence, with a power 60:: 1. what are modestly called " Hint?,'*

*' Take up a firelock, or any other and theJSLijht Rev. Filiate, to whose
4iand> weapon ; it, witli the hand con- charge the important ofiiice of forming
taining it, becomes a compound lever the future sovereign is consigned^
of thethi;'d kind. Resolve this com- need not be ashamed of adopting some
)pound lever into its simple constituent of them. We are inclined^ to think
parts; find out, by experiments, the that we can discover the author to be
]>rectse powers of the simple parts, or one who has^ already favoured the
fvople lever, and thesa will daterfiuoa world with Thoughts upon Female

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Minis ttnvards forHdngihe Character qf a .Voting Princess* 145

fiocation ; ^ and although we could lume) in dedaring her own parti-v
"Wish to sec more patterns after her* cular tenets, and which have more
model, adorn private life, yet we the air o£ a disputation on theological
most confess, we think she has soared subjects, than a cahn essay upon
a litde too h^h, and mistaken the education.

plain, well' informed, pious chsu-ac- Our readers will be pleased with
tor, for the energy, activity, and that part which relates te flattery,
boldness which should constitute the " It is not from the history of^good
pnDpess. Notwithstanding we are piinces alone, that signal instruction
10 happy in our constitution, that may be reaped. The lives of the cri-
tfae vsciousness of a prince would go, niinal and unfortunate, commonly un-
comparatively, but a short way, to- fortunate because criminal, will not be
waras subverting the- interests of the read in vain. They are instructive, not
kinedom, yet a great deal depends only by detailing the personal calami^
QD nis firmne^ and intrepidity — his ties' with which their misconduct wa»
alacrity and foresight. In the vo- followed, but by exhibiting that mi*-
hunes before us, we perceive a con- conduct as the source of aUenation of
siderable degree of attachment to the the hearts of their subjects ; and often
constitution; and in that chapter as the remote, sometimes as the imme^
which treats of the '' specific edu^ diate, cause of civil commodons and oif
cation of a sovereign,'* she, very ad- revolutions.

miiably contrasts the calm security of *' But cauti<m is to be learned not
our present happiness, with the flue- from their vices only, but from their
tuating vicissitudes of neighbouring weaknesses and errors ; from their false
nations. Great stiess is laid o^ the judgments, their ignorance of human
study of histoiy^ and the pagan is re- nature, their nairow views, arising from
commended to be begun with : as a bad education, their judging from par-
reading and observation are the grand tial information, deciding from infused
sources of improvement, but the iat- prejudices, and acting on party princi*
ter not so liable to a princess, she pies ; their being hahituatea to consider
niu^t depend on the information petty unconnected details, instead of
which her books afford. Thucydides, taking in the great aggregate of public
Xenophon, Polvbius, Caesar, Jour- concerns; tio^ir imprudent choice of
ville, Philippe ae Comines, Davila, ministers, their unhappy spirit of &••
Seelly, Temple, Sec. are among those vouritism, their preference^ of selfish
ad>ised, as writers who were actors flatterers to disinterested counsellors^
in the scenes they record, and» being and making the associates of dieir nlea-*
00 that account less liable to theories sures the dispensers of justice, and the
and febles. On the subject of English ministers of public affairs,
history, Hume, it may be expected, ** History presents frequent instances
meets with great severity from our of an inconsistency not uncommon in
author, as indeed does everv one human nature-^Sovereigns the most
whose religious opinions are m the arbitrary to their subjects, themselves
slightest degree dubious 3 however, the tqois of favourites. He who treated
the particularly recommends the stu- his people with disdain, and his parlia-
dy of the history of Aitred, the tur- ments with eontemut, was in time the
wd reign of John, and that of Qiieen slave of Arran, of Car, of Villiers. II is
£lizabetb, in whom she however al- grandson, who boldly intrenched on
lows that vanity was the spring of the liberties of his country, was himself
•Otoe of her most admired actions.— governed by the cabal. It may sound
Religion forms a very conspicuous paradoxical to assert, that in a period
part of her system, which she labours of society, when characters are less
with great pains to inculcate 3 but marked, a sovereign is, in seme re-
without going into tlie question of spects, in more danger of choosing
which system of religion, or what wrong. In our days, and under our
Sradatioaofit may best to be adopted, constitution, iruieed it is scarcely poa-
ve cannot see any reason for going sible to err so widely, as to select, for
to particularly at large, (which she ministers, men of such atrocions dia;
te both in the first and second vo- racters as those who have been just

held up to detestation. The very im-
. ^ * Mrs. Hann;J) More^ .' provcmtaat of sociciy, iherofore>' ha«

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146 I&nU totaarAJ<pr7Mng tMe Character rfa Ymng Frincesf*

caused th« question to beeonift one of a
nicer kind. It is no longer a choice
between men, whose outward charac-
ters exhibit a monstrous disproportion
io each other. A bold oppressor of the
people, th^ people would not endure ;
a violecrt inmnger on the constitution,
the parliament would not tolerate. —
But still out of thatdass, from which
the electiom ihust be made, the moral
dispositions, the pol ideal tendencies,
ana the r^i^ojis principles of men
diSet so matenaUy, that the choice may
seriously aflect, at once, the ciedit and
happiness of the prince, and the wel-
fare of the coufttry. The conduct of
good and bad men will always furnish
BO inconsidetable means of distinction ;
yet, at a time when gsoss and palpable
enormities are less likely to be obtrude
ed, because they are less likely to be
endured, it is tne more neoessary fbr a
prince to be able aecuratelv to discri-
minate the shades of the characters of
public men. In no instance, will those
who have the care of forming the ru]^
pupil, find a surer exercise of their wis-
Qom and integrity, than in their endea-
vours to guara the mind from the dead-
ly poison, flatjitery. " Many kings,"
says the witty South, **. have been de-
stroyed by poison ; bat none has been
so efficaciously nuMtai as that drunk
in by the ear."

After eouxserating several instances
of ancient record of the flattery of
ministers to their princes, the author
goes on—

" Where, in our more, correct day, is
ihe courtier who would dare to add
psofaneness to flattery, so fu* as to de-
clare, «B waa done by the greatest phi-
losopher this country ever produced, in
his letter to Prince Charles, that, •* as
the Father was his Creator, so he hoped
the Son would be his Redeemer.** —
But what a noble contrast to this base
and blasphemous servility, m the chan-
cellor of James, does the conduct of the
chancellor of his. grandson exhibit! —
The unbending rectitude of Clarendon
not only disdained to flatter, in his pri-
vate intercourse^ a master, to whom,
however, his pen is ahvays too partial,
but it led him boldly and honestly, to
remonstrate against nis flagitious con-
duct. He boldly besought the king
** not to believe that he had a preroga-
tive to declare vice to be virtue ;** and
in one of the noblest speeches on re-
Ctfiid^ in answer to a dishonourable re*

quest of the king, that he would vtatt
some of his majesty*s infamous associ-
ates-, he laid before him, with a lofty
sincerity, " the turpitude of a man in
his dignified office, being obliged to
countenance persons scandalous for
their vices, for which, by the laws of
God and men, they ought to be odious,
and exposed to the judgment of tbt
church and state.**
A little fiirther the author continues—*

" But the royal person whom wib
presume to advise, may, from the very
circumstance of her sex, have more
complicated dangers to resist ; again^
which her mind should be early forti*
fied. The dangers of adulation are
doubled, when me female character is
combined with the royal. Even the
vigorous mind of Elizabeth did not
guard her against the powerful assaults
of flattery paid to her person. That
masculine spirit was as much the slave
of the most egregious vanity, as the
weakest of her sex could be. AH her
admirable prudence, and profound po-
licy, could not preserve ner from th^
childish and silly levity, with which
she greedily invited the compliments of
the artful minister of her more beau-
tiful rival. Even that gross instance of
Melvil's extravagance enchanted her^
when, as she vras playing on Mary*s
favourite instrument, tor the purpose
of being overheard by him, the dtssemt
bling courtier, affected to be so ravished
by, her skill, as to burst into her apart*
ment, like 9X\ enraptured man, who
had forgotten his reverence in his admi**
ration. It was a cuiious combat in the
great mind ofEli^beth, between the
oflended pride of ^e queen, and the
gratified vanity of the woman; but
Melvil knew hts trade, ip knowing hu^
man nature. He calculated justlyr^
the woman conquered."

The necessity of a reltgicms founda^
lion is strongly inculcated, upon tbd
authority even of Machiavel, and
fiom ii^quent examples, integrity if
shewn tone the true political wisdom,
— Her definition of public spirit is as
follows :

** True public spirit is not the new-
bom offspnng of sudden occasion, nor*
the incidental fruit of casual emergency^
nor the golden apple thrown out to
contentious ambition. It is that ge-'
nuine patriotism, which best prevents
disturbance, by discouraging every vice
that leads to it : it springs from a com-

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Or the Sendments mud Conduct wfvuke in aSritkh PrkUx. M7

(Hoation of djsiaterestedness, integrity, of swerving from, their iUiMtrioos ex«

and content : it is tlie result of many amples I"

]oo^-cherished domestic charities : its ■ ■ ■

seminal principles exist in a sober love Art. V. Free Disquisitions on ike Setf"

of liberty, order, law, peace, and jus* timents and Conduct requisite in a

tice, the best safeguaras of the throne, British Prinze, in order to merit the

and the only happiness of the people/* faoouralLe opinion of (he Public.

Upon such a subject as tlie educa* By John Andrews, LL.D. Blacks

tioo of a princess, it naturally is ex- ohd Parry.

pected, tliat the system should com- THIS is a truly interesting perfor-

prehend every thing almost that the mauce, and we cannot help admiring

mind is capable of embracing : the the plan the author has pursued. He

terusal of v oltaiie's Afi<e of Louis supposes the prince to have passed

aIV. is reconomended, but with the animal part of his life, and tbe

many cautions as to his religious man to be formed; hi^ natural talenu

principles ; and for books of anMise- to have been &vourable to his instruo-

ment, the periodical \vritings of John- tprs, and to await with anxiety eveny

son, Addison, &c. are represented to future requisite for his improvement,

contain the truest principles of piety. There is no subject more interesting

There is a Ions dissertation upon the to Britons than that of the education

stad]|rof the Holy Scriptures, and the of their princes 3 the difficulties and

reli^ous system of tliis country, in dangers that a vicious one may cpeats

di^se observations. With this apos- are incalculable, and shackled as thef

trophe concludes the work : — may be, in whatever plans their in-

" Pious sovereigns are, at all times, ordinate ambition orcorniption might
tlie rich^t boon which Heaven can insti^te, by the bars which our con-
bestow on a country. The present p&- stitution has happily obstructed, yet
riod makes us more than ever sensible the natural indulffence of the British
of thdr importance. A period, in which character tow^(& their monarch,

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