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a w energetic. On the subject oi the
American contest, he thus delivered
ideas which a short expttience would


have enabled him to correct : *' For
my own part, I have not that high
opinion .inr their Roman spirit as to
suppose that it will influence them
contentedly to submit to all the bor*»
rorsof war, to resign every comfort
in which they have been bred, to re-
linquish every hope with which they
have been flattered, and retire to thio
howling wilderness for an habitation ;
and all for a dream of liberty, which,
.were they to possess to-morroW*, would
not give them a privilege superior to
those which thev lately enjoyed ; and
might, I fear, aeprive them of many
wh;ch they experienced, beneath<ho
clement legislation of the Brit^

His judgment is more conspicuous
in the following brief mention of two
very eminent characters. "The two
principal orators of the present age,
(and one of them perhaps a greater
than has been produced m any a^e,)
are the Earls of Mansfield ana Chat-
ham. The former is a great man;
Ciceronian, but I should think infe-
rior to Cicero. The latter is a greater
man; Demosthenian, bat superior
to Demosthenes. The first ibrmed
himself on the model of the great Ro«
man orator) he studied, translated^
rehearsed, and acted his orations : the
second disdained imitation, and was
himself a model of eloquence, of
which no idea can be formed but by
those who have seen or heard him.
His words have sometimes frozen my
young blood into stagnation, and
sometimes made it pace in such a
hurry tlirough my veins, that I could
scarce support it. He however em-
bellished his ideas by classical<P
ments, and occasionally read die
sermons of Barrow, which he consi*
dered as a mine of nervous expressi-.
ons ; but, not content to correct and in«i
struct imagination by die works of
mortal men, he borrowed his noblest
images from the language of inspira-

The mind accustomed to specula^
tions on the probabilities of chance,
will rarely avoid the painfol weakness
of superstition. Where the lest of
experience atFords little or no direc-
tion, preternatural signiticatioas are
fearfuUy resorted to; every whisper
of the wmd is an- omen that triumphs
over the str(»gest suggestions of rea*»

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It Semarh^ the iMietnGuiU^tmi in France.

80X1, and involves the happiness of thti pressed my sensations to the yoTUig
anxious enthusiast. Thus, I^rd Lyt- lady lacooinpanied^insuchamanner^
tleton, who indulged withotKfrestrauit as to make her cheek as pale as raj
that propensity to filming which every own/*

man fond either ofmoney or pleasure For those dialogues of which he i9
possesses, was the abject slave of known to be the author, (the per*
every trivial accident thai interfered sonages of the first, the Saviour o£ the
with the accomplishment of his pur- world and Socrates; and of the se-
pose. A gloominess of temper, jomed cond, king David and Cscsar Borgia)
with an aspiring imagination, atren^ no excuse can be ofiisred. The inndel
thened, to a sad importance, this migbtplead'thelevity of his opinions,
enervating delusion. Tlie sight of a but he who ''believes and trembles,"
rustic funeral at Hadey, in any fan- yet throws a string of jests in the face
pifully inauroicious hour, would pro- of the Being on whom he rests his
duce a fit oi the deepest terror and hopes> is faulty beyond conception,
alarm. He visited the castle of a T^ey Were never directly published,
nobleman in the north. The house it is true : but a sufficient number of
and its furniture wore a &ceof vene- oopias was circulated to render their
rable grandeur. Some tr^c scenes purport pretty generally known. The
had been performed in the mansion, only reseml^ance of aa apology that
and the apartments were shewn can be offered is the early youth otf
precisely in the same state as when the author.— And mav not the same
they were the silent witnesses of plea be advanced, in alleviation of hia
blood and contention. Ljttleton's other errors ? Sorely, too severe a
active fancy overpowered his natural sentety:e should not be hastily passed
fortitude. He forebore to retire till on the 'man who has no oppoituni^
good-breeditiff forced him to his of correcting the first mistakes of his
chamber. He nad not long been there, life ? Not to ask so trite a questioq
faowev^, before he returned, ^y^ritha as what the world would have thought
pale and wild countenance, and con- of Henry V. had he died before bo
iessed he could not venture to sleep gained possession of the crown, sufier
in the room assisped him, because me to observe that George Lord Lyt-
^* The boards of me antient flooring tleton himself, eminently amiable
cracked so violently as he trod over and useful as he proved, would have
them ! " left the character of a mere noisy de?

The circumstances attending his claimer, and unblushing sortie, had
^th are too well known to allow he died at the same age with his son j
repetition.' His sombre fancies at though he lived to shew every requisite
length* fatally disordered his mind, talent of the statesman, and to write
andhe'sank the victim of a perverted from smcere conviction, a pious de»
imagination. fence of the christian faith .

His religious sentiments were In his person, rx>rd Lyttleton bore
sloomy and indeterminate. He has considerable resemblance to his fa-»
been supposed a sceptic; but the ther. He was tali and slender, with
elastic visions of his fimcy tempted a pale and comparatively diminutive
bim rather to credulity than scq)ti- &ce. He was master of a most in<»
cism. The mysterious and the awful sinuatiug address, ^nd too well skilled
captivated his i6[u^atian; and in the in all those winning arts which en«
nudst of his voices, when he thought snare the inexperienced and unsus*
of religion, it was not without sjjmp- pecting. I am Sir, Your's &c. T. R,
toms of bigotry. Such an irrational '^— -»

species of laith, as noay be supposed. To the Ediipr of the ttuversal Mag^
added to the horrors of his serious Sib,

moments ; — *' Will you believe me,?- AS man^ persons seem to imagine
says he, " when I tell you that, in a that the guillotine, the instrument of
moming*6 ride which coi)ducted me puchfatalnotorietyapong the French,
by some of the tremendous fires em- is a modem invention, allow a con-
ployed in the manu&ctories in my stant reader io remove this mistake,
neighbourhood, I shuddered at the To many, the information, as to the
sight of their angry flames^ and ex« substance of it, la without doubt up«

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DUcovery tf ike PaHuHOS, a People tf SfMm.


neoesary f aod others may be little
pleased to find our own country the
mpser of so pernicious an engine:
the promulgation fa£ truth however
most at all times be consid«red as a
desirable circumstance.

At HallfyoL, in Yorkshire^ it was
tile costoniy some centuries back, to
pot felons to death by means of an
iDstniment precisely similar to the
modem guillotine. This mode of
pQoishment appears to have been
peculiar Co Hali&x, and was inflicted
under angalar circumstances^^ which,
as I coopeive, are not known to tlie
fieoeralityof your readers. A theft to
the value of IS^d. constituted a fe-
lony. The criminal mmt be takea in
commission of the £act, or in pos-
session of the stolen artide, otherwise
he could be convicted ouly on his
own confession. Within a week of
conviction he was conducted to the
fcafibld. If he had stolen an ox or a
horse, the beast was led to the place
of execution, and the cord that acted
.on the axe of the machine fastened to
his neck. On a signal, the animal
was flogged to exertion, and thus
renderedthe retributive executioner
ef the criminal.

On considering the above mode of
procedure, the reluctance with which
our simpler forefathers awarded the
penalty of death unavoidably occurs.
The strongest suspicious, or plainest
corroboratmg circumstances, were not
held sufficient. On no grounds would
they cut short all possibilky of amend*
jnent, but the unequivocal circum-
stance of actual detection. The grants
of sanctuary, likewise, in these earlier
days of our civil poli^, would seem
to have originated jn charitable lenity
rather than superstition. Dr. Johnson,
in considering the impolicy of frequent
executions, has added strength to die
humane arguments of Sir Thomas
More on the subiect. It is at any
rate incontrovertiole that in those
countries where the penal laws are
most rif^d, the commission of crime
is most ireqnently to be found. When
any distant country is first named as
the spot for transportation, numbers
of convicts solicit aeath, in preference
to the horHM^ of existing on a wild
and unknown shore. This mi^ht act
as a bmi to legislators^ that death is

not the most dreadful punishment
they have it in their power to inflict.
Most ardently wiUiing that the
^illotine were in as utter disuse at
Its original in Yorkshire,

I remain. Sir, &c.
Pont^ract, June 2. , S. T.


To the Editor of the Uaiversal Mag.

I BELIEVE it is eenerallv agreed
amono^ the learned, that the Biscajaa
speech oic idiom is the most ancient
language of Spain > this is still &pokea
in Guipuscoa, the Asturias^ and in
some places .or patches scattered up
and aown amongst tlie Pyrenees ;
but principally and more especially
in the province of Biiicay itself, whicli^
as we learn firom testimonies of oa-
questionable authority, was never
completel;^ conmiered by either the
Cai'thaginiaus, Romans, Goths, Van-
dals» or Moors \ which nations, it »
well known, successively over-ran,
more or less, all the rest of Spaiu :
and I have read in some ancient au-
tlior, altliough I cannot positively
vouch for it as a tact, tliat wliencrer
the king of Spain conies in ()ersoa
to visit any part of the territories of
Biscay, he is obliged, by a custom
tliat has l)eeu pertinaciouslv main-
tained, in all ages, to pull off nis shoes
upon the frontiers, as ifhis first step
were treading upon virgin, kohf

And as it is highly probable that
the Biscayan is the primitive lan-
guage of Spain, so tliis very circum-
stance seems either directly or indi-
recdy to infer and prove, that the
people of that countr\' are a remnant
of tne aboriginal, or tne very first in-
habitants. Tor few, I should ima*
gine* will be disposed to ouestioii
lat if we wish to find out tlie indi-
genous inhabitants, the most ancient
people or language of any. qountnr,
we must look for them among toe
Mountaineers, in their strong places
and inaccessible fastnesses ; as, mr in-
stance, the people of Albania, anci-
ently Epirus in Greece, who speak a
language in a great measure unknoAK'u
to either the Greeks or Sclavonians,
the Highlanders in Scotland^ and th«
ancient Britons in Wales.

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14 Discovery of the PaiUieeaa, a People of Spam.

IncJccd, it 18 remarkable enough «o celebrated amon? the ancient
that th€ Spaniards, who pic^ue them- Greeks; to observe me manners of
selves more upon the nobility of their manv different nations. Yet in the
extraction, than any other £nro|>ean whole course of my extensive read-
natiop, confess that the most ancient ing, although I have been particu-
raceoftheir gentry has been all along larly anxious to read, draw, and
preserved in Biscay. So that a Bis- dram out of a multiplicit}' of authors,
cayner is capable of being admitted all that they have written or could
as a cavalier of any of the three habits possibly hai-e known> respecting the
or degrees of noolesse, without any various nations of this our lower
scrutiny being mfade by the office, world, I most own that till of late,
(tantamount, as I conceive, to our I never coujd arrive to the knowle&e
office of heralds) whether he be of tlie people now about to be qe-
Hmpio He la san^re de los Moros, as scribed. This, Sir, induces me to
they express it, that is to say, uncon- hope that the following comraunica-
iaminated uith the blood of the Moors, tion, which I shall insert verbatim
or no, if he can but produce undenia- et literatim, quoting my authority.
We evidence that he be a Monianero, and which relates to a particularly
or, in other words, tliat he has been curious and interesting subject, un-
bcOT amongst and is descended from known to the generality of readers,
the mascufine and warlike Moun- will find an earfy place m your truljr
taineers of Biscay. The cra^iness valuable miscellany, and that it wiu
and steepness of places in the moun- be deemed no unusefiil or unaccept-
tains, has, in all ages, proved a very able present to the admirers of tne

great advantage to those who dwell Universal Magazine,
lerein, in cases of war and danger ; A Topoor a pher.

they serve as fortresses erecteof by A quotation from Howell's «' In-
nature herself, to protect the natives structions and directions for foreign
firom all hostile incursions. So true Travel," printed in the year 16.50. —
is tliat which an ancient classical wri- " And now for further proof that
ter reports and complains of, re- the Cantabrian language is the an«
apecting some places and tracts in tientest of Spain, I think it wil not
Scythia: Diffidtvis trot hosttminve- be much from the purpose, if I insert
nire quam vincere. It was wore diffi^ here a strange dicovery that was
cult to trace out Ofict discover the ene- made not mu3i above hnffe a hundred
my than to subdue him. The above years ago, about the very middie of
preliminary obsen'ations have been Spaine, of the Pattuecos, a peopl^
naturally suggested to me, in conse- that were never known upon the face
qnence of having lately met with a of the earth before ; thtuigh Spaine
n)ost singularly striking account of a hath been a renown *d famous coun-*
still more curious people, and from trey, visited and known by many
whidi I could not but feel a certain warlik nations : They Vere disco-
d^ree of astonishment at not having vered by the flight of a Faulcon, for
stumbled upon it before. On this the Duke o/ Alva, hanking on a lime,
subject. Sir, I consider myself as em- neer certain hils, not farre from So-
holdened to s})eak somewhat more lamanca, one of his hauks which he
knowingly and confidently than many much valued, flew over those moun-
others, and not, perhaps, without even taines, and his lAen not being able
a kind of authoritv, (sit vema verloj to find her at first, they were sent
and this, not merely from the circum- back by the duke after her: these
stance of having devoted a great part faulconer8,clammeringup and down,
of my time to studies of this nature, from hill to hill, and lurine all along,
but because it has occasionally been they lighted at last upon alai^ plea-
my very employment, my peculiar sant valley, where tney spied a com-
business and function (although only pany of naked Savage people, locked
a sedentary traveller, penned up m between an ajjem% oi huge crags
within the four walls of my study) and hils, indented and hemmed m
to peregrinate through and anatomise, (as it were) one in another : a$ sim-
as it were, many a soil, climate, pie and savage tliey were, as the
country, and tovm, and (like Ulysses, rudest people of any of the two /niKer,

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Plagiarism of Dr. Berdmore. IS

^fkerttfs9me thought « man on horse- I shall not descant upon the unwor-
ncktokonecreature with the horse, thineas of this puny schoolmaster's
Ibex savages gazing awhile upon motives, nor tell how bitter is the
them, flew away, at last, into theii: fall in which he has dipped his pen;
caies, for they Were Troglodites, but it is enough for me to observe oa
lodhad DO dwelling but in me hoi- the present occasion, that he who had
loves of the rocks. The faulconers descried with such scrupulous and
flbfening well the track of the pas- keen penetration, the literary pro-
1^, returned the next day, and told ductions of others, should be parti-
tbedcke,that inlieuof ahauke, they cularly careful not to incur the im-
iud fouxid but a new world, a new putation^ of a similar charge himself,
people never knowo on the continent But the reverend Doctor seems to
of i^paue, since Tubal Cain came first have forgotten, that by an immutable
thitBer. A yvhile after, the Duke of law of letters, he who exercises the
Aba went himself with a company office of a critic, may, in his turn, be-
offfiDscateers, and conquered them, come the subject of criticism; and
&r tiiey had no ■ offensive weapon but therefore without making any apology
liiiigs; they were Pythagoreans , and to him, I shall offer to your readers
dideatnothingthat had ufe in it> but two instances of his literary disho-
excdient fmits, rootes, and springs nesty, and of the delicacy and address
tiier were amongst them ; they wor- with which he makes the discoveries
shipped the sun and new moone, of others his own. First: He is upon
their language was not intelligible bv his &vourite scent of looking out for
auj, yet manv of their simple worus resemblances of passages between
vere pare Bojmence, and their gtU* different authors ; aud tlien says with
fvrv/ pronuntiation the very same, a gentleness of demeanour, that no
aod a guttural pronunciation is an one would surely suspect ^ " I am
irfai&bU badge of an ancient language} tempted to remind you of an apparent
m so they were reduced to chris- imitation in Pope from Ovid, * pag.
tianity, but are to this day discernible 11: and then quotes those famous*
fam other Spaniards by their more lines in the Eloisa, from ver. 305,
tawny complexions, which proceeds to ver. SIO, and compares them with
from the reverberation of the sun- a passage in the £pist. of Dido to
beams glancing upon those stony Mneas, ver. 99, &c. Now who
iBoantaines wherewith they are en- would dream that the discoverv of
circled, and on some sides trebly this striking imitation was made long
fenced, which beames reflects upon ago by that quick and indefatigable
them with a neater strength ana so scholar, Gilbert Wakefield, in the
tames them.'*^ only volume of Pope's Mis. Works
that he ever edited: yet tliere you

PLAGIARISM OF OR. BBRUMORB. wiU find it. Sir, p. 273. Be it ob»

Qium temere ia nosmet legem saocimm served also that this arch pedagogue

iniquamk HoR. cannot pretend an ignorance that this

Sir, observation was anticipated, for at

A little book the other day feU into pagr. 13 he mentions Mr. Wakefield's
my hands, called ^ Specimens of Li- Ed, of Pope, and gives a decided cha-
teray Resemblance,'* &c. by Dr. racter upon it, which character it may
Benbnore. the late pedagogue of the fairly be presumed he would not have
Charter House i the object of which given, had he not "read it attentively.
ii to point out parallel passages in llie second delinquency is of the same
divers authors, and in particular the stamp : It is a borrowed gem, but the
whime is demoted to stigmatize a ve- borrower has given it his own im-
urable prelate, now '' in ^1 age and pression, and assumes the merit of its
hoaiy holiness*," as a mean and ser- oeing his own. The Doctor has in-
▼Oeplagiarist of Catrou, and in one troduced his observations, at great
word, to run him down in a general length, and told them with much
nreep of condemnation and contempt, pomp of narrative, and strutting for-

* An expression applied to Dr. Kurd, by the Author of the Pursuits of JLiteniture.
SeedmWork,p.89, llgthEd.

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Poors Parstei/^^Tis Poisonous QtmlUy,

naiiff : I fthal! comprise them all in
• word or two. Pope translates a pas-
nge in the last book of the Iliad, with
an accumulation of dazzling iraacer/
Wry oppasrtc to the simplicity of his
original. Dr. Berdmore hanffs us on
the tenter hooks of suspense tSrough-
out four pages of interrogation, betore
be will deign to inform us, in his vast
wgacity and wisdom, where Pope
picked up these' extraneous orna-
ments; and then at bstwe are told
with triumphant pride and conae-

guential importance, that tliey are
orrowed from that fine passage in
tlie Paradiiie Lost, where Milton de-
scribes tlie descent of tlie angelic

[Compare Pope's Homer, b. 24,
V. lOl, &c. with Milton's P. L. b, 12,
^. 626 1 &c.] No sooner had I read
this, than a sceptical movemont
seized hold of my mind, and I csaid
witliin my«df; '" Is this piece of
critic lore the legitimate o^pring of
the Doctor's brain, ot is it a Itttle
plckincj^ from the property of ano-
nier." 1 hastily snatcned down Gilbert
Wakefield's Ed. of Pope's Translation :
f turned to the passage, vol. (5, pag.
181, when lo and behold, the iden-
tical observation that the schoolmaster
had b«TOwed witliout acknowledg-
ment, I there kenned " hisce ocu-
hs."* I have no doubt but that by
a little attention, grosser plagiarisms
might be discovered; for those who
have been used to crutches, can
seldom dispense with their assistance
without halting. I regret, 8ir, very
seriously,^ that Dr. Berdmore should
have stooped to such meannesses.
His Itttle book is written in a s^le-
iv|;reeably' imitative of Melmoth, in
Fitzosborne's Letters ; but in addition
to the dhty delinanencies I have
already pointed out, ne is censurable
for the caustic and inquisitorial spirit
in whkrh he has attacked Bishop
Hurd, a man. Sir, who in the worst
of times, has maintained, with the
best intentions, the hallowed dienitv
of classical learning, and a most nigh
and holy reverence £or our saaed
religion, and who, moreover, if he
was in the possesskxi of tncnlties vi-

gorous and unftnpaired, would ftip«
with one sarcastic dash o( his pen, all
envious pedagogues, and their futile
attacks, uito non-existence.
Oxford, May 9. Gauwt NoTBC^rB*.

To th0 Editor tf tke Uravefs^ Mag.
BY inserting the following extract
from Curtis's Lectures on Botany,
you will oblige a constant reader and
admirer of your Miscellany. I am
induced to make this request, am I
think the circumstance whieh is there
related cannot be too generally made
known I it points oat, in the oaoat
impressive manner, the essential ne^
cesstty of every medical practitioner
having, at least, a general knowledge
ci plants ; and I am persuaded that
the generality of your readers will
not consider so small a portion of
your Number as mav be occupied bjr
it« uninteresting, should this quo-
tation have the effect to stimulate one
individual processor of mediclnej not
already acquainted with botany, to
apply himself seriously to the stud^ of
that science, I shall think myself in-
debted to you for introducing it to
public notice, and be ampl^ satisfied
with myself for the small pams I have
taken in recommending it.

I am, Your's, &c. J. S«
Lichfield, July 4, 1805.

'* NoTw'iTHSTANDiNO the ac-
knowledged utility of the .science of
botany ; notwitlistandinff preiessc^s of
medicine are warm in its recommen-
dation, it is much to be regretted that
gentlemen of the faculty are so little
acquaintell with it practically: even
in the country, where ]riaat8 obtrude
themselves on the notice of the most
common observer, how few are there
wh<> know with certainty the plants
they use?

" 1 have been most credibly in-
formed, that when Dr. Withering, a
fifenlleman distinguished not less for
his medical than his botanical skill,
went to reside at Birmingham, he
found some of the medical people ;
there makii^ an extract from the :
coiK -parsley instead of hemlock ; and '
it is mudi to be feared, that mistakes

- - - potcsne

£« his ut ff ' if t um quid noscere ?

Honcc'i QucftioQ to Dr. Bcrdmoic !

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ExirdcUfio^ a liietary Common Place 6ooi. if

t( diis sort frequently firustrate the tljen, pain> heat, an4 inflaihmation in
ivell-meant endeavoan of the phj- his eyes, with oBdemitous twellingt
aidan. of his cheelu : his reimii^ing symg-

" AlthoQ^h newly^liscoverecl che* toms went on gradtialfy, and be la
Ubical remedies ^d Jbreign drugs may now ^rell. He had been told that
have nistly superseded many of out the plant which he had eaten was
English plants, yet a great number hemlock; to be satisfied, I accom-»
are still retained in the t^narmaoopcda : panied him into the gardon where he
to be acquainted with these at least is had gathered the plant, and found it
the du^^ of emy one that takes ap«i to te aethusa eynapium, of fool's^*
himselt the important character of parsley. To be convinced of this b^
guardian of the health of mankind. ' yond a doubt, I compared a specimen

'^ I cannot better illustrate how of it with the figure and description

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