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<he ni^ht, or iki a.dack room^ * Mr. B. to sftlttil of. being ^uod. and. po«
has various wavs of coi^tructifig clocks, Hshed, besid^es beii>g4iable to crack, \i\
80 that the wfi^eis or meclninica! -part process of lime, by the coaetant expan«-
of them may not intercept the liti^lu^si^iiaadtCfiiqtractiQii, of twa thin sub-*
fmrn striking npon the bac,k' of thd dial- stajioes, the oa? of va$^ ai*i>tbc oihQ»«
{)Iate;$oa» to pass thrpugh and sIiqw of titrifactlon," so closely united,, axwi
the hour, uneouallv operated updn byheat and coicL

'riicse clocks arc. ig^tejidcd - to be co* His inVondon, in this latter case, is not I
VQfBd.wJilh.acatic, tu prevent the iighfitcnding t*> make diak. or dial-plates ef
iprea^inu; over the apartment, provided clocks and watelies cheaper orm.ore easily
tiielamporcaniiUisl)ehiAdkl^Abi»iL])late. manufact^ircd, but to tpake them niQC<^

Time-keepers of Uiu sort may i>e so pcrfcct in tncir form and polish, where.
CQ^s^ttuj^^iM'to-bc.pla<}ed, 01 Hked, iii line wbrk is wanted; as in the other'
a Wiudow-iilmttef, 01; iaa dj^qr-, or over case his improvement has the clTect of
a^WK.i <ir» ip.QUiS wytd* i«\any.sit«ar ..rerrdcring those useful machines sllU-
tion to tell thaboucian dark, apartment, more scn'i9eablp than heretofore, by
thelight beiagJ)e^ind, whcther-candle-^ making ihcm tell the tixne with eoual
light^ laiu}i-li^ht, ors day lighr, his gc- iacilitv aiidteTmctoj^s^ b.y.i\i^U a^ tKey
Deral principal bein^ the transparency, now do by day.

Qr degree of transparency, in the dia^:- Patimi to Cftnrles- Frederic MBUepUen^-
plate necessary for shewfng the libur by of. Htjchne^ (Vick, in tkd Coif^^^
tiiv» li^ht shining tli rough, A^d(lIes£J!^ Gejitl^mofi ; fot a. Cni^nU'^ ,

This imprtivchvcnt on the ut,ilily oi calCopipositUiH and:MieCkodiof.'af^ffT.
clocks, by wfeich they will shew \\xq in^ ike saific^ in, Ihe^BrepforaHon of-
hour by night as well as byplay, Is ap- ' Hkies, Skum, and LcaiJwr^ Si^hs, Taf^ •
plicable tt> cloekp of stee|)ii:s lilonging /t'(<7y, a^id Linen, anct^ to all Article^
toch;irches, or otheXjUiiUic buildiftf^s/a/f-^'rt^/./^ m'adv of S$fi} aiid Leather,;
as wdl aa to- tabJc..clnck», or cight-Kiay iharelij cohuiing widgivJng a,Vi:au^^
house clocks, whether tl*^ - go, with a tlf>4 Gloss to tht^ same, rtudt^ing^thei^ ^
^rirt^ or wei^hti, or with a pendulum, fFater-proof, and impenvtr'alle to hoi ^
or balance wheel, or whether iu great or or corroding Lif/uiiU,^ and-a^thejiair^
la small. kime preserving ihtmJnf/H Decays ooi

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htifiiig tkem soft undpRab'le. Dated - oomftosittonon theoatside of the )ratb«v
January 23, 1805.— The nature of \{\e a»ihtii as possible, by using: iron scraps'
liid inveoti^n* an4 in wliat aiaimir the era. of all diiyienjions, btit at ieosfc of'
taiae is to be pecfbrmed, is as follows: four .tnobea bieadtb ami. sue inches >
To prepare tiie couiposition- fbc the. height. Every time the comuosLdoii i*:
yaek oolonr, take; two galloos of linr sa iaid'>oiithe feiuiier^ put die linard into
feed oil, one ^aJAoa of whale oil, the oyQn to dry t^ composition ; an<h
wd one haif-fnund. of. horse grease, when, if is- taken out of* tne otoii dry»
laiiigie them with font (MHindA of fine and pvevisua to the composttioai beinie
Boand IfVussia bltie and ftaur polinds of a^in put' on, the leattier must, be well
Ump^bUck, and. a&erwacda boil them rubbed with pumice stone, to smooth..
€0 a Straus fine ; lo whlcli add. one it more, and make the composition fas*-
piKind of fine ground benzoin gutn* ten. on better. When this is dune, until
ptviously well nungled in one gailon the leather possesses its regidar ^osa^
of liBsceaoi}, of which one lialf gallon/ all, over> it is (whea^ taken out of the.
ii pot in the above^ when the cooiposi*- oven dry the laetftime) 4o be speedily
lion has boiled one half hourv and the taken loose from the boaid, am witeaJ
midoe when it is 6uf%:iendy boiled and cold: is- ready for use^ If the leatlies bet
mdy. This composition is quite boiled good, and of- a smoolb. surface, it r&^
eaoo^ when it gets so thick that no quiirs.Qiily to be done four; but if •other- '
diops.iall fiom imy thing dipped into it ; wise five, six« or more times-; the lost,
aad il is afterwards fit. for use when or two last times, the Goni{M)sition hxvA)
caid. For all other colours the gemitne best be put on with the bund; to miiae'
lieieid oil must be well bikached ^ to it very' thin and. exact aH over. llie.
i tv^edlons of which put one half gal - muvabcr of times the composttionshoiftki.
i lQD<a spermaceti oilABdono half po^md be pu^^on the leather, is very unceruin, ,
I of Bnissia bhie ; place them in a glass' as it depends entirely on its more or iese i
v«el in a-stiioBg snn« (the effect en- Cafcness^ thickness, or gpod quality. — >
cRsseby buriHna glasses, if necessary,) The savse rule exists for the tiine.it iv- >
and. when they aa¥e attained th^ saiaequiieB to dry in the; oven, which is in^
foasiurney as the Mack compositiouy gpoiedal in about an hour^ except the last^ !
after having boiled one half hoiiTy take or two last times, which take about ti^oi
<)oe pound bG&zoin gum, mixed: with orthmehirars. Hilk,tstfiet4is,and Imen, •
oiie^llonof'lhiaeed. oil bleached, amj^aoe done exactly* m the manner above t
add anethadf of it to.theno, and pUcO' stated, but they may be nailed iaafmmsr
tlte same in. the son, as before, whetv it of.any sha])e if'^reqriired. The dr}'in^ (f£
Ims attained- the same consistency as the > the >l<}ather, is done in an o^-eie or fiuvh'
black cc»mposition. When leaoy, add nace, which may be coastrocted . laiiguf >
tlieiemaimng lialf of the gum and oiL or smaller,, according to wishc the best
llie colours used, are. those composed" sJBMftpp. and dimensions of it, notwith-
of SKtaUie and amnuiipiirts, or metallic > standing* are nine feet in length, six/
00^4 as Mr. M. tS not satisfied that:fi)«t inbreadthv and. four oc five feet in:
csloon composed o£ aaunai parts ooiy' heisht inside, micoagh two iron doors. .
^ answer the purpose, ^lliose co* in tne. front of the^oven, as iar^ as the '.
lours which will adaai aa equal .qnan- opening, the boards ai£ put in the o^eA
% of Phissia blue with tliat used in . on inon. raiis, which are placed on the
the black - composition^ will have an two length sides > they aredistant from
f^Halpowfli of resisting heat or corrod-. each other, about six inches, and: may -
^g liquids, without which their efi^^t, . b^ made to introduce, from two to -
a^ to those purposes, will not be so tw^Ke' boards into it. The five-pliKe^
^ t>««erfa^ diooj^* equally ^o as to ren- i^iuadotowanis one sideunder the oven,
<^Q$ water-pcvol me articles manu<^ ' aud the flames and smokn go under and '
f«t«i«d. on all sides round the oven .bv meatrs ai .

TheoMMk of working U>e leather, and fire-pEoor;fiius8i which. must W so well
tWneocssarv'litiqiieBKnts for that pur*, cotia&ucted; as not to admit in. the*
paie, amas.^ follows : for leather, after ovea even smoke. A slow fire must
intKD^beea first weQcurried* espemailjr^he k^pi during the workkig of tlK lea-
^ in its brown 8ta(e« well draw it out thee; -not! exceeding si:?tv degrees of
^pinocxs, and naU iton a boKud to .heat: > Aliboota must be done, formed,
&t the. oven; which 'benrd. firsiwcover orahaped on blocks; vi which manner
^'i'^ ^iw^ttflfi M^pkati^ irod tbm Iny thr- ahmrip rtindfi rnrtmirh-hp^*"* v}'^ xxxir

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1<W Modem Difcwcries and Improveiiunts in Arts, Sciences, l^t.

Utary ax^coutrements must be done pre« the principal centre of motion as wdlii
vious to their beiag put in the ox'cn.— gravity.

SSomewooHen stuH' must be put between Wnen a carriage is consiracted
the wood and the leather, to prevent the. agreeably to the principles here laid
heat from uffocting it. down, (or where these improvemeats

Pattntto James Tale, of Tottenham- are added to an pld carriage) it is evidcot
court'/ oad, in the parish f>f'St, Pan- the whole weight is sustained by the
eras, in the count}/ of Middlesex , Iron* vertical axles of the new or improved
monger ; for an improvement to be friction Wheels, and likevi-tse all • the
added to, or used in, tht* construction nf friction produced by the weight of the
ttheel carriagL's. Dated June 20*, 1802. carriage and load r.pon it ; aiid that the"
— ^The natuie and projjerties of the Raid hindmost of the lesser frictton wheels
invention, to be added to/ or nsed in, sustains only tiiat part of the frictioa
' the construction of wlieel carriages, and produced by the draught, which bean
in what manner the same is to be |)er-. various proportion to the H-eight, ac-
formed, is as ibllows :«— The object is cording to the plane the carriage moves
to rednce animal labour, or to be nsed on; and that the foremost of the fiictioa
in aid of any oihcr power which can be wheels sustains hardly any fricdoii,
applied or used for drawing or impelling but senes to keep the large axle in its
wheel carriages of any description, and proper [position, so that the whole
for holding and Tctaining whatever weight, and nine>tenths of the fricuon,
quantity of oil may be necessary to be more or less, docs absolutely fell aad
pat in for the prestation of the p;irts turn upon the said vertical centres, and
in motion, as by the particular con- this causes the carriage to move with so
struction and disjiosition of the several little pov^er, that in many situations,
parts, every essential movement of the and especially in going down hills, it
62^d improvements have either their re- would be ad\iseabie to have a power of
f|>ective bearing in uprit^ht sockets or retarding its motion : and fur this and
cups of oil, or are pal in contact with other purposes, it will be conwnient
upright cisterns of oil, so that the mov- and proper that rtie lai^ wheels shouU
itig )xirts are continually moistened with be fitteci to turn upon the arm of (be
it. These sockets, nr the sockets or ^,e, as they usually have done; snd
eistems, -may^ be made to hold any de- then, by letting a stO(]9 fall down upon
terminate quantity of oil, and thereby the large axle, to prevent its turning, all
|irevent the trouble and inconvenience Mr. T/s improvements are suspeocied,
of frequent oiling, or of the parts da- and the carriacje moves on with its usual
raaging for want of oil. And this re- impediment oT friction, till the stop is
chiction of animal Ubour, and assist* ag^io taken off tlicaxle ; by this means
ance given to any other power that cart also the iid vantage acquired by the use
be afmiied or used to draw in, or impel of his invention may be most acc&rateiy
whetl carriages, Mr. T. performs prm- ascertained. , When he made the expe*
cipally by the application and use of riment with a cart and load, which
ne^v or improved iriction w'heels, con- weighed nine hundred weight upon a
structcd tor this purpose ; and partly or plane, and with a weight over a puheft
partially by the application of other when the large axle was at liberty to
friction wHeels witli horizontal axles turn round, mnse pounds wei^t ircw
or naves, placed in new and advantage- the curt along ; and when the stop was
ous situatmns, by which Mr. T, traEns- let down on the axle, it required twelve
fers the friction from the nave, centre, pounds weight to draw it.
r»r box of the wheel, prindpally to the Patent to John Cox Stei^ens, of
axle of the new or improved friction New yf>rk, in North America, hut
wheels ; which, by iheir peculiar con- now residing in New Bond-street, «
struction for tnis purpose, admit of their the countt/ of Miidlesex, Gent, for a
axles being placed in a vertical direc- Mtthod ojf" generating Steam.— -Tht
tion, thereby • adnutting tlic whole invention is TuUy described and ascer-
weight of the cstrriage, and almost die tatned in manner following; that is !•
whole of the friction, to descend to or say: from a series of experiments made
upon as many verticle points or centres in France, .in 17<)0> by M. Bebnoour,
as there are wheeh to the carriage ;««« under the auspices of the Royal- Aca-
which vertical points or centos of die demy of Sciences, it has been found
lievv or improved iriction wheels becone.- titat, witiiia« cedaia laii^e^ the elaslidlj*'



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Modern Discoveries and Improf^emmts m Arts, 'Sciences, ^c. fdf



•f steam is nearly doubled by every ad-
dition of temperature, equal to 30 de-
grees of Fahrenheit*s thermometer. These
ezperifflents lyere carried no higher than
2S0 degrees; at which temperature, the
elasticity of steam wsa found equal to
about four times the pressure of the at-
mosphere. By experiments which have
lately been made by Mr. S/s father, the
dasticity of steam, at the temperature of
boiling oil, which has been estimated at
abour (iOO degrees, was found equal to
upftrarda of forty times the pressure of
die atmosphere. To the discovery of
this principle or law, which obtains
when water assumes a state of vaiiour,
Mr. S. certainly can lay no claim ; but
to the application of it, upon certain
piiaciples, to the improvement of the
steam-engine, he does claim exclusive
lig^t. It is obvious, that to derive ad-
fanta^ from an appUcatioa ef this
principle, it is absolutely necessary that
the vessel or vessels for generating steam
should have strength sufficient to with-
ttand the great pressure arising from an
increase of elasticity in the steam. But
this pressure is increased or diminished
mj>roportion to the capacity of the con-
taining vessel. The principle then of
this mvention consists in fo;miing a
boiler by means of a system or com-
bination of a number of smaH vessels,
instead of using, as in the usual mode,
one large one ; the relative strength of
the materials of which these vessels are
composed, increasing in proportion to
the diminution of capacity. It will
readily occur, that there are an infinite
, Taricty of possible modes of effecting
wch combinations ; but, from the na-
taicof the case, there are certain limits
bejond which it becomes impracticable
to carry their improvements i
, IV Bishop of St. Asaph has in the
pess a Letter to Edward king, esq. on
♦iigirs Two Seasons of Honey, and
bis Season of Sowing Wheat, with a
new and compendious Method of in-
vestimtin^the Risings and Settings of
»he taxed Stars.

The ingenious Mr. Allnut, of Henley
on Thames, has invented a mode of
pnnting nlans of estates with moveable
^s» wnich unites th«ee very essential
wmgs, correctness, neatness, and cheap-
ness.

Mr. John Newland has in the piess
*Tiealise on Om tracts, so far as they
wUithin the Junsdiotion of a Court

wE^uity.



Mr. Reynold has announced hts in«
tention of publishing, by subscription^
a whole length mezzotinto engraving of
Madame Gnu>$ini, after a painting* b^
Madanie le Bxun.

A veryusefui tract is just published,
entitled T\ pographical Marks, used va
correcting' Pro6ls, explained and ex-
emplified, for the Use of Authors. Hy
C. Slower, Printer. A work of thit
nature has certainly been much wanted.
It appears that the marks which are
here described, are universally adopted
in every printin|i-office tlirouahout the
kingdom. It often happens that errors
are committed in consequence of the
printer not clearly understanding the
corrections and alterations of the author;
it must therefore be highly desirable,
that the common mode with which all
printers are well acquainted, should ^be
clearly understood and adopted by every
author.

A simple and very useful discovery
has lately .been published by a member
oi' the society of sciences and belles let-
tres, at Don'y, for purifying water. He
takes a common garden ppt, in the
middle of which he places a piece. of
wicker work ; on this ne spreads a layer
of charcoal, of four or five inches in
thickness, and above the charcoal ^
quantity -^f sand. The surface of the
sand is covered with paper, pierced full
of holes, to prevent the %vater from
making channels in it. This filter is to
be rene^yed occasionally. By this pro-
cess, which is both simple and econo-
mical, every person is enabhd<o procure
pure limpi(l water at a trifling expense.

Mr. David Booth, of NewOurph, in
the county of Fife, has issued proposals
for publishing, by subscription, an
Analytical Dictionary of tiie English
Language, in two volumes, octav(».
All the compound word?, in which
class the author includc:s almost every
word of more than one syllable, arc to
be arranged under the respective roots
from winch they are derived. 'I he
original idea afiixed to c;ich root is to
be investigated, and an account given
of its secondary powers, a? acquired
from custom and from metaphor. The
various inseparable itrepositions and ter-
minations of the lans;uag;e, are (xuisi-
dered as distinct words, and explained
in an Introduction, which is now in
the press.

In consequence of the preindicc,
particularly among the lower classes.

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h9& tioikm Duewerm-imi fiff/puw^eiftts hi A^y Sciences, 0c^



•gunst ihe vaccine inocafalioo, the
tauill p«pK is beoome very pfevaleM and
Ikal, in ynd about the metFO|M]ilMi. A
oomniittee of the medfiGal council of ihe
RoyaK Jeitikerian Society has been ap-
puint^d to inquire into the naturf and
evidence .of those cases of SiiiaH>pox»
-^'hich are said to have taken place sub^
ie^iie»tly to oow-pox, and have excited
prejii^es agaUst the iraccine inoculo-'
lion.

!>. Robett Jackson » now preporing
for the press, a System pf Mtidical Ar-
BDi^nent ibrthe' Armies.

>lesdr». &wick, Neshi^, and Austin
are now engag^ upon a series of elegant
en|j;ruTingft on wood, to illustrate the
•criptuses, and ajw to be printed to suit
Ibtio, Quarto, and octavo Bibles.

Sir Henry Vas^iiBOtn, hart, has com-
municated to the board of agriculture
an Accotuit of an Establishment of a
Scxninarv for Agricultural Education,
aet x\tc little iriUiige of Melbourne, in
the East Riding of Yorkshire. . A
school-house is to be built in the villajne
fer readins and %vnting, by subscri^ytion,
axnon^ the landholders. A spot of
pound, sufficient for the purpose, is to
he attached to the building;, the pift of
yir Henry, and which is to be cultivated
by the master, and for his benefit by
•uch €k' the children as arc big enough,
on holydays appointed for the purpose.
In whatever sphere of life these children
may hereafter be situated, a know-
lrd2;c of asjriculture, cardening, and
wral economy, will prooably be of use
and comfort to them, in famishing
tlicm with a healthy and innocent em-
ployment of their leisure hours.'

General Servant has just published at
'Paris, in seven volumes, octavo, a His-
tory of the Wars of tl»e Gauls and French
in Italy.

. The Philosophical, Historical, and
literary Works of the celebrated D*
Alembert, arc publishing at Paris, in
fifteen lai^ volumes, octavo.

An elegant work will shortly appear
faefbre the public^ called the Indian
SptMtsman, being a complete detxiiled
and accurate Account of the Wild
Sports of the Kast ; exhibiting at once
both the Natural History of Hindostan,
^d tifee Mann ers^ Customs, and Amuse-
ments of the Native and European In-
hribitants.

We are informed^ that a Compendium
of Dy Doddridge's Family Expository
is iQ the pwss, and will be published!



by isubseriptiofn, trader the patronage o^ .
her Royal Highness the Duchess oT
Yortc, for the benefit of a promisifi^
but a fatherless child, la^scendtim, in
the female line by the fathcr-sifle, ffoxa
that excellent magistrate, and christian^
Sir Matthew Hale.

Independent of the I^ondon Institu-
tion, mentioned in oar former numbers,
we are *pro«d to . 5a\s that two other
gmnd Institutions fiave been spinify
bronght forward in the British inetro^
polis: — Isl, called, ** The General In-
wtlntion," and its meetings is intended
to be iield in the centre or the town^
between the Ro\-al Institution in tlie.
W'est, and the London Ins^mtion in
tl\e East. It is intended to ccmprize
a library of gtTiewl references, and a
readins room for foreign and domestic
journals, newspaj^ts, &c. &c.— 2dly,
for whiclii alretuiy a Tcry Gonsiderable
sum has been subscribed, is solely to
promote the study of the fme arts ; "and
tor this purpose, a gallery is to be built,
and pirttjres to be bought for its deco-
ra tioii. The want of such institutions
ht5s long been felt by tlte inhabitants of
the nietroix)lis, the adoption of tv^hich
does honour to the spirit of the capital
of the British empire, which we iiave
no doubt will be carried into exccatioa
with a degree of spirit worthy of the
national charucler, and the enlightened
period which has given it birth.

Mons. PouHeau has invented a mu-
sical instrument, which he calls tht
Qrchestrino, which professes to unite
the brilliance and expression of the
harpsichord and piano-fotte» with the
softness of the nimian T-oice. The
instrument is spoken favoxirably of by
s^everal of the members of the Conser-
vatory of Music, who were deputed to
examine and report upon its merits.

A work has recently been published
at Gotha, entitled F^lloplastic, or the
art of representing architxctural^ubjectg
in cork. The mventor of thip art,
though of tlnrty years Standing, is un-
known: the work is anonymous, but
the author informs us, that M. May,
who made the tour of Italy about six-
teen vears ago, conceived a* violent pas-
sion ?orthe art, vrfiich he brought to a
high degfee of perfection. Ill is gentle-
man has executed thirty-nine modeb at
this kind, among which are several mo-
numents of Gothic antiquity, particn-
larly the ruins of an abbey at pauleiuell^
near Schuanburg* . .



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( »«& )
STATE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.



* Iritis unoeitaiiihr in which we left land ? Every thina depended upoa.
X tlic state ot [Mibltc 9ffms last himself, and the public was soofi gK««.
BMmtfa» is lemoved. Lofd Kelson is tified with the account^ that their coiv*
to Engknd» hut not, as we fideocejnight he safely plac^ in such a
_ ^ i and expected, the harbinger conunander. He beard that the f r^nch'
of a ▼ictory over the French fket, aod fleet was in the Atlantlp : he pursues,
Mkrmred by captive ships: he is rt- doubts not iu course, and arrives at
^uMd with tbe praise, however, of Barbadoes on the fourth of Juw- Vfi
flaying done eveiy thing, which the waa at .Antigua on the twelfth, an4 hia
nott meritorious officer could do to find name operated as a charm : the French
the enemy ; and to him we are indebted fleet hastens back to Europe. It had
for thosalety of our West India Islands, the advan^ta^, by some 4ays» of tho
and the chsjice^ven to our squadrons noble admiral, who trusts to the look-
to iniefeept the combined fleet, and out of our squadrons on the qoast of
to pf^event its return tp Europe. But France, and steers to Gibraltar, to pr««
th« combined fleet is returned, is vent its re-entrance into the Mediter**,
safely lodged in the harbours of Spain, r^nean. On the twenty-secpnd of
and has effected its escape, if we may. July» it is discovered by toe squpdrofi
can It an escape, with the lost of ocjy under Sir Robert Calder,. off perrply at
two Spanish ships of the line. the distance of about ninety miles froi^.

Tlic histoiy or this fleet is most ex* Cape Finisterie. Superiority of nuip<^
tiaordinary, and must have a wonderful hers, both c^ ships and guns^ did not
cffact on the powers of Europe. Great daunt the English: an en^^sm^fc
Britain boasta of iu soperiority over the takes place, 4nd at th» close of i\ they
sea ; of its ruling, as the song impiously find tnemselvep m possession of twp
terms it, of its ruling the waves. But Spanish ships of the line, but f>ot
tke sea is large, and the waves are not without considerable damage tp th^ii'
to be ruled; and the history of the com- own .ships.

blued fleet, if it tends to repress unbe-. The account of this engagement it

coming arro^ce, cannot create any Qow before the public^ writteti by ^^o

despondency in our own strength, pro- commanders of both fleets. Ac^rding.

vided that strength is directed by pnif to the English aocount, the action last^

dence and eneigy. The French fleet ed four hours : the enemy had all the

lefi Toulon on the twenty-ninth of advantage of wind and weatlier : theri;

Msich : that port had been blockaded vvas a great fgg, whi<;h prevented th^

by Lord Nelson, but the French seized efficacious use of signals^ and our ^qua**



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