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ment, to apathy or sensualitv, he will Tiberius, upon a sacrifice of this kmi
discover, in every fresh cay, new having been offered, hang^ all tht
sources of estimable enjo)rment ;-^ priests concerned in so ahamefid a
springs of action so beneficial to the transaction. The religion of Car*
bead and heart, that he may safdy thage was, by means of Angnstine»
deftr orchard-robbers, tythe-gatherers, a pretended saint of that cky, and a
and dishonest horse-dealers, to inter- man of undoubted talents, introduced
rupt his happiness. . . among a sect of Christians. They

I am, Su:, your s, &c. do not, however, bum their childrea

RuEicoLA. to Moloch, but they make thaddty
""-^ to resemble him more than tM

AMSWBBS TO THE HisTOBicAL AND Qod of Jesus Christ, who is ettiifaa*
PHILOSOPHICAL auBSTioi^s. tically called Love. Calvin boROWed
(CoDtiDucd from page la;) a number of his tenets fit)m this Ao^

QUEST, I. Which are the prin- gustine; -and it is, therefore, not ta
cipal occurrences between the taxing be wondered at, that he should have
of^ Babylon and the battle of Ma- entrapped his fiiend Servetus, and got
rathon t him burned at Geneva for a difiisienci

This period contains such a variety in religious cpinions.
of occurrences, that the selection is Two armies of Cambyses weie^
difificult, and readers of history will in a B;reat measure, destroyed in tba
be differently impressed with their year before Christ 524. The one ha
importance. We shall at present headed, af^er the conquest of Sgypt^
/mention only four, namely, the plague in an expedition a^inst Ethiopia i
at Carthage;, the destruction of the and such was his distress, that tb^
two armies of Cambyses ; the massa^ fed upon human flesh, every team
ere of thd Magi by the Persians ; and man being slaughtaied for this por^
thepu chase of the Sibylline books. ^ pose'. The other army' had been dis-
Ine fdmous plague at Cartba^ patched by him to the famous terapla
took place in the year befcq^e Chnst of Jupiter Ammpn, and to subdnethe
5^4 3 and tlie superstition and cruelty Ammonians ; but in passing throng
of its inhabitants were seen in the the desarts, Uie whole was nuried tn
mode they took to appease the gods, the sand, immense douds of it en*
whom they supposed to haveoeen veloping, as is of^en the case, avast
offended. Thev sacrificed their chil- extent of country,
dren to their horrible deity, their Mo- . The reipi of Cambyaes was shorty
och j and this transaction puts us in but sufficiently long, ta be^ in tha

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Anmam to thi Hishrkal and Pkihsttphical Queghtms^ 2Q5

hmd of IVoTidenoe> a sooorge to all thagintfin history^ this people ajp^-
hk aeigbboars. He is succeeded by pears to have been devotea to tha
m impostor* who pretends to be the basest pursuits. Mammon and Mo*
•OB OT Cjrras* and kenps possession loch were their great gods. To ob«-
of the throne for eignt months. — tain wealth, they teft nothing untried,
Ike unposUure was at last detected, and b commerce they excelled the
and seven Persian lords oonspire rest of the ancient/ as muc|i as the
agsiost and destroy him. As he English do now the modern workL
w» one of the Maffl>' and by their They filled the seas with their ships i
aeans bad obtained &e throne> great but their fleets were defeated by thtt
intoiatkm was excited against all Roman power » not naval in itselfi
tiieMtfi: a (general massacre takes but becoming so the moment it chose
place ^them m the year before Christ to exert its strength on the waves^
532, and a yearly festival perpetuates and to convert its soldiers into sailors,
ili memor y . The seven lords deter- — ^Devoted as the Carthaginians were
) that one of them should be the to commerce, they were not less adt



sovereign, and Darius obtains the dieted to the basest superstition, and

<fei^ by the artifice of his groomr, Moloch was the god whom they ho«

«&> contrives that bis master's horse noured with supreme worship.

ihoidd be /he fet to indicate, by Moloch, horrid king, .besmeared with

Beu^hmg, the snoceastul candidate. |,(^^j °

-from this time the government of of human sacrifice, and parents* tears;

PbniaisCTrriodonbyade.yoticalao. Though for the noifee of drtims and

Tcrei^ 'y but the seven lords retained timbrels Ibud

gBBatinftienw, and tlieir successors Their chiWrcns* cries unheard, that

^ •*'X?7'.}?^*^ ? ^JP^ *^^™'"''- • passed through fire

.t^^. SibyUine bodes were esto- To his grim idol. Hiiri die Ammonite

bbhedin Borne by Tarauin,m the WorshWd in Rabba and her watery

year before Christ S06, The story p^^Jn ^ '

goes, that an <^d Silwl, orold woman, j^ Argob and inBasan, to the stream

afartuncteiler, andlike our gipsies, of utmost Amon : not content with

orooght three books to the kmg, and ^^^.^

ofeed them at a price which ap. Audacious neighbourhood, the wisest

pened to h«m excessive. She went j^^^^ ^

•wij with them, burnt one, and re- Of Solomon he led bv fraud, to build

tenii^, demanded a higher pnce for His temple right against ihe temple of

the two. This was refused, aud she QqJ ® ^ '^

tout another^and returning after a Qn that opprobrious hifl. r>d made his

tnne, offered the reraainuig one at a grove

*^ F?i*' V^^ ^^ ^^^^. ^ The pleasant valley of Hiimom 5 Tophel

nan&dfior all the three. The king's f^encc

WQoder was excited : he purchasetf And black Gehenna called, the type of

tbe vofaune, deposits it m the temple j^^H

ofiopiterCapitolinus, appoints tuo -

penoni totake charge of it, and hence- It may well now excite our wonder,

nnrard, ulien any thinr particular as well as our horror, that any of the

ocoined, the Sibylline hooks were human race could be so deluded aa

ooBudted, and never £iiled to give to throw tlieir own children into the

1 proper answer to enquirers. ^ The fire in honour of a pretended god i

probability is, that the king formed but the greater the outrage against

dte plan for the better deceiving of nature, tne ffl-eater die triumph of

tbe people, and that 'the old hag was priestcraft 5 tne greater the power of

iatuoduced into it to give it an air of the juggling priest over the misled

"■lystery. The higher classes of people. This is seen at the present

Bone were at that time, in super- day in India, where women bura

•*ioii, to be compared with the themselves on the funeral pile of

^owtx clsKses among us, who con- their husbands, and b»eots throw

•^gipsies and fortune-tellers. themselves under the w&etfU of an

<t»est. II. To what reflections do immeuse idol : and in Thibet thd

^ shore oocurEences give rise ? foolish people are tauj^ht to believei

twok thslktle remans oi the Car- that aa mtant can be God j andtiiey

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'W6 Answers to the Hlstorkal and PhU^ophical Quesiiont

adore as God the growing moilal, murders both his brother and his sis*
rill the priests think It time to make ter, dies hiraselfwretchediy, and leaves
away with him, and to place a child the throne to an impostor. This ira-
in his room to l)e worshipped in the po^or was one of theMagi, orpriesta
same manner. How thnnkflil ought of the ancient Persians, wno were di-
Chrlstianij to be, that al] these schemes vided over the whole country, and,
of priestcraft are so strongly condemn- under the government of a chief priest
ed 'in their religion ; and the Cal- or Archiraage, presided ovar religious
vinists among us would do well to services. Their religion was very
consider what tenets their master, ancient, and much freer from su-
Ciilvin, derived from Moloch, and perstition, than that of other coun-
what from the scriptures : they would tries. They worshipped only one
do still better, both to abjureliis name god, to whom they paid spiritual W)r-
and his authority. ship, not allowing any renresentadon

Camby^es was a most horrid tyrant, of him to be made .3 and bence arose
a wretch ignited for the puqxjse which the disposition of the Persians, where-
be was destined to liillil, to be tlie ever they went, to destroy idob and
executioner of God's iudgraent upon their temples. They paid a partkni-
Egypt. But his mad[ ambition was lar veneration to fire, as an emblem
not satisfied with tlie conquest lie had of purity, and hence toth^ sun, as an
mad^; nor would it have been satis- instrument of God's greatest benefits
ned, had all Afnca been addtfd to his to mankind. But they did not wor-
domini«'*i. He little tliougju that he, ship eithet sun or fire, any more than
was an instmmeiit merely m die hand the Jews worshipped the temple at
' of Providence for one single purpose : Jerusalem, because tiiey turned them-
he had armies, he thought, mider his selves towards it in praying. Whilst
comiuiind, and odier nations wei-e to Q-vmbyses was in Egypt, and hiscru-
bow beneath his yoke. These are the elty and oppression nad excited uni-
common tlioughts of ambition, the versal indignatibn, the Magi set up
idle projects ot the madness of sove- one of their own body as his brother,
reigns ; but he who says to the waves, and only fit person to reign. The
thus far shalt thou go and no farther, trick succeeded, and he was acknow-
can equally stop tEe ftiry of kings, ledged by-all ; but the loss of his cars,
and the madness of the people. — discovered by one of his wives, de^
Ethiopia was not in tlie limits of tlie tected the imposmre, and the whole
commission; and in vain does Cam- body of the Ms^i were in consequence
bysos endeavour to reach its territories, sulterers. It cannot be imagined,
His powei^il army is reduced to the that these Magi would have incurred
utmost diairess in die attempt ; and such a punishment, unless they had,
by lamine, arid the sands of tlie de- by other acts, made tiiemselves odious
sart, it is rendeied incapable of any to the people. It reduced themj
^reat exert icm. His return dirougli however, entirely to proper subjec-
Egypt was, however, tlie completion lion ; and we do not nnd that her&-
of the misery of that unhappy coun- aifter they went beyond the hnjits of
try. Vexed at his failure, Cambyses their du^. They subsist at the pre-
seenis to have been inspired with sent day ; and the ' Pimsees are a very
double fury, and the whole progress respectable |>eo}ile, though chiefly in
of his marcli was marked by the burn- the lower classes o{ life, and they seem
log of cities,' the demolishing of tem- better prepared for Christianity than
ple*i, and the destruction of idols. any people in the east: the Maho-

To what purix)se do great con- metans reproach them as worshippers'
qiicrors fill tne world with their ex- of fire, and the Hindus consider tnem
ploits ! In the eighth yearfi-om the as atheists, because they do not wor-
death* of the great Cyrus, his throne ship their Trinity.
Is filled bv one whose ears he had or- The purchase of the Sibylline booki
dered to oe cut otf, either for a real shews us how easy it is to impose upon
or supposed crime. The impostor mankind. Rome has been £ruitfiu in
pn^teiuied to be die son of Cyrus, who imposture. A sacred book, preserved
really had been murdered by Cam- in a temple, to be consulted only on
Jirses, Thus ends the greatness of particular occasions, was a fin^ state
Cyrus : the son, who succeeds him, trick. Modern Rotos, contrived siiH

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Atuufers to the HhtafU^l and Pldhsopfdcal Qnestions.



2er



niore artfollv, that the book, which
was intef^dea for all mankind, s]K>uld
be equaily preserved from the in-
fection of the 4x*ople. They forbid
tlie reading of the scriptures, and per-
tortri their religious services in a lan-
guage unknown to the people. All
this 13 dooe to make' the people blind
tools to^s4perior power. Wicked
kii^» and wicked priests, and wick-
ed ministera, dread noUiing ^o much
3$ the spread of information j and
there is nothing so much desired by a
i(ise and good Icing and minister, as
the ditfusipn of knowledge, and the
detection of imposture. In this all
real Christians must concur -, for f !ie
great excellence of their religion is,
mat there n, no secret, no mystery in
it : there are no priests appointed to
take care of their sacred oooks, but
each man U his own priest, and may
and is bound to consult them for him*
lelf, aiid is under no controul what-
«iever from tlie authority of any
man.

9««r.»/. HI. and IV. What are die
principal occurrences between the
peace of Utrecht, and the accession
q( the Brunswick family to thb
dirofue }

llie^nsactions of this period were
marked by Uie jealou.sy between the
Whigs and the Tories, and as so
great an event ^s the accession of a
new bmily to the throne grew neaier
and nearer, it was natural that a de-
gree of an&iety slK>uld prevail, lest the
paitizans of the Stuarts should disturb
It. Thotigh Anne was, in many re-
spects, a very excellent queen, she
could not be expected to have laid
aside all regard lor her own family :
BKitives ot direction would plead
ttrongly in favour of her brother, in
preference to au alien, and she might
sanction even tiiose feelings by a re-
Eard for lier country. She^ niight be
fearful , that a uew iamily, introduced
into England from Germany, would
briog With it all the notions of arbi-
trary power \^hich prevail in that
c()iQntry ; that it could not easily be
satisfied with a limited government,
and that all its eflbru would be di-
tected to sap the constitution, and to
govern by ioreign notions. Hence it
could notice expected that the utmost
zeal should appear on her part in fa-
your <>f the Hanoverians ; yet there
i» uu proof of any edbrt being made



by her to counteract the e\ndeni
vvishes of the nnti«n. She fell a prey
to die animo^iiics of her courtiers,
and dieir 8trugt»ies ibr places and
power occasioned her deal n.

The demolition of the fortifications
of Dunkirk, in the year 1713, au act
to limit the numl)er of ol^icers-in the
hon.se ot connn(Mis, in the same year,
ai)ci an attempt to pro! libit dissenters
from teaching in schools and acade-
mies, in the year 1714, form the chief
occurrences to attract our notice in
this ]>eriod ; and we cannot think of
tlie first of them without a melan-
choly reflection on the present state of
our own affairs.

It is not a hundred }^ears* since
England sent a commissioner to
Frant^, to see that the fortifications
and harbour of Dunkirk should be
destroyed. The inhabitants of the
town pleaded strongly, and with rea-
son, in fevoiir of tlie latter, as it would
be of as much advantage almost to
Enj^lish as to their own ships. Their
j)etition was not, however, attended
to : both fortifications and harbour
were, destroyed. How different is
now the appearance : France no
longer trembles at tbe power of Eng-
land ; but, by a flotilla in a new hai*«
hour, at Boulogne, keeps our govern-
ment in perpetual agitation. I'he
wi^domofthe measure in destroying
Dunkirk harbour may l>e justly doubt-
ed j but that of the' French govem-
ment, in making a harbour at Bou-
logne, mast be admired ; and it ha^
h^ one effect, to compel tliis country-
to make a good harbour at Dover.—
Thus war may be attended with some
good consequences, and give good,
harbours to both countries.

The act to limit the number of
officers in the house of conmions»
discovered ^ome just notions of li-
berty ; but' they who framed it, iii
their jealousy of one branch of the
legislature, could have had no idea
how ever^ branch mi^it be brought
in subjection to a new power. It a
great number of oftic^ers was allowed
m the house, too great a preppxide-
rance would be given to the crown,
and it was right to guard agaiusi it $
but is it not eoually necessary to guard
against any otner influence ( It mat-
ters not to the people of a country
whether they are under the influence
of the crown, or the influence oi a

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Sod Jfintfisrs to the IHitwicat and PUlosophicai QuestUm.



oabfi] of indWiduals, independent both
on them and on the crown ; or rather
the influence of the crown is the bet-
ter of the two, as it may be supposed
to look forward vith somewhat
greater anxiety to the welfare of the
country, than can be expected from
the cabal. If it is in the power of an
individual to send several members to
parliament, his influence will be mea-
sured by tliat number j aiid if several
individuals, having each this oower,
join together, and the numoer of
their members is either half of the
whole house, or superior to «ther of
tbe other parties in it, they must rule
the countiy. If, besides, it should
bjBCome a principle, that when a per-
86n is sent into tne house of commons
l^ one of these individuals, he should
be so bound to act under that indivi-
dual, that upon a difterence of opi-
nion he must give up his j^eat, whilst
a member sent ,byr4"tftwiibf county
may laugh with impunity at his con-
stituents y then it is evident, that the
body of individuals^ sending such
members to parliatnent, is f&more
dangerous, to the morals and th^ li-*
berty of the country, than the un-
worthiest prince* who ever sat upon
the throne of England. Whetner
there is a tendency in this country to
tlie formation of such a body of indi-
viduals, it becomes every man, who
has a regard for its constitution, to
consider, and to express his indigna-
tion against the maxim, which is said
to be not unknown, of this 6up[>osed
toimection between the individual
and the degraded charact^ sent to
parliament, who will comply with
such conditions. To call such a
wretch.a member of parliament, is to
degrade the legislattire 5 he has not
that free voice,, which every man
coins into the house ought to possess 5
Be should be treated as my Lord's, or
Mr. A. B's- - yen of such a
stamp should have a bench to them-
selves ; for tlie im|>urity ^ of the mind
ts as bs^ as that of the bod^r.

On the Attempt to prohibit dissen-
ters from teaching in schools and
academies, w^e are at a loss at which
most to express our astonishment— at
the folly or thfe mischievous tendency
of the measure. How trilling is the
difference between the church of
England and the dissenters ! In
doctrine theie i» fican:«l|y any cOfie*



rence^* their discipline does, indeel,
make a distinction. The former is
rich, and gives §^ood things to its offi-
cers 5 the latter pay sparingly, aod
expect their otEcers to do then: duty.
—But the dissenters were staunch
friends to the house of Brunswick;
the higher officers of the church had
a hankering after the Stuarts. The
death of Queen Anne prevented the

Sissing ol the bill ; and with the
runswick family entered tolerftion.
The dissenters have their schools and
academies, and some of the best
teachers belong to their party. The
church of England, in possession Hi
immense wealth, and the great ma-
joi:ity of population on its side, Ought
not to have wished for the assistance
of* such a bill } vet perhaps it had a
pre-sentiment of the consequences of
toleration, and that both its doctrines
and discipline wouM, in future times,
be impugned with impuni^. Whe-
ther it ^ so or not, we shall say,
that a church which cannot be sup-
ported without the oppression of its
enemies, does not deserve support at
all ; and they who proposed the bill,
paid a mat compUment to the caust
of the dissenters.

Quest. V. Does London afiixtl to
a reflecting mind a greater number of
proofs in ravour of civilizatioo, or the
want of it }

The first concern of AbdoUah os
his arrival at Tunis, was to find Ba
Englishman to teach him the En^ish
language ; and he was fortunate
enough in finding one thaf exactly
suited his purpose :— this was a young
man, who had lived a vear or two in
a merchant's counting-noose, and was
on the point of returning to Bd^aml
to establish a mercantile connexion s
and the terms offered by AbdoUab
were sufEcient to induce him to quit
all ' other employinents for his new
office. The chief embarrassment
with the Englishman was, that he
knew nothing of grammar, and hai
never been a teacher ; but ndther of
these points w*eighed at all with
Abdollah^ who had learned several
languages, and had by experience
discovered how little usefiil the gram*
mars, as they are generally drawn
up, are to the learner, whatever they
may be to dn adept in the language.
— His only fe^r was, that his teacher
night have as improper pRmuaesa**



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Aiawers lo the Historical and Phiiaop/ttctil Questims.



809



i6on ; imt in this he v^s fortunate,
for the young man^ though born and
hred in tfa'e east end of Ixjndon, spoke
English tolerably weJl. He could
talk of his Sunday's excursion to an
\mde, without compiaramg of the
lenrible iih o£ Ampstead and Jgate ;
?fid carve at dinner without manghng
theoffi^ and the nrcy and speak of his
uncle, without puzzling his hearers
U> know, whether he spoke of his
VBcle*s heart or his art. lie did not
talk either like the parsons in some
places, who becin 'their ser\4ce with
lh— ^fli ihitvitked man turneth avoy
ijiomhis vickedness; and on one Sun-
^y read a verse in the bible— Ven a
4ntn woivs a woiv unto the Lord,
which, from its setting all the dogs
inthe church a barkiiig, h called the
bow wow Sunday. For his freedom
fR)m these and similar improprieties
tiLipeech, he was indebted to a sister^
who had. never been at a boarding-
sdiod; and yet from common oo-
sepiration, reading, and good sense,
had di-scovered, that a word begin-
nn^ with an h, was to be proaounced
diflerendy from one without it^ and
that V is not w. When she had
discovered these important facts,
vhich were secrets to most of her
neighbours, she told them to her bro-
tlfcr, who not only was convinced,
i but took such pains, that in less than
three months he corrected himself of
the ill habits to which he had beor^
vagA from his infancy.

•But auotlier diffiailty occurred,—
The Englishman could speaksonly his
own language, and a Utile Moorish,
I of. which his scholar knew not a word ;
bqt this did not perplex Abdollah,
whose ex^rience taught hmi, that
iii.a very short time the words of any
laoguage coay be learned. Here the
J^ was also of assistance ; for, when
the Englishman produced the only
hook be had, which was the bible,
the Jew, on his .interpreting the first
rerse into Moorish, ibund the cor-
respondence between it and the first
verse of' his law, and leari^ed tor the
^ time-that the £ng)ish had a.reli-
gipn. Thus Abdollah began very suc-
^essfiilly: the Englishman translated
hb words into Moorish, and tlie Jew
^e them to Abdollah in his own
^S<^^ ; and before the end of tlie
j flapnth, Abdollah read the first cliap-
ifi^f the hible witli teleiaWe. fluency^



and understood its contents. He couM
also tell the names in 'English of the
most familiar objects aroundhim ; and
when he went with his instructor on
board ship, he could enter a little into
convertation w«th him, and under-
stood tolerably well what was passing
at table. ,

Their voyage was rather tedious ^
tlie first part, titl they loft the coast of
Africa, was iavoured with pleasant
breezes and fine weatlicr j the lattw
part was foggy and stjuaHy. As they
approached tiie English channel, tte
account of the coast of Europe seemed
to be realized. Tliey h^d not seen
the sun for many days, and a fog qt
cloudy weather accompanied them,
till the vessel came to her moorings
at Blackwall, It was one of those
days, which sometimes happen in
London, when the smoke is acca-
mulated to a great height over the
to^wn, and all the narrow -streets are ia
a state of darkness. On such a day
Abdollah was landed near the Tower,
and conveyed by his instructor to the
house of a mercAiast, in one of the
narrow lanes «ear Thames-street.—
The mansion was a very excellent
one, and tlie stranger "was accomnu>-
dated with the best apartments in it -;
but his entre had bocn made through
the counting-house, where all the
cleiics were writing by candle light ;
and tliough it was teen o'clock in the
morning, in tlie month of November^
tiie candles were necessary on the
break fast -table in tlie drawing-room.
•^Abdollah Was verv anxious to dis-
cover tlie cause of tliis phenomenon ;
but in spite o^ the gloom, which the
weather had impressed him witli, he
felt his heart cheered by the kind at-
tention of his hostess, and her two
fair daugliters ; and he could not* but
flatter himself with the idea, that
though nature had been ver}' sparing
in her boBntv to tlie country, Uie in-
liabitants haJ found many methods to
remedy its defects. "He was parti-



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