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are dependent and mutually coherent,
fayalznost imperceptible Iinks> on the
eiisteoceof humanity, are many; for
it is a. principle which pervades, in
one or other of its mo<tification9> al-
most every action of a man. We
readily acknowledge the prevailing
force, of habit in every other respect,
Qor can we make any scrapie to re-
oogoiseit in this } the child that is al-
lowed to besoornful, dishonest, men-
daci(xis»' indolent, or wrathful, will,
a» fargrowsr up, shew- aU these vices
in a gpBiter ampUtiide^ unless h6 be
{^acS in such particular situations as
necessarily compel him to restrain and
oimceal his native propensities hrom
ti)e fear ofsuperior power. The child
that is permitted to behave with
crpelty towards animals and insects,
viH ever retain a cectain savage fero*
city of character, which, whenever,
oBportuni(ies offer, will, I will ven-
ture to pronounce, be iQ^ni&^ted
^V^J to^r^ds ipea. a^d^ aoimaii.



215

The youth who can wantonly torture
a puppy, or a kitten, unless restrain-
ed only by fear of the law, or that of
personal cnastisement, will behave in
the same manner when advanced to
riper years.

It is a ridiculous mistake to suppose
that cruelty is naturally inherent
in human nature. 1 will not deny
that this vicious propensity is to b&
found in almost every infant; but this
proceeds, as I take it, from uncon-
soinusness, or- insensibility, of what
produces pain-: pain is an abstract
idea relatively to others, but becomes
personal when considered with rer
gard to. ourselves. A child that has
never been burnt,, will voluntarily
thrust its linger into the candle or
file 'j but when he finds tbat thi^s ac*
tion produces the sensation of pain,
he will ever after associate these ideas
toeetheis and will in consquence care^i'
fully avoid repeating the act. But he
does not so soon learn to generalise
his conc^ptioos, by supposing that
what gives pain to him, must likewise
give pam to another ; for he would
immediatelx afterwards, if permitted,
positively subject jthe fingers of his
mother, or his nursei to the. same
trial of fire. It requires freq^dncy of
precept or cefiection, to estal^isfa in
nl? mmd the- truism, that, generally
s{>e4kiQg> what gives pain to hinMelf/
will, yea must, excite pain in others.
It is. inifact a- long time before he
completely learns to transfw his own
feelings to aaotlier.

Ana the case, perliaps, isstillmore
cogent when applied, to the animal
creation. It po doubt, requires a great
effort of the mind, for a child to. con-
ceive that he should behave with tlie
same tenderness towards a kitten or a
puppy, as towards his brotlier or sis-
ter. It would certainly be a long time
before he would arrive at this trutii,
by the unaided deduction of his own
intellects -, and during that interval,
he would be insensibly, i)erhaps, grow-^
iugfecocious Why is it more naiurnl'
to suppose that cruelty is inheient in
man, than that a propensity to lying,
swearing, or thieving is ? The same
pDBvious. process^ as is employed to
prevent tne practice of the.se latter
enormities, might be adopted, I can-
not help tliinking, with equal avail-
ability, to restra'm the commission of
the iormer. Is it not the iieight- of •

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316



On jUlexanckr^s Tomh.



absurdity to draw a per contra infer-
ence, and is it not tl)e height of moral
turpitude to sutibr, in consequence,
such an inveterate, inconi^ible habit,
to gain ascendancy in our oflspring,
by neglecting to tincture their callow
njinffe wjth me fine feelings of huma-
nity, and the genuine sentiments of
Christian philanthropy ? Error is ol-
tener propagated through negligence,
than from premeditateddesign $ I am
"willing candidly to hope, that the one
I am now consideiing, may proceed
£-om inadvertency, and I therefore
harbour an expectatiqn, that the pre-
ceding remarks mayJiaye a well-tim-
ed influence, with those who peruse
them.

I cannot conclude this letter, Mr.
Editor, without recalling to the minds
of your readers, the following beauti-
fol lipcs from our admired Cowper,
who has been called the *' Poet of
Christianity."

•'I would not enter on rtiylisjifof friends
(The* graced 'with polish*^ manners and

fine, sense
Y^ wanting sensibility) the man
Who needlessly sets foot upon a worm.
An inadvertent step may crush the snail
That crawls at evening in the public

path;
But he that has humanity, forewarned.
Will tread aside, and let the reptile live.
The creeping vermin, loathsome to the

sight,
^nd charged perhaps with venom, that

intrudes
A visitor unwelcome, into scenes,
Sacred to neatne^ and repose, th* aleove.
The chamber, or refectory, may die;
A necessary act incurs no bDamc.
Kot so, when held within their proper

bounds.
And ^iltless of offence, they raoge the

air.
Or take their pastime in the spacious field ;
There they arc privileg'd ; and he that

hunts,
Orhaims them there, is guilty of a wrong.
Disturbs theccofiomy of nature's realm.
Who whea she formed, desigh'd them an

abode.
The sum is this : if man*s convenience,

health.
Or safety, interfere, his rights and claims
Are paramount, and must extinguiish

. tneirs :
Else they are all, the meanest things

that are
Afi fteie to lire, and to enjoy that life*



As God was free to form .them at the

first.
Who, in his sovereign wisdom, foniL*4

them all.
Ve therefore, who love mcrcy^ teacU

your sons
To Jofte it too." — Cbb^.

Indulging tlic hope that you will give
achnibsion to th\s ray letter, I remain
a well i^'isher to your interesting nii»-
cellany, and am. Yours, &c,
July 6, 1805. DoFRUMW .



For tlie Universal Magazine.

AN SNaUIRY RESPECTING ALBXABT-
D£R*£ TOMB.

" Why may not imagination trace the
noble dust of Alexander, till he Bnd
it stopping a bimg-hole ? As thu« ;
Alexander died ; Alexander was but
ricd ; Alexaixler retumeth to dust ;
the dust is earth ; of that we make
loam ; and why of that loam where-
unto he was convened, roioht thtj
not stop a beer-barrel r' Shakspeare.
THE following is a statement of
faf ts relative to we deportatioD 6oai
Egypt of that curious, noble, and
wonderful monument, the Sarcopha-
gus) which is now represented to
have been, and is expressly shewn,
in the British Museum, as the tocBb
of Alexander the Great* This states
ment is IntroduoeJ, and accompanied
by some general and historii^d obser-
vations, terming a sort of critical en-
quiry, which I shall take the liberty
to extract, and present for the perusal
(Of your readers, from some of the
llevlews and contemporary journals ;
Jthey are such remarks, however, only
as seem to me necessary to coatribote
towards the obtaining some kind <^
^a decision, whetlier tlie particular
Sarcophagus, which forms at present
the subject of so much investigation
among the learned in this coontry,
be Tf^y the tomb of Alexander or

not. A CANDID EKaUIBKB.

The learned Dan. Clarke, LL- D-
Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge,
has lately published a critical disser-
tation on the Sarcophagus, lately
brought i^om Alexandria, and now
deposited in tlie British Museum, in
London. Such is the irresistible in-
terest attached to every thing c6n-
nected with the extensile reno^DW
and the remains of '' Great Hammte.*B
son, the invincible** Alexander' tke
Qssait, that even now/ akhough ilg '



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On jUMauier's Tml.



Sir



"tfebftuiei tia^ edapsed since his de- many virtclbsi, has beeti» that of the
ceue, if k could be undeniably as- tomoof Alexander the (yreat; and the
certaiDed that the Sarcophafl;us, which work of Dr. Clarke may be consider-
is the subject of the work nere men^ ed as the OToduction of a gentleman,
tkmed, were, in &ct, the tomb of who is leaoins; oounael &r the affirm-
that conqueror, its value would be ative side of the question. Dr. O.



estimated by every lover of virtii at a
Tate unspeakably greater than if it
veie referred to a hero of minor im-
poitance. Hie corps of Scavans
which was employed during the late
attempt ctf the French to establish
themselves in Egypt, ceUected, in the
oty of Aleacandna, a number of an-
ient works interesting to science;
nd these they were sq desirous of re-



is, doubtless, extremely well qualified
for the delidate office he has under-
taken, both by his attainments in
general learning, and from his pro«
found knowled^ as a dassical anti-
quaiian; this gentleman having ac-
quired no little celebrity by his travels
and researches, during a very fatigue-
ing and uncommonly extensive jour-
ney in Asia Minor and other parts.



•taining, that the disposal of them oc- wherein he had numberless opportu-
caskmed some delay in the surrender pities of reconnoitring and ascertain-
joi the starving garrison, and escited ixig the nature, forms, and materials
no little aspen^ in the French com- oT tombs, and other sepulchral mo-
mander, when ne found the British numents in general, some of th^n
graeral pmmptorUy insbting to have derived from very early ages. Hie
tDem considered as national pro- Rev. Sam. Henley, whose erudition
perty. has been amply demonstrated by his

Among the most valuaUe of these Illustrations of Fhenician Medals, and
«x3fis, one was an ancient marble, iiis Explanation of the Egyptian Hier-
«mnd at Rosetta, which is inscribed -offlyphic <^f the Year, as copi^ by

the M. Denoo, &c. may, wjt are told,, be



with three sorts of characters,
Greek, the ordinary Egyptian, and



the Hieroglyphic ; whicnlast, having xause.
JHver hitfioto been decohered by ^"
the learned, it was.hopea that this



regarded as secona counsel in this



It is certain that the saroopfaagus,
the immediate subject of Dr. Cl.'s



inart^ might afford a iLev to unfold work, was ever sechided firom public
tbe mysteries of that abstruse sci«> view by the Arabs, at Alexandria :
cooe. -that Emopeans especially found great

A second antiquity of much greater difficulties in obtaming peripission to
n^gnitnde, was a prodigious vessel, inspect it ; and that the inhabitants
mmposed of figree&ishcotoured stone, of Alexandria did not suffer their
and which measured in length, ten pity to be deprived of it, without howL-
Aet three inches ; ;n breadth, Bve feet ing, lamenting, and testifying extreme
tbee inches, that is to say in the regret. It is certain, too, that M.Do-
^idttt part, and four feet three inches non, in order to procure access to diig



•tihe narrower extremity ; • in height,
^measured three feet three inches.
Zbis was hollowed, and the outside
€f it was adorned with almost innu-
menble hierogiyphical figures, dis-
|N>sod in perpendicular rows down the
Mdesj and in horizontal rows along
die wider end, which is rounded.— »
It appears that twelve or fourteen
orificeB have been made toward the
^om, apparently for the reception
^[vater-cocks. Its appearance, at
mst sight, indicates it to be no or-
flioary ulensil, nor calculated for any
pvpose in common life ; but to as-
ttrtebi lis true character, requires the
CKeidw of mueh investigation, in-
Bnotar, and argument combined. —
iLv ii^Qction attributed tx> it by
Vol. IV.



hidden treasure, took with him a de-
tachment of soldiers, and hewed down
the jg;ates of the indosure with' axes,
to violate its repository of silence and
concealment. The French had con^
trived, it seems, to secrete it in the
hold of their ibospital ship, where it
was not expected that research would
follow it; out tbe expedient which
they had resorted to was communi«>
4»ted to Dr. Chirke^ and the conse^
quence was, that this invaluable moi>
nument of antiquity, together with
the Rosetta inscripuon, and another
sarcophagus, called. The Lover's
Fountain, brought by the F'rench
from Grand Cairo, were reclaimed by
the British commanders, and are noif
preserved in tbe British Mn^eiua.

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218



OnAleximder^s Tonlff,



There can be little doubt as to the
antiquity of this subject, nor of its
rarity, or the profound and early es-
timation it has been held in, nor of
its Egyptian origin : but there may
be jery plausible and larional doubts
as to its primary destination ^ and
considerable doubts are, and have
been entertained^ \vhether it be the
tomb of Alexander. The evidence
that has been adduced for the affirm-
ative may be thus summed up :-^
Alexander died in tlxe city of Babylon,
on the 22d of May, in tie 323d year
before the Christian aera. The voice
of fame had anticipated to his corpse,
and to the place where it was to be
deposited, the same |ood fortune that
had attended him during li& ; and
therefore every x)ne was desirous to
secure tl)e possession of this talisman
to himself. After two years, which
his surviving generals employed at
Babylon, in discussing their opposite
pretensions, and in making prepara-
tions for his burial, the funereal pro-
cession began to move towards Da-
mascus, on its way to Egypt. By his
will, Alexander had ordered that his
body should be deposited in the tem*
pie of Jupiter Ammon, in the desarts
of Libya. It appears that Perdiccas
conducted the solemti procession.—
The chariot in which it was conveyed,
exceeded, in its construction and mag-
nificence, whatever the world had till
then beheld, The sight of this gor-
geous car, and liie prodigious train of
attendant pageantry by which it was
invironed, brought together immense
multitudes from all me cities in its
route, to behold it. As soon as
Ptolemy received intelligence of its
approach, he went in person to meet
it, accompanied by an army, as far as
Syria, under the pretence of ren-
dering funeral honours to the body,
he would not allow it to be carried to
. its appointed destination ;** but first
conveved it to the city of Memphis,
and from thence to Alexandria. Jn
the latter place, it was considered as
the palladium of the city, was con-
secrated by the most sacred cere-
mor^ies, and was long afterwards re-
garded as an object of P^n reve-
rence and adoration. The body was
originallv shrouded in a covenng of
sheet-gold, fitted closely to the'fea-^
tnre?, and so df\ctile as to receive
whatever focrn the artist chose i-r



and the artist displayed his skill, faf
producing in this golden investhvie,
an accurate resemblance of the de-
ceased hero^ Over this chased y^oik,
was a golden drapery, folded, do
doubt, like the clothing worn in
those times next the body. They
then proceeded to add the splendid
purple vest, ^'ariegated with gold,
and afterwards his armour, wi^nr
to represent him a warrior roonarcfi
as he lived. They added als<^ the
sceptre, as an ensign of civil com-
mand, denoting the sovereign evea
after his death. Ptolemy prepared
also a sarcopha^s of stone^ which
received the whSe body, with its va-
lual^e appendages ; and the question
now agitated among the learned is,
whether that sarcophn^ was, in
fact, the verv same individual as th^
one which has been lately lodged in
the British Museum.

Such is tlie state and history of the
existing facts ;' but does it appear that
we have any precise, correct descrkK
tion, by any ancient writer, of tbc
sarcGohagas which inclosed the body
of Alexander ? No mention is made
of its colour, nor of tlie nature, size,
or order of its ornaments; nor arc
there upon record any accurate mea^
sures or its .dimensions. It is, indeed,
said by Diodorus Siculus, to be '* in
magnitude and workmanship worthy
the greatness and glory qf^ Alexan-
der 3 — ^but so vague a description is
not sufficient to answer the purposes
of identification.

This surprizing sarcophagus is one
entire blocK of Egyptian breccia, and
is probably what was termed eme-
rald by tlie ancient workmen. The
stone IS extremely rare ; the working
of It was highly expensive ; and the
skill and perseverance regmsite to
execute emoeUishments in it, exceed
the powers of modern artists. It is,
therefore, allowed to be worthy of
containing the remains of Alexander;
but in j)roof that it actually did so,
we inust depend on probabilities and
inferences from history, in the ab-
sence of positive and explicit iofor*
mation. It is certain that the sarco-
phagus of "Alexander was deposited
at Alexandria ; it was there when
Augustus visited the remains of that
hero ; it was there when Septimios
Sevenis paid his veneration at this
shi'iue^ in the yoar 2m of the Chril^

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Ck9r€B^er af lAUKer. 219

tua aeza; "when he collected the sa- dij flanael, without the aid of spirit

cred volamea qf the Egyptians, and ot wine.

•hot them up, with whatever related . But with respect to tlie Introduc-
lo Alexander, in the cloistered mau^ tion of the fumes of tobaccojr tlie ob*
sdeum <hat formed the area around jection to it, in my opinion, is not
btstomb; which mausoleum, ac* sinoply negative, but positive;, because
cording to Dr. Clarke, obtained the experience has shewn and cophrmed
iiame of *' Alexander's body." In the influence of tobacco to be seda-
these cloisters, the bodies oi tne Pto- tive, and consequently its application
lemies of Egypt were also deposited, by the rectum is calculated to destroy
A question, theretbre, naturaij^r sug- the little spark of life that might not
gests itself here :— Might not this sar- be totally extinguislied. I liave seen
cophagus belong to one of these kings ? so many sedative and debilitating ef-
Itt the year of Christ 213, Caracalla fects of ^obacco, on the nervous sys-
alFoctedto pKerform unusual adorations tem» as to have long made me oppose
at this shrine; bv which he previ- its application, in all cases of apparent
ously &scinatcd tne atFections of the death, or in any state whatever of de#
Alexandrians, whom he afterwards bility,* and I hope the practice of
massacred. Dr. Hawes will coalesce with the ex-
(To he conduded in our next,) perience of many professional gen-
' tlemen, at the head of whom may

To the Editor of Ike Universal Mag. be placed the late John Himter, who,

siH, if I recollect rieht, was avowedly

IN the Universal M^zine for against the use of this debilitating ve-

July last, you have, with great pro- getable, in all cases of susi^endedaui-

priety, recommended th^ means sug- niation— as is your correspondent,
gested by Dr. Hawes, for the reco- Nicoi,ogia.

rery of persons appaiently dead, ike. London, Sept. 14, 1805.

beorase the means of restoration can-

not be too generally diffused, or put To the Eaitor of the Universal Mag.
in practice when requisite. sii^ ^ •



tion. In so xoiportant a circumstance ;„„«.^- „ ;i „ *' ,,«r^„i\r- ^h
Pf sudden apMrent death, instant insertion m your usefol miscellany.

means of relief ought to be resorted t^]'„,^„ nj, ^VX' , c^t t t?

to; and it is of ffe first importance, ^^^*«5'o«. Sept, 13, 1805. J. E.

that these should be applicable to the " In order to form a proper esti-
exigency of the case. It is certain, mate of the conduct and character of
that in this species of suspended ani- Luther, it is necessary to consider
mation, the great object to be ob- .him in two principal points of view:
tuned is the excitement of \ital heat, 1st, As an opponent to the haughty
and of that energy upon which life assumptions and gross abuses of the
depends— consequently stimulants of Roman* see ; and, 2dly, As the foun-
r^rious degrees of power are indicat- der of a new church, over which he
ed. As evaporation has a tendency may be said to have presided, until
to produce cold, or to carry oti' heat, tlie time of his death, in 154(5', an
it is plain that spirit of wine, which interval of nearly thirty ^years. In
is volatile, cannot possibly prove a the former capacity, we find him en-
ttimulus to die durface of the body j deavouring to substitute the authority
the e^-aporation, however, from a pf reason, and of scripture, for that of
body that is in a state of apparent councils and of popes, and contend-
death, and of course generally cold, ing for tlie utmost latitude in the per-
caanotsttfferinthesubouctionof heat, usal and construction of the sacred
ly cvappration of spirit, absorbed by writings, which, as he expressed it,
theCaQnel. I should, however, pre- could not be chained, but were open
Iff the. mode of gentle triction, by to tlie interpretation of every iuoivi-



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IM XJhAtactir of lALthgr^

AmxA, For tMft great and daring at- qtrent conduct, have been aMe fS/^tt

tempt he was peculiaiiy qualified. — to refute or invalidate. *

A consciousness of his own integrity. As the founder of a new chufCBi.

andthenatul^ intrepidity of his mind, the character ci Luther «^ears m »

enabled him not only to brave the very different light. After hanne

most violent attacks ot his adversaries, effected a separation from ^e^f^ f*

but to treat them with a degree of Rpme, there yet remained w 8til>

derision and contempt which seemed nwre difficult task of ^^P*™2S

,to prove the superiority of his cause, such a system of religion* rajth aro

Fully sensible ot the importance and worship, as, without admitting tto

dignity of his undertaking, he looked exploded doctrines of the papal amrcli.

With equal eyes on all worldly ho- would prevent that licentioCMett,

noure and distinctions; and emperors, whith it was supposed would ne ™

and pontiffs, and kings, were regarded consequence dt a total absence of aU

by him as men ana as equals, who ecclesiastical restraints. In this task

might merit his respect, or incur his Luthpr engaged with a resolufaott

resentment, according as they were equal to that with which he had brsv-

Inclined to promote or obstruct his ed the authority of the Romish^urch>

views. Nor was he more firm against but with this remarkable diflemK^

the stem voice- of authori^, than that in throne instance he eflected

against the blandishments rfifattery, his purpose by strenuously insisting

»id tlie softening influence of real or on the right of private judgment in

pretended friendship. The various matters of feith, whilst in the other

attempts which were made toiinduce he succeeded bjr laying ^l^JJ]?^**^

hitn to relax in his opposition, ^eem in doctrines to which he expeceed that

general to have confirmed, rather all those tvho espoused his cause

than shaken, his resolution 3 and if at should implicitly subjnit, Ipe qpi*

any time he shewed a disposition to^ nions of Luther o'n certain p<J{^

wards conciliatory measures, it was were fixed and unalterable, Tra

OHly a symptom that his opposition most important of these were tnd

would soon oe carried to a greater ex- doctrine of the real presence in tbd

treme. The warmth of his tempera- eucharist, and the justification of

ment seldom, however, prevented the mankind by faith alone. Whoever

ejtercise of his judgment; and tlieva- asfented not to these proposihomi

rious measures to which he resorted was not of hi^ church 5 and althougi

for securing pt^ularity to his cause, he was ready on all occasions to maW

Were the result of a taorough know- use of arguments from scripture fof

ledge ofthe great principles of human the defence of his tenets, vet wh«i

nature, and of flie peculiar state of these proved insufficient, he seMora

tiie times in which he lived. The heatated to resort to more violent

injustice and absurdity of resorting to measures. Tbis^as fully exemplmed

violence, instead of convincing the in his conduct tow-ards his friend Cp

tmderstanding by argument, were lostadt, who not being able to distin-

shewn by htm in the str(Migest light, guish between the Romish dO«nne

Before the Imperial Diet, he asserted of transubstantiation, and that ofthe /

his private opinion, founded, as he real presence of Christ in tlie saci**

contended, on reason and scripture, ment, had, like Zuindius, adopted

against all the authorities ofthe Ro- the idea that the bread and the win^

man church; and the important point were onlv the s}'mbols, and >*<>* ™5

which he incessantly laboured toes- actual substance, of the body and blooa

tablishwas, the right of private judg^ of Christ. lAither, however; roaiii-

fnent in matters of faith. To the (te- tained his opinion with the utnw^

fence of this proposition he was at all obstinacy :— the dispute became fW

times ready to devote his learning, subject of several violent publicauowj

his talents, his repose, his character, until Lutlier, who was now supports

and his life ; an^ the great and ivipe- by the secular power, obtained toe

rishahle merit of this reformer con- banishment of Carlostadt, who *«



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