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sists in his having demonstrated it by at l«jgth reduced to the necessity («

such arguments, as neither the efforts earning his bread by his daily mem*

of his adversaries, nor hi& own subse- The unaooooimodating adb««aoe «

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IxAm to this ooinioii, placed also an cent and conscientioas persons wero
eftcdial bar to tne union of the \{<t\- put to death, many of them -with tbei ,
ve(ic and German refonners ; and to most horrid tormenrs, for no other
mA an uncharitable extreme did he reason than a firm adherence to tJ)oso
cany his resentment against those who doctrines which appeared to them to
denied the real presence, that he re- be true, it is sufficient, on tiie present
idled to admit the Swiss and tlie occasion, to remark the wonderfld in-
Gennan cities and states Which' had consistency of the human mind, which
adopted the sentiments of Zuinglius the chsu-acter of Luther so strongly
asdf Bucer, into the confederacy for exenoplifies. WhDst he was engaged
the defence of the proteatant church, in his opposition to the church of
dioosing rather to risk the total de- Rome, be asserted the ri?ht of private
stniction c^ his cause, than to avail judgment in matters of laith, with the
himsrif of the assistance of those who confidence and courage of a martyr :
did not concur with him in every pdr^ but no sooner had he freed his'fbllow*
ticolar of beilief. ^ ers from the chains of papal domina* ^

Nor did Lather adhere less pertina- tion, than he forged others in many
cioiisly to the doctrine of predestina- respects equally intolerable ; and it
tioB and ofjustification by faith alone, was the employment of his latter
than to that of the real presence in years, to counteract the beneficial df-*
(he eacharist. In soppcnt of these fects produced by his foi;mer labours.
opinSons, be warmly attacked Eras- The great examme of freedom which
mos, who bad attempted to maintain he had CKhibitea, could not, however,
the freedom of the human will : and be so soon forgotten ; and many who
^ahen that great scholar and candid had thrown off the' authority of the
christian replied, in his Hvpera&pistes, Romish see, refused to submit their
Lather increased his vdiemence to consciences to the control of a Monk,
acmiUty and abuse. *' That exas- who had arrogated to himself the sole
perated viper, Erasmus,'* says he, right of expounding those scriptures
'* bis again attacked me : wliat elo- which he had contended were open to
ffotace will the vain glorious animal all. The moderation and canoour of
A^lay in the overthrow of Luther !'' Melanctbon in some degree mitigated
In defending his opinion, as to the tlie severity of his doctrines : but the
aU-soffidency of faith, he suffered example of Luther descended to his
himself to be carried to a still further followers ; and the uncharitable spirit
extreme^ and after having vindicated evinced by the Lutlieitm doctors, in
his doctrines against the anthority of prescribing, the articles of their ^th,
Qouifcals» and popes, and fathers, he, nas often been the siltbject of just and
at leogth, impeached the authority of se\'ere reprehension*. Happy indeed
<ne of the a|»ostles, asserting that the had it been for mankind, had this
Epiitle of James, in which the neces' great reformer discovered, that be-
?9 ^ good works to a perfect faith tween perfect freedom and perfect
is expr^y stated and beautifiilly il* obedience there can be no medium-^
tastrated, was, in comparison witli that he who rejects one kind of
tbewritinjjB of Peter and of Paul, a human authority, in mattei*s of re-
fute hook ^strMv ! ligion, is not fikelv to submit to
It would too fsar exceed the neces* another— 4ind that there cannot be a
wry limits of these pages, to dwdl on more dangerous, nor a more odious
tbedissenllcnis to whidi this inflexible encroachment on the rights of an in-
sdhocDce of Luther to certain opi- dividual, than officious^' and unsoli-
aioM me rise, or on the seventy cited to interfere with the sacred in-
with which he treated those who un- tercourse that subsists between him
Artunatdy happened to believe too and his God !"
moAi on the one hand, or too little # .. The conduct of the Lutheran
!L2f o^f» and coujd not walk doctors," says a very candid and com-
^l^t^^;^S^^^^''^ petent judge, " in tlic dclibeniiions re^
hehad|aEMbed..WiAoutatiTibuti^ latingtotiSj famous fomi of concord
to^conduct of Luther all those ca- discovered such an imperious and un^
tomeswhidiadiverekyof IFdigious charitable spirit, as ^vould have b<ku
«pnwmQccasiocedmB4arope, during m^re conMsteni with the genius of the
tne greater part of the sixte^nUi cen- court of Rome, than with the principles
m. ahd in which thousands of inno- of a protcsunt church^'* Qq^,

%n Memoirs 0f Robert Orme, Esq.

Memoirs of ike Life aid JVritings united within itself, can oxAj be
oftke late Robert Orme, Esq. F, A.S. vaded by sea. and as such, waJ c
the learned and elegant Hts/oriogra^ find its naval strength to be its grand
pher of the Engiisn, J&siaiiishmentf, fecurity against foreign foes, liie
Coiiquesis, T'rade,. ^t\ in, Uie East posaesiiion ot remote temtonp, <^o-
iadzes, uies, and »ettlemenis- abroad, wni^

"Mr. Orme. the hi,toria„ oflndi,. ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^

AsUc manner." SirHr.J..,. i^^^^,,^^ ^^^^ ^

IT is nniversally ad.nitted, that Bity, be more or less dejiendaiit upon
national strength and prosperity is the disposition of other state*, ana ol
ever best produced and secured in a course must be coutiiied and pne^-
state where the interests of commerce ous. Since the late dL«4trous ^voh^
and manuCictures, and tlie means of tionin North Anit;i.:a, it cannot be.
possessing military power, (in a ^ti- dented tliat the Britannic em^Hfe u
ciently htfge extent of fertile territo- most peculiarly indebted to its con-
ry) have an equal place in theestima- nection with India, for a vcrj con-
Uonofdie legislators— and where they siderabie d^jee of its naanome
are not only made compatible with, strenglli, opulence and grandeur. Our
biit can be, in a great measure, united East liKiia Ckjmpany haire now in sal>-
and rendered subservient to each jection to tliem, a vast eiteat of ter-
other. The Greeks,as we learn from ritory,- either provoked by war, or
ancient history, rose ta a great as- solicited hy negotiation with Vo^ bA*
cendance of power and political dis- tive sovereigps and chiefe or Jndes-
tmction, by cultivating, with activity tan ;— and fliese our establishments
and industry, the arts of peace as in that quarter of die globe, are now
well as those of war— and I remember intimately connected, directly or in-
to have read an ingenious remirk directly, with tlie higheat mterests at
somewhere, to the tbffowing purport, every Briton : Indeed no pwjon can
thatif the councils and military disci- be considered as even moderately
pliueof Lacedemon, had been added skilled in tbfe theory of po«ti«, who
to the commercial strengtli of /^tlien^, has not made himself acquainted witn
or in other words, if the power and the actual state of the British mtere»tt
poli(7 of the twj states could have in the East. But it is not too na«cti
been properly amalgamated, Greece to say, that since our first knowledge
would have remained to this day, in- of fndui, no gentleman has so aropOr
vincible ; the Macedonian subjugation elucidated its history and P*^"^^y^***®
of its different states, wonld never late elegant and much lamented Mr.
have tiiken place, and the Romans Orme. A few authentic particmara
would have been effeaually arrested of his life, will, I doubt not, tlieretbre,
and controuled in the progress of tlieir prove an acceptable present to the
arras. It is true that industiy will British public and nation,
make a small city a great one— will Robert Oroie, the subject of the
make a very small or barren territory following memoir, was bom at An«
populous and cajjable of abounding jenffo, m the Travancore country, in
both with men and money j it has, Indij, on Christmas-day, in the yea»
likewise, been often seen that a small 1/28— It appears that Dr. Alexander
State may overcome a great one, by Orme, his tather, went out to India,
superior policy and courage, by mi- in the seivice of the Hon. East India
litary skdl and discipline: it is ne- Company, as -physician and surgeon,
cessary, therefore, that every nation and that he amved at Bombay about
whicii would support and extend an the year 1 70t>. He continued there,
advantageous system of commerce^ and at tiie dependant setdements, 9
should exert its best coun- considerable time. With great reputa-
cils and endeavours to acquire supe- tion.* It fturther s^pears that Dr.
nor strength in making war. Great . . *_j

/Britain possesses both these inesti- * The following taper is jCXtiactBd
nuble acfvantages^ and being an island from the public records of that pedod :

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, Memdrs of Rolert Orme\ Esq, 22i

Onae having long distinguished hiro- Tlie facility and alacrity with which

Klf in the country, was, at laigth, Mr. Orme appJied to studies so dii^er^

apjwinted chief or the settlement of ent from those more attractive ones,

AnjeogO) where he had issue of his which he watf obliged to relint|ui8h,

raani^, two sons and two daughters, evinced an uncommon degree of dili-

Ot'these, Robert, M'hose labours have gence, as well as great vigour of mind,
derived such eminent advantages to Having laid a fum fo'jndation for

this nation, was the second son, The subsequent attainments in coHimer-

mother of Governor Bourchier was cial life, voiuig Orme embarked for

ooeof his sponsors. With a view to India, where ne arrived in the year

imprweat once his edu(ation and his '742, at Calcutta, where his brother

kalth, for Robert was naturally of a William then resided as a cadet, in

delicate constitution^ the Doctor sent tlie East India Company's service,

him to England, when scarcely two William was originally int€^nded for

years of age, and he was placed un- the sea ; but that element not ' being

der the care of his aunt Adams, then congenfel to his temperament, he ob^

residing in Cavendish-square, London, tainec^ the above mentioned appoint-'

With this lady he continued two or ment at Calcutta, where he d>ed at

three years, and was then committed about twenty-five years of age, betore

to die tuition of a clei-gyman, for which time he had lost both his pa*

about twelve months; after which he rents. Robert did not return to India

was sent to the school of Harrow, in the company's service; but, on his

Here be continued between sev^ and arrival in Calcutta, engaged himself, for

eight years, became an expert profi- improvement, in the house of Messrs!

cieot in clajsical literature, and was Jackson and Wedderburne, at that

Qoless distinguished by the brightness time considered as the first Etigiish

of his parts, than by the sfedulity of mercantile house in India, Mr. Jfack-

his application. In 174 1 , young Mr. son being one of the council, and Mr,

Qnne was removed from Harrow 5 Wedderburne, (pf the same family as

andbeiiig intended fpr the civil ser- the late Earl of Rosslynj* a free mer-

nce in India, he was placed in,, the chant. While with them, young

fiffice of the accountant general, that Orme made a vopge roimd the Pe-

be might acquire an insight Into the ninsula to Surat, in one of the freight

theory of commercial transactions, bhipsj and it was on his return to Qd-

Cftllicat, Aug. 30, 1707, * The following praver, or ploai

" Mr. Alexander Orme, surgeon, of supplication to the Alnvightv, and which

Aojengo Fort, has made hia request to was written in the wxteenth year of hi«

^,< that he may be made a Company*s age, ai){)ears in his mtmofcnda^ dated

iQvant. >We find him a very capable Novtnibcr, 1 744 :
vid .in^nious perB6n, that would be '* O God, wliose infinite power is

fstooidinariiy serviceable to our masters not more shewn in the works of thy

sod us, in sickness. If your excellency creation, than thine eternal beneficent^

ttui the council are pleased to enter him in the preservation of thy creatures,

a &etor, we cequest that we may have .vouchsate to hear the humble supp]2ca«

him at this factory, being in great want tions of one of the meanest amonj^ tiiem,

«f assistance, as above spectfi^, who, in all due sense of the lowliness ojf

^ " Ronert Adams. his condidon, presumes, on the mitho«i

** John Johnson.** xity of his Redeemers co^imand alone»

la a yubteqoent letter, they write to throw himself, in ail his sins, at the

thni-: . throne of thy mercv. Forgive hJui» O

'* Wc are heartily sorry that the rains Lord, his manifold "breaches of thy ordi-i

W been so very unhealthy with you, nances, and endue him with- grace isi

^t Dr. Orme could aot be spared, amend his ways before thee. Cast from:

We.reqoest you would a^ord us his as- his heart the rancour of pride, the ma*

<Mance, as soon as you can," &c. lignity of envy or malice, and all those

Bobert Adams, esq. who signed the tumultuous {>assiQns and urgent ^mo«

foRgoizig letten, as cnief of t& setde- tions, of which our frail being;s ar<v

BKntof Callicut, on the coast of Ma- without thy prevention, so susceptible ;

^V> and Dr. Orme, had maakd two endue him' with humility 5 ^rant biill,

4iitewofthenaB»o£Hai. charity 10 all men." r^^^^T^

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tS4 Merkoirs ffBxA&t Onw; Es^;.

4^utta> tbdt he received or found sm Adams. With thhladj, vAx^eaia*

AppoiDtment from England, audioriz- tained a most afieclipnate r^ardfcr

ing bim to be a writer in the Compa- him, he resided, during his sta^ in

m 8 civil service ; in which sCTvice, this country, at \itr house is Cam-
Orme continued between

JMlr. Urme continued between nine
^nd ten years, becoming after the
first Ave 3rears a factor, according to
the Company's regulations in India.

In the year 1752, some regulations
in thejamadary or police of the town
of Calcutta, were thov^ht necessary,
^nd Mr. Orme, although only twenty-
four years of age, was desired to, state
his opinion on the subject. In his
fthort narrative on that delicate, but
important concern, he observes that
the office of Jamadar in Calcutta had
not been rightly understood in Eng-
iand. It comprises in itself two dis-
tinct otifices *, the administration and
execution of justice, and the collec-
tion of the revenues. Some ^of his
advice on this subject was as follows :
•* Separate the revenues from the jus-
ticiaiy power. Divide those revenues
into ditterent branches, byfarms and
by distinct collectors. jDivide the
town into particular districts, each ca<-
pable of being Wperintendeid by one
person; and over these districts ap-
point particular gentlemen, some of
the council, some not« as they can be
•pared. Let an appeal lie to the go-
vernor and councu. Let the prisoQ
and the cutcheree be methodized into
tfstiact o£fioes, for regulations and
punishnoents, according to the dis-

. In the same yedr, 1752, and during
his residence at Calcutta, Mr. Orme
composer^ the first and second books
of his ** General Idea of the Govem-
ment and People of Indostan," which

(tish-square, the saoie house wiiich
came afterwards, hv the testament of
Mrs. Adams^intotneposseaisoni/tbe
late Lord Gaiiisborougb. This iady,
we n»y further observe, at h^ «-
cease, left Mr. Ortoe an annuity of

The following are the author's cobp
eluding reflectioi)s oa his work, tk
essay above mentioned :

'' Having brought to a coodonoi
this essay on the ^ovemmeot and peo-
pie of Indostan, I cannot iiefrain nroa
makmg the reflections wbidi so ob-
viously arise from the aubiect.

*' Christianity vindicates ail its gb-
ries^ all its honours, and a!) its nve*
reoce, when we behold the nioit
horrid impieties avowed amongst tke
nations on whom its iufbatose does
not shine^ as actipns neceasaxy in At
common conduct of Ivfe ; I noean poi-
sonings, treacherjr and assasainatiDDs,
in the sons of ambition { rapines, xm^
elty and extortions^ in the miniaten
of justice.

*' I leave divines to vinduste, hf
more sanctified rdOectioaa, thecnM
of their reUgion and their God.
'' The sons of lib^ may here beiioM
the mighty ills to which the slaves of
a despotic povtrer-must te subject;
the spirit darkened .«ui defpieswbj
ignoraiice and fear; the body tortur-
ed and tormented by punishments, ior
dieted without justice, and witfaoot
measure 5 such a contrast to the tics'
siE^ o£ liberty heighteDs, at oDoe,
the sense of oor hapjptiness, and oar

lias lately -been first .printed complete zeal Jfor the preservauoii of tl.

It may be* necessary hene, ^ the
better ^ucidatic^ of i^haf will fiilkv,
to transcribe aome of Ibe.anthar'snd'
litical observations, ^applicable to tliat
period when commerce was the sole

firomtheauthoc'sMS. This little essay^
though a juvenile prodootion, shews
the great zeal and industry with which
he had applied himself to the investi^

gtion of Indian GcmceoDs, and may ^
{Considered as the germ of h^sgi^at- object of the Company, atftt'vastbe
er and more importont ^work. The first principle on whidi thear aatfo-
first two books he corrected and en- inent» wereestablishedwdthindie'pe^-
larged on board the ship Pelham, in
the month of September 1758 ; and
the third hdbk he composed on beard
thesan}evessel,duringa voyage which _

he was then making to England, and that the many naUor^ «whkb ^am^d
Inhere he arrived at the l^ter end of the enmire of Hindostas, weoe fob*
l^year. This voy^e fi-om India to jugatedto the Moguls in variisui
Bo^Iabd was prinapally made at the £6nn«i some.of them tiibiitary and
desire of his favourite anot^ Mn« hereditary^ and Ubaa ffxnami i9

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nipsula of India.

*' The Mogul goreroBtteat fasd, dor*
ing the long ^nd-wike admiinstratjoo
ot AHreng^lse, taken such deepixMC

MemoirioJ Alert OrmeiEiq: ' 9if

ftaBabs or vktrdys, tinder tbe itnme- '' Tbe Englisb bcbdd his progress
dt^appointineiit of the emperors, with astonishment, hot were not
*' Sodi was the state of the empire roused to action till they found thepi-
when the English settled in India« and selves on the point of lieing swallow*
otoihed phirmufids, or ro3ral erants, ed up-by the French power. Forced
lor establii»hinje themselves in jSengal, to it, they with reluctance, in 1750,
Madras, and Surat, witli privilege of undertook the support of Mahomed
iSKii^ duty free ; and a grant of a A}]y, against Chunda Saheb, under
certain district of land to settle upon ^ whose name the French carried on
with liberty to fortify and govern their ambitious projects,
thanselvesny their .own ]aws. 6utas •* It is not our mtention to enter
the English saw no violence to be ap- into a minute detail of that long war^
preliended from a people who had a maintained on our side against a con*
jDst idea of commerce, and a govern- stant superiority of numbers, at the
ment, at that time well administered, expence of the lives of many thou*
th^ built with very little view of de- sands of brave men, and at thie risk ,
fence, and carried on (heir trade free of near a million sterling of the C^om*
fiom oppression. pany*s property j we snail only ob-

" The jgovernors of the distant pro- ser\e, that from our successes, the
vinces, discovering the weakness to nabob's situation was so difierent at
ifhicb tbe power Si the emperor %va.s the end of the year 1753, from what
reduced, by the invasion of Nadir it was in 1750, at which tiipe tl^e -
Shaw, were no longer restrained by single city of Trichinopoly was tha
fear J each assumed and exercised only part of his dpminioms tli&t re-
sovereign authority over his pro- mamed imconquercd by the French,
\mce, and looked on his govern- that in 1753, he had reco\«ered, and .
raent as an heril:»^ to his family, was master of almost the whole Car-
Scarce any more ot the annual sums, nattc ; and at that time the French
before paid by them to the Mogul, resources seemed nearly exhausted,
were sent to court; and to maintain ''The French company, elated with
themselves in the'u" sovereignty, they the success which attended Mons.
Jevied forces far beyond what the or- Dupleix, in the comi^encement of
dinary revenues wpuld maintain, the war at first, iiilntly approved his
FVom hence oppressions became ne- measuiies ; but the opposition of the
oessary, and in their turn, the £u- other European powers, the unfore-
ropeons were cnmress^, not only in seen events of war, and the deviating
their trade, bat large sums were ex- so widely froip their natural object of
torted6x»nthetn, by violence. Mftns. commerce, rendering the event very
Slkpkfa^ the governor of Pondicherry, uncertain, there was nothing could
vas the first who took the alarm, and ^^ their faidi in tbe rectitude of those
yu the first who discovered the su- measures, but successes that might
Krkdty of European discipline, and attend them, and a happy period to
bom hence ^vas led into the idea of the war. which Mons. Dupleix pro-
^oiring a territorial sovereignty in mised them in every letter. But in*
Ifioia, stead'of these successes, they saw the

*' It is probable he at first extended countries, of which they expected the
U% views no &rther than a district revenues would b^ their reward, in
round I'ondicherry ; but when once tbe hands of their enemies; and their
engaged in the politks of the country, stock esihausting in the support of an
liis success sp far sufi^ssed his ex- uncertain ^'ar, ^-hich ruined tlieir
pectations, and opentdTsQch ascend of trade, and the manuf<iCtories of their
power to him, that fie disdained the country, from which they had bc^for^}
tiarrow limits be might at first pre- reaped advantages suitable to their
scribe to himself; and no doubt but establishments,
they were enlarged not only to the " Th^ war appeared in the same
coiuineht of the Carnatic, but to the light to the* English <ioropany j and
^tirpatlon of all otber European na- theiefore, both agreed on a neutrality
libnu, and even to the reduction of for theCarnatic, till means should he
the whole Mogul empire, and to n»ake found to put an end to that and all
It s dependant statp on the crown of future ^'ars, by n^gocintions at home,
fouice- ... But^ regarded the Cariiatic only.

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2i& TMgM0fhrmer:

it did not eheek the pragrass of the
French arms in theDeocan, the soubah
of which had ceded to them Massuli-
p^tam, and fbar provinces, which
yielded them a revenue of 400>000i.
sterling a-year. Nor did there ap-
pear any check to their progress m
that countty j the French gave Jaw,
by their inflnenceovet the soubah,
to a country as extensive and populous
as France ; and by a pmdcnt manage-
roent of what they had so acquired,
or by increase of dominion, it was in
their power even then to have Jaid a
foundation on which M. Dupleix's
great ideas of cdnquest might have
been realized. And although the
French company themselves should
have chosen to adhere to their opm-
mercial interests, Dupleix's projects
suited too well with that spirit oi con-
quest which prevails in the Fraich
court, to be n^lected; and upon the
breaking out ofthe war, it is reason-
able to conclude, from the forces sent
out under General Lally, that they
adopted them in their utmost extent.
Our settlements were but a secondary
object ; their forces were so formida-
ble, that tney with great probability,
ipDagined them a trifling obstacle
(which surmounted) Cape Comorin,
and the Ganges miffht have been the
boundaries of their dominions.''

Hf tpicere exemplar, vite monunque ^-

pectum imititoreiD, et vens huic duces



TH£ stupendous, title you have
chosen for your lucubrations, gives
me a hope that the subject of my let-
ter will meet alike with your repro-
bation and reform. Although I am
one of Ihose who are firmly of o{Mnioi&,
that the more speculatively refined the
world is grown, the progress of cor-
ruption, or (if you please it) vice, is
by so much the more extensive, yet
I naean to expatiate upon one particu-
lar foUy, wDich may even yet be
amended,, but from a thousand acci-
dents to which " flesh is heir to,"
cannot be totally done away 5 I mean
that egregious insanity of people bring*
ivg up their cliildren witooiU any cer-

tain means of aequufng flieir livdf« -
hood, when lefl to themself«s, h|f
death, or any other misfortune,

Quaeque ipse missenrima vidi
Et quomm pars magna hi.

It will readily be understood, thai

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