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a thousandxrircumstances intervene to
render abortive, the wisest and best
plans i but I mean those who, from
some adventitious cleverness or smart-
ncbS, are trained up with the idea of
something very great happening to
them i aiKl who rancy the seals, or a
mitre, dancing in their reveries' of
splendour and magnificence, setting
aside the numerous tribe who are
supposed to possess talents without
havmg received any firom nature ; but
of whom I do not mtend to speak.

Doctor Johnson has said, that tho
best books have been written in want.
In deference to so great ;^n authoritv.
I humbly imagine, that tbe wond
could amply dispense with half the
volumes we fina in the library, so to
as genius goes , and I do not leam
that Otway's Orphan ever yet ina-
proved any bodv*s morals, or that any
one condescends to read the Panther
andHindofDryden. That want niay
stimulate a weax to unconuuoo exer-
tions, is not to be denied; but she
was not the companion of a Pope ikor
a Gibbon, together with a whole host
of others. There certainly ever will
be productions firom the necessity o£
the moment, according to the ntodi-
cal expression, pro re nata. Let^uf
cease to expatiate upon evils that cer-
tainlv must happen ; but if I can make
one honest cobler out of the embryos
of a drunken author, (of whatever
geniusV my end is answered-

Without ascribing to myself any
particular prc^ieocy, I thmk I am
perfectly qualified to speak on this
subject, from the whole tenor of my
li£^. At the same time, Mr. Re-
former, I must infi>rm you, that my
greatest . mistbrtune throughout the
period of my existence, has been my
being imagined always too clever.
From hence has arisen that nuserable
concatenation of disasters, which have
invariably tormented, ackd has raised
such a host of diificultiea about a^,
as will in^ibly overwhelm me. f
do n,ot by this mean to give you a
dull history of my life, nor wisl^ to
gain jour pity; all, as I'said bdm^

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The B^bmir. 2%%

vti to \nkKSb some bodv to make Yey of lies and deoeotion \ but in this
Ibeir child an honsit tnKuaman> in- employment^ my nealth soon began

itBadofastalriog gentleman. to oe impaired ^ my spirits flagged.

The yoath of most men pto alike x and I had recourse to the never-tail-
Ibrwardboyi are imagimed clever, and ing asylum of men in want— I turned
thooghtfiil ones are supposed to be my thoughts towards tlie arm^. It
sitipid. You will readily soppose I being then war-time, I found little or
was among the former ; and the fore- no difficulty in acquiring a coxnmis*
most of Uie former was I in. every sion in the only scientinc regiment
remect. then in the service, I meaa the ar-

Tnuning np m a liberal style with- tillenr. Here I expected to tread (if
out a penny or prospect, I ran through not the mostdassic ground) at least
my studies with loconoeivable ala- that path .which is algebraically laid
cntv, and ^though nay mother sdnt- out ; and that my steps should be in-
ed herself to supply my wants, (I variably guided by the doctrine of
had lost my fother when I was ve^ projectiles. But, would you believe
young) she beard such flattering re- it^ Mr. Reformer ! I protest I found
parts of my progress, as to.induce her as great ignarwnus€i aa in any other
to imagine xne already in possession widk in life, and a set of men who
af the seals, and those self-depriva- had read the ascribed works of Aris-
tkais gave no pain. She died soon t«de iaifiniiely oflener than those of
after, and I burst out at once a meteor Antoni. The want of a sufficient
on the worki,with-nittety-five pounds number to choose from» is one prii>-
in my podset, but with tinch a store cipal cause of this defieiencv of scien-

of acoampliafaments as could not fail tine men ; and a quick* and honorary

to rcndrr the whole, world subservient method of rewarding such as distin*

(mmyopinton) tomy beck, and obedi- guished themselves, since promotion

enttonjcaU. Ihastenedtothatmmg would not do, as the whole regimen^

laan's heaven^ London, the theatre pnxseddsbycradalion. My being or-

cf every tking great and every thing oered off to Scotland very shortly af-

in&moiis ; ut^ nere. Sir, I first met ter my inaugnration into this corps of

with a disappointment, severe indeed^ i«mui«l», gave roe some hopes ot

fsrticularly to a person Who had been emancipatix^ myself from the shacklea

led to expect that everyone would be ofdifficultiesmtowhichlhadimxnerg-

leaiy to bear witness to his convivial ed myself ; but at the same timellost

powen, hts talents for argument, and every opportunity of making myself

«Ktentofii2formation; erefyonedtd known to higher powers, and some

ample justice to my abilities, but left how or other, I found my soci^ af-

me to seek ap(^uae by myaelf, end- ter the iirstyear grow very contracted.

inc dieir remarks ^ith this comfort- My military society was preUy much

abte assurance, that I could not want the same, composed for the most part

ttoploymeot, I was ao very clever. of foolsj consisting chiefly oi tenable

This was certainly a change to me; c^licers^ who were either taken from

Aom having been tne oUeet of court the plough tail, or from behind the

wKle at coD^ge, so suddenly to have counter. You will not wonder that

it chaiged to a kind of dignified soti- I should prefer myself to these '< sons

tude, a kind of armed neutrally, of dbe earth,*' and that I should hold

iefr to indulge myself with my own myself considerably aloof from such

marks, and no (^position, no charm- company ^ but wliether it was the ex-

iag<^pQsition, to render my life com- dusire affection that reigns thix»ugb«

&HlahIe. In short, I had met with out Scotland for their own country,

several before whom my powers of to the utter rejection of ^very one

•flKumeat were <}uickly dispelled, my else, (and particularly Irishmen; save

wd of information equalled, and my a g[reat man, I do not know, but here

jileoto in repartee, if not excelled, at I found a number of hours hang hea-

least bluntea so, that I had not spirits vy on my hands, whilst the ufitotored

to advance them but in self-defence, cubs were revelling in every social en-

My money was gone long before joyment, which that place afforded. I

*««, -and Ibad been obliged for sub- cannot think that there was any want

>utflnce, to exert myself, in some of of sociality in me, and I have reason to

uKwe d^y papers, whidi are a med- believe that my person was juot so

Gg a joogie

Sad The lUformer*

jntolerablfr; but cerfailn It wto, my so* racteristic \ it iroie from my bei«g
fitarv hours far exceeded my mom«flitji early initiated into advernty, and be*
of society, and I iiad ample leisure to ing, when very yoang, the sport s^id
tmniBate upon the cleverness which pr^ cf designing men : how tmich
they univenaUv ascribed to me. Not* this would have been avoided, had my
'vntAStahdinff this solitude^ 1 possessed early youth been bred up to work at
a certain pnde, ot rather folly, which some tiUde, or have followed em^
led me iftto numerous extravagancies, ploj-ment in a counting-house, I leave
"Which had no excuse in nature, and you to judge: my time would have
whioli were ultimately ihy ruin $ place oeeii occupied, and instead of dancing
it to my wishing to outdo my co- attendance at a great man*8 gate, i
equals in lostre, and to eclipse them might this day be turning over the
personally as well as mentally, if you leaves that might bring tne countless
please, but certaiti is was, I ran a thousands. I remember a school-boy
career pf the most heedless profusion, who was ahva3rs opposed to me^ and
which in the end crushed me. After who, on account ot tiis stnpidity, was
sojourning in Scotland (that seat of always the butt Of my ridicule, now
the arts) for 7 years, (another trans* annnallv in the receipt of thousands,
portatibn !) I was obliged to throw and I snould be very dad if he would
up my commission, aiid betake my- ask me to dinner. The life of a sol-
self once more to my wits:, dmsiiul dier dves rise to any other passion
the ephemeron of the day ! ' ' but that of diligence, and although

That the motive which Induced me iheyhave (in tnis country at least)
to launch out into that scene of dis- more time upon their hands than
sxnated extravagance, did not partake tliey know what to do with, yet they
of the amiable, 1 am ready to ac- employ that frequently to the worst
knowledge: it was evidently to raise ofpurpwes. It was not to besup-
tlie envy of my companions , and posed that I could reap much advan*
must sooner or later end in their dis- tage in that line ; and indeed I seldom
gust or dislike. It is no excuse to say or ever read any thing that could fhr*
that they were worthless ; . for, as to thcr me in my pr<^es4oii. Unl^s a
be the object of hatred and indirna* person be brought up with a certainty
tidh, gives more real pain thin allthe of a fortune, I am convinced that some
evils which any brave man can nos- certain occupation should be found
sibly fear from his enemies ; so tnere for him, independently of the learned
is a secret satisfaction in being he- professions ; hy these means he will
loved, and thought well of, whidi, nave something to recur to, and pre-'
to any person of delicacy, anyone vent his becoming afterwards a onr-
* of sensibility, is of infinitely more then to himself or his friends : the
consequential impcnrtance to happi- return to diligence is the hardest
ness, than all the advantage he can effort that the human mind is capable
ever hope to derive from it. It is of making, and the uncertainty otem-
from this considefation that we begin ploj'ment renders evei?y step more
to discern between the social and un- difficult and laborious: for to use the
social passions : while every thing wotds of an agreeable novelist, " it
amiable emanates from the one, and is as unpleasant to be alone in the
as disagreeable arises from the other ; midst ot the desarts of Arabia, as to
the open animating glow of couli- be in the middle of Leadenhall mar-
dence, opposed to Uie chilling, refri- ket without six-pmce in your pock-
gerating cool of suspicion : the one et :"— not to mention the want of an
the effect of ingenuous namre-— accurate estimation of our own ta-

~i- arte, natiira potentior omni, 'f^^' ^*"<* (^« w« seldom under^rata
Esldeus in nobis, agitante calesciihus ^^V^) ^ *^ ""^^ commonly given
illo, to thmk very extensive, ready to over-

♦k^ ^iu^^ *u^ ^-^.^ r L ^"*® ^"y uifficulty, and capal^ of

trinsic pacificator of the passions, I — I — iEstuat Ingens

attribute that sullen sang froid and ^^^ ^ ?^"1® pudor^ luctosque, ft
kauteur which is so mudi my dm* conscia virtu^^

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An Jcctmnt of Mr.

w'lQ be of noii«i art must be allied
bjr art^smd every eiiiMrt strengthened
with magDanlmity and resohitLoii.

Thui, Sir, from the first period
iince my animal life has ceased, I
have been the sport of fortune, and a
tmtt for the shafts of disappointment $

TtfuMts Life Boat. ' 2^9

there is no prospect 4»pto for me ; aU
is gloomy and comfortless; and al*
though the pleasures of this life are
but few, I am sorry to be obliged to
confess that I have not learned to bear
their Iocs without regret.


HOPE Life-boat, by Christopher

OUR readers in general, wjU doubt-
less be pleased to nnd the subjoined
d^cxiption of a newl3r invented Lii'e
Boat, accompanied with an engraved
rqniesentation in wood, constructed
by Mr- C. Towill, of Teignmouth,
in Devonshire^ This has been sent
to us for the perusal of our subscribers,
m consequence of a recent application
made to that ingenious mechanist,
txpresily for the purpose, by the
Editors of the Universal Maffas^ine,
yho wish at all times, to furnisn every
infomiation in their power that may
oooduce to serve the purposes of pub-
lic instruction, utility 3 knowledge and

To the Editor of Ike Universal Mag,
rr affords me great satisfaction that
I have now an opportunity of meeting
yoor request relative to my life-boat—-
and I shall accordingly proceed to
coi^manicate to you a short descrip-
tion of her.

Her length is 30 feet, her breadth
lOi aad d%h 3 fbe^ 6 mchjes. The

Towill J with a Si:ale often Feet,

space between her timbers is fitted
up with pine wood ; tliis is done with
a view to nrevent the water lodging
there. Tiie puiewood is boiled over,
well caulked and paid. — ^Between the
cases are Norwegian baulks, bolted
to the bottom, engrafted t6 each other
by iron clamps and decked over.
The deptli of her keel is about 9 Ln*
ches beiow the ^board stroke — ^the
dead rising is 4 inches. Her keel is
narrow at the under part* and^ wide
above, for the purpose of giving the
timber a good bed, which will sup-
port the bolts, in case a necessity
should arise to encounter sand-ban k^«

In sailing over a bar, or in places
where the water is shallow, the rud-
der will, with ease, draw up even
with the keel, and when ia deep
water, it will let down, instantly, and
with equal facility, a toot below it—
in consecpienoe of which 'advantage,
the bottt is fouiid to steer remarkauly

She is buoyed up by 8 metsi r'aaes,
4 on each sloe ; these are water-tight.^

Ertrmi9jrom m LUerary C&mwun-pUice SooL


aod iadependeiit one of dnodier.
Tljey will irerve to buoy up 6 font ;—
but I hud thsK all the buoyant pans of
the boat^ Uken c<^lectiveiy, will buoy
«p more Chan 8 tons.— The cases are
securely decked over, and boarded by
the sides with pine. 1 here is a scuttle
to each case to put goods in ; the edges
are Uned with haize -, and over each
scuttle, in the case, is one of wood, of
alai^er size> the mai^in of which is
lined in the same manner, to exclude
the water. The room of the boat is
10 fret wide, 6 long, and 4 feet deep,
in Which women, children and dis-
abled persons may be put. It is aai«-
ply supplied with air, by means of 2
copper ventilators. There are, naore-
over, two grapnels, very proper to be
thrown on board a wreck, to ride by.
— The grapnel ropes will assist tne
suiferers to remove and escape from
the wreck to the boat.

Should any of the crew unfortu-
nately be washed overboard, there are
se\'en life lines attachedto each side of
the boat. The ends iu the water are,
moreover, floated with cork, on
which the men may lay hold befone
they can foe taken into the boat. She
is,nikewise, equipped with mast and
sails, and is as manageable with them
as any boat of her dimensions can
posMbly be.

In a tenmest, however, she most
be(lisnuu)tred,and rowed by fourteen
men, with oars 1 6 feet lone, double
bankecL llie men are alT fastened
to tiie tiiwarts, and cannot be remov-
ed from their seats. In the most
wiid and tempestuous aeas, which
break in o\'er her bows, tlie water is
immediately seen to nm out at her
•tern, so that it is naturally impos-
sible for the boattosinkortobe water
lodged — aiul I will further venture to
assert, that every part of her media-
JiiMii is as simple as simplicity itself.

I lately sailed in her, with great se-
curity, Irom Teignmouth to Wey-
luouth, during which voyage her
stern ports were oonthmally open—
* and I aai given to understand, by the
best maritime and mechanical judges,
in oonfii tnatioii of my own opinion,
that this boat ma\' salely bkl defiance
to any sea^ it uifl, therefore, amply
tuihl my wishes, in preserWfig tSie
lives of my fellow-creatures.

I siiati conclude this letter, by bold-
ly advAAcing, that the pri p ci p Us wlMck

have given rise to tbiaboatare ftfaaert
if not altogether new, to tJbe best eC
my knowfedge. They orisioalied in
shipwreck,' aod with the Dorrors of
death aiouod me. I «n, Sir»

Your cA>edient Serratnt^
CHiiisToi>iiKB To«ruuftk*
Tet^nmauth, Aug. ]4»1805.


THERE is no passsm in atny an-
cient author which hath more exer-
cised the^agacit; of the most learned
and ingenious critics, than two lines
of Anstotle's Poetics ; which liDca
form the concluding part of a sentenoe
in that profound and daborate worfc^
and contain Aristotle's definiticm of
the proper end and aim of Tragedy.
That part of the definitioa \rhich is
here alluded to, is expressed in the
following words : 2i« fXi« mm* ^oC* «ff«»

vaMwnnr rm rai wrm m^^ft-^new w^mfnr-^

which, as Victorius has rendered it, at
hb Latin translation, runs thus: Per
miseriantUam et meium cm^fUiau^
hujusmot& periurhatianum purgad*
miem; or, according to the learned
Dacier's^* translation in the Freodi
language, TragBdie,par dmmf^m de
la ierreur etde la compas^om, acjuvt
de purger en nnus ces sortesde pasHmu^
ei twites les autres serhbMles^ Now ^
the difficulty n to exf^ain in "wisat
manner tragedy, bycxdtingActwo
passions of terrcn: and inXv, at tbe
same time rtfinn and purifies thenu
Bacier and thi Bos have aisued %'efy
largely on this doctrine of the ptuga*'
tion of pity, terror, and other nas-
f ions, by tlie means of exciting these
same pas^ons in tragedy ; a ducCrine,
however, which the great Coniellle,
although he never attempted to call
in question tbe schdastic interpreta-
tion of these words of Aristotle, had
yet good sense enou^, and was sola-
genuous, as frailly to declare that he
could not comprehend. Now, after
all Uie michty pauns and embaxrassing
labours, which the numerous critics^
commentators, and poets havetskca,
in order to prove and illustrate tfaii i
same notion of the purgation of the
passions by trsnedy, and altfaoaj^tiie
Abb6 Du Bos roundly assert^
Que Von a dit dans Utut tes iarmSf
igut kt Tragedie pargeoii ks possums
'- that the power of trdigedy^ in

Extracts fnm a'LU&tan^ Common''plaee BooL 331

jmr^itif tbe passions, hat been iD»n- This interpretation of a very impor-^

taintdinall aces, as an expression pro^ tant passage, is not merely to be coiW

per to be tised; - ^it may be venr sakikj sideied as an ingenious efibrt of ver-

pfooeonqed and asserted, on tne con- bal criticism, but it is supported and

traj, that Aristotle at least never confirmed by the dictates of commoa

ssklso, neither b there the snoallest sense, by tbe fidelity of tramlatioa, by

fbondation for inoa^ing that such the rules of j^anunar, and bv the

was Arifltotle^s meaning or intention, justice of criticism. To conclude :

On the contrary, the whole of this Aristotle's definition, at large, runs

necioDS fency may be justly const- exactly in the ibllowing words :

ored as nochiw more tnan a facti- £<y?iiiawrp<iY(»)ui/4i^wi«M«9iMmS«i«fiMM.

tktts d>imspra m the modems, which «xi*«. fM*ftBo< tx,*^*> ■ndw/w-w** xo^m. jf^t

has arisen and been pioduced firom a !X*^» ^^ ''^ "^ rott ,*^nn ifmrrm, *m •

tstal misconception, and mistraiisla- *' «*y^«^«. ^^' •^- ica» ^C« «^«w«i

tioii of tins 9o much studied passage : '*'- j-»»~»i-« «»«WT«y ««0o.»«v. llns

i«f»t,it should seem that tllTciitics f^^lf'^^t' '^ ,^^^^^^^ 'fl^^ ^^^^^l;

hat not given themselves the trouble ^J ^^ Uberally, as school-boys wcidd

toeoqairl thoroughly into thA origin, ?xP,^^ss it, m jonuing their lessens, it

i«ttc?«inieani^^^ is plain, would run thus : '^Tra-edy.

tkr taken it upoutrust. To come to therefore, is the imitation of h serious
tfce point lithe Greek sentences and enure action, having due great-
dnuc above quoted, the three last ness[* by pleiisurabie language, each
words havobceii each of them ahoge- «f ^^^^ ^^'^^ f^»f separately, in
ther misconstrued. For T«.i.r« dSes thea mrts] and endeavouring to ef-
Mt.mfertothe preceding. words, .x.. f^^t t&e removal of the like calami-
« poC ; nor d<is «ftn^r«, properly »^«;^5 ^>' ^^^^^lon, but by pity and

mean fas^om ; i^or j^fio^^, a p^ terror,

n/Sca/«m or re^RfiTieff/, as have been n -a- -

cnideDdy believed. ThemUtaking , i -^^ .u *^"?' i

rfthejust^significatwn of tbe warS > Icammg the Hebrew kngua^,

^djn^ au^rs to have drawn in ^^^ ^/^ paraOigm con^monly i^eceived

S^jwithTui of the,other *^ ?^^^"^V "^ ^^ example in the iyr^

hiFrwoids. Tbetranslaton^liavenot ^''^'^'^ of declining Hebiew verbs,

attended to thedistinctivepropriety of appears to have been .jrE>, as we may

I thalaqgnage, in the different accepta- reasonably gatlier trom the names of

riioB ofthe two words tir«G<K and wtf^nAwc. most of the voices, such as Nipha),

Ibe WQid which Aristotle uniformly ^^^^1* Puhal, &c.— but tiiis being evi-

ws toexpresa the passions, is «a9«i and <ieii tly improper, inasmuch as the mid-

by«tA»A*-«i is always lueant, not the die radicallelter,wliich is a guttural one

pwions of the human soul , bnt suffer^ will not admit ot a dasiesk farte, which

v^s or calamities ; this may be satis- ^t ought to do, in oiMer to distinguish

fectDrily proved by various quorations properly the two voices, Pihel and

fiwn Herodotus, Thucydides, Diony- Puhal, another example has been

MS ofHaKcarnassns,and indeed .1^ the chosen, and has come into vogue, of

CQQMant Qs^e of all the principal ^^ years, as more unexceptionable,

Gifeek wtitCTB. The proper sense, via. ^p^ ; but as this admits of a tla"

timefoie, of these words of Aristotle, gesh lene'm its first radical, I hove

waceming the rational object or end pitched upon -ro^ as being much bet-

of tragedy, is simply this, that • it ter adapted to the purpose of exempli-

pitposes to effect the removal of such fying a general paradigm of perfect

qfaiPities out of human life, by Hewrew verbs.

noBiis of exdting- the passions of pity '

and terror. And thus it will appear, . Burntt.

that Axffitotle has, in as plain and pre- Burnet has been censured for the
one words as the Greek language seemingly coruemptuons term. On^
woldpossibly have enabled hira to Prior; but perhaps this mode of
do, defined that to be tbe natural end expression might, in past years,
•a aim of tragedy, which every judi- *

! cwwtnd sensible person will readily • The two clauses contained between
^■Wgh admit it to be, viz. to deduce crotchets, relate niereh^ to the form of
^drmif a moral iroiH an $xample, the ancient Greek Tragedy.

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51^^ Sakcfthe LeveridnMMsemn.:

bave bo^e a dHTerent acceptation, anexpenceof neariy fifty (hooiand'
Over one ofthe entrances of Thorn- pounds, by the late Mr. Lever,
bury Castle, is an inscription of this afterwards Str Ashton Lever, at hit
import; seat at Alkington, In Lancasbire^

** This gate "was begun in the ycre of from vhonce it was remo^'ed to Lei-
our Lord Gode mcccccxi, the 11th cester' house, London: and that Sic
vereoftheRyni^ of Kynge Hcnrie the Ashton, finding himself particularly
Vll1,byi>n^ Edward Duk Of Quk- embarrassed in his circumstances, ap-
kingham, &c. &C;" plied to parliament, in the year 1/84,

— and had leave granted him to dispose

To Ike Editor of' the Unwersal Mag. oftlie whole collection in one lot, by

\ . SIX, public lottery, in 36,000 tickets^t one

I have no doubt, that as a man of guinea each, of which only 8,000
public spiritand a Briton, you will re- were sold. It was Mr. PancixisQD's
gret with'mysell, to learn, that the good fortune to obtain the possession
▼er]r noble and justly celebrated col- of it, he being the.holder of t^o tkrk-
leetion of natural and artificial curi- ets j and he has continuaUj been add-
«s!ties called the Leverian Museum, ingto its value by subsequent colkc-
is at length advertised for sale, by tions, and by erecting a building for
public auction. its reception, upon a plan best adapted

This j^useura has hcen justly con- for displaying such an important depo-
sideredas an honour to the British sit to the greatest advantage; which
Nation -, and it would be a subject of building stands on the Surrey side of
deep regrei to every liberal-minded Black Friar'a Bridge,
person, to see its principal beauties go ^ Virtuoso.'

to enrich the cabinets of our national —

enemies, and rivals. It is to be hoped. To the Editor of the Umpersal Mag^
therefore, that the accustomed spirit Sik,

and enterprize of our countr}Tnen, so IN answer to Lancasterensis' cn-
loudabiy exerted on every national oc- quu-iea (see Vol. III. page 494) I beg
casion, will prevent such a fatal loss, leave to state, that the author of the
and not subject us to the disappoint- Lancashit]p Dialect was John and not
ment experienced by the king of Joseph Collyer. This comical and tnilf
Sweden, when he found that the Lin- original genius was bdrn at Harrison s

Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 41 of 108)