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n*an collection had l)een consigned. Fold, near Warrington. His father
and l.iut set sail for this country j to was a clergyman, who hawng only a
prevent which he actually dispatched small curacy, became a schoounasier,
'a ship in pursuit of the ves5^e) contain- and continued to teach for many
in^ that collection, with orders to years. The joint income of the two
bring it back, his subjects not having pursuits enabled lum to. bring up a
shown suffidlbnt spirit to prevent the large family in a respectable manner,
purchase and consequent removal but unfortunately losing his sigiit
of it about the fortieth year of bis age, the

It will be recollected by manv of intention which ne had formed of
your reatUTs ,that this collection, wh ich bringing up his son Jdm to the church
js by tar tlie completest and most in- was frustrated, and ^ youth was K-
terestiug in the * world, was made at cordingly appren'* -"to a Dutch-
loom weaver, a^ h business he

♦ Mr. Tiiomas Tennant stated to was employed twelve months,

the Hon. the Committee of the House but disliking ^tary an occupa-

of Commons, that he hail inspected all lion, he prevj*. . upon his master to
thepubUc and private cabineu ol curi- release him, whcjt he coounenced an
ositics in Holland, Franc^ and Portu- itinerant scliocA-master, and after-
^1, those of Brussels, Dresden, Bruns- wards became assistant to Mr. Pearson
wick, and Vienna, and that not one of of Milnrow, uearllochda|e,whomhe
those foreign colUctions could sustain a

comparison widi Sir Ashton Lever's, other. This M'as also the opinion of
'The late SU William Hamilton, who the late Baron Dimsdalc. That giwt
hail examined the curiosities nl" Maple*?, naturalist, the late Mr. Pem^ant^ pK>*
luily, Sicily, &e. prefifvs those contain- nounced it a a matchless cbllec.wn..
ed iu iheXeveriau -Mu^um, to aiiy Mr» John Church valued ii at 53,CXikO^

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Some Account cfihe Author 0/ the Lantmhire Dialect: 233

•bo succeeded as master of the into which he was sure to blend some
ac&x)]. In his leisure hours he prac- striking features, the creation of his
tised himself in music and drawing, own fancy, and which were sure to
and soon became such a proficient, as excife surprise and risibility in the
to be capable 'of giving instruction to beholder — ^the large demands made-
others. On the hautboy and common upon him for these pieced, and the
flute he was supposed to excel most encouragenient he met With trom the ^
provincial performers. He likewise purchasers, has often induced him to
drew landscapes in a supewor stvle, say, that if ever Pro\'idence meant
and attempted some heaas in profile 5 him to be a rich man, this would
but his natural comic humour led him have beett the time, esuecially if she
to slight the painting of faces, unless had furnished him witn two pair of
be wa» permitted to give them a (Jash hands instead of one ; but the idea of
at the caricature. In the latter waj laying up a store ne\'er entered poor
be employed no small portion of his Tina's head — a. cheerful glass and a
time to a very good account, sending social companion were temptations
his pieces when finished to the differ- not to be resisted.
em inns in the neighbourinjg towns. His Vievir of the Lancashire Di^-
wilh the prices afued to triiem, and lect, in t!he adventures of a Lancashire
the landlords becoming his agents 5 clown, formed from some rustic
these were l)ought up with extreme sports and gambols, and whimsical
avidity by riders and others who ire- modes of clreuiating mirth ahdmerri-
^nted that country 5 tod orders ment, at the expence of silly Tony
u-ere sent to him from Liverpopl and Lumpkins, amdngst tlie then cheery
other places ; and many of his most gentlemen of that peculiar neighbour-
curious groups were sent on specu- hood; was drawn byJiim, after having"
latioa abroad, partioiiarly to the^East collected from the rustics during his
Indies. Early in life he discovered excursions, all the awkward, vulgar,
some talent for poetry, or rather an obsolete, words and local expressions,
easy habit for numourous rhyme, which ever occurred to him, of which
in which he was sure to attack ^e formed a glossary or vocabulary.
in every particularly absurd or ec- The rapid sale of this work soon re-
centnc character. The first regular quired a' second edition 3 and much to
poetic composition which he publish- ^is vexation, one or two pirated edi-
ed was, the Blacklirdy containing tions appeared, which made him^ex-
t spirited and sarcastic ridicule upon claim violently against the printers, '
a Lancakfkire justice of the peace, ^"d declare, there was not an honest
morereniarkable for political zeal and ?ian amongst them j and afterwards,
ilkimed loyalty, than for good sense, »" his prefece, to lash them with his
judgment or discretion. , keen, sarcastic pen, and .which also

• His wife, or as he was used to term contained some smart lashes upon th©
ber, his crooked; rib, was the daiigh- reviewers. -

ofa Mr. Clav ojfFlocton, near Hud- .The above-named performances,
4pnfeld, ana proved herselt' a vir- lii? drawings, caricatures, and sritires^
toons, discreet, prudent, sensible, spread his name through Lrincashire,
Woman, a good wire, and an excellent Yorkshire and Cheshire. His pecu-
toother ofa lai^ge ana almost annually liar vein of pleasantry in his hour^of
increasing family. I'he increasing relaxation,^ induced many gentlemen
^ttnand upon bis industry, in Conse- when in tiie neighbourhood to send
^icnce thereof, obliged him to relin- for him to an Jnh, to have a personal
joish, in a great measure, his hautboy specimen of his xmcommon drolieiy j

wasnowfflled up with pamiipg altar- native, genuine, Falstaffian humour,
pieces for cha{^ , and signs for public Amon j^st m any others wli o noticed

«^^!ises— but his most profitable' pur- J^nd admired Tinii, was a Mr. Kichard

rtit was -copying dame Nature in her Hill, of Kibroid and Halifax, a con-

Jjwt grotesque sportings with the -^ iderable clothier and manufacturer of

nuna&^ce,e^pecially where she had. baizes and shalloons, who thinking

B^ pairticolany free with the visage. Collyer would be useful to him as his

. VotlV. ^ ' ^ Hh ^ .

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ta4 On /Atf Sdena of Defence Jor ike Sword and BrnfonH.

toriDcipal clerk in business, from his* the humble village of Milnrow, bi|k
being remarkably ready inaccouuu, that he would use additional diligence
aiid writing a most beautitul stiidll with his pencil^ brush and pen> to
hand in any kind of lypcj esiM^cially make up the dehciency in his lamily's
in imitation of printcu cliaracters, income. This resolutipu he strictly
after Fc>eral fruitless attempts, at last, adhered to, and the inns of Rochdald
by offers of an extravagant salary, and Littleborough \\ ere soon eiiliven-
prevailed upon Mr. Co)iyer te enter cd and ornamented with a dl«play of
nito articles of service for three vears ugly grinning old fellows, and mumb-
certain, and to take his family to ling old women on brcK;ip:>ticks, &:c.
Kibroid j but the confinement which His Remarks on Mr. Whittakcr's
be found his pew situation subjected Histonr of Manchester, in two parts,
tim to, by no means suited his vola- was, I believe, his last literary pro-
file disDosiiion ; he very soon repent- duction, in which there appears a
^ of nis agreement — the secei>sion ^ery large share of his usual acumen,
from his former habits of relaxation He died at the age of near eighty
preyed upon his spirits, joviality and years, in possession of his mental
jocularity Hed from his presence, and powers, which were but little impair-
ne sighed after his old school, his old ed, and his eyes not so much injured
•eats, his old companion!)-— in fifct, to as might have been expected, Itom
be restored to his former situation, such a severe use of thetn dniing so
ll>is being made known to Mr. Hill, long a period of time. His wife died
he acquainted him, it" he found him- a few years before him. Mr. ColJver
self uneasy in the situation, he might left three sons and two daughl^^sbe«
regain his' liberty at the end of twdve hind him : the sons were ali attached
months — which arriving, Tim set ofi' to the i>allet and bnish, but in dilfer-
without tarr}'inff for to-morrow, ent branches of the mimetic art.
Hiring a large Yorkshire cart to The ibllowing whimsical Epitaph
bring away l^ and baggage, he ar- was written by and intended for him*
ri\eu by six o'clock the next morning self.-

at his own house at Mihirow. A\'hen A yard beneath this heavy stone,
arrived on the west side of Blackstone- Lies J ack-of-all-Tkades , good at none,
edge, he thought himself once more A weaver first, and then schoolouistcr,
a free man, and his heart was as light A scrivener next^— then poetaster,
as a feather. Being replaced in pos- A painter, araver, and a tiuterj

session of his former school, through And Fame dotli whisper, a C rg

the frieixiship of Richard ToN^nley, An author, can-cr, and hedge-cIark :
£i^u. (who had kq)t it vacant for him) £ whoo-who-whoo, whot wlrafoo
and replaced himself in his totteriiig wark !

elbow chair, he declared that no He's laft urn aw, to lie tih dark !
temptation of emolument or profit Your's, &c.

sliould ever induce him again to quit' Rochdale, Sep, 10, 1805. T. Si

Original criticism for September, isoj,

" NulU ncgabimus, null! diffcremus justitiam.*'

on THE 8CIP.NCE OP DEFENCE. nicntarv parts, and that the general

A^r, n. OordorCs Treatise on the instruction of the battalions becomes

Science of Defence, for the Strord easy, when the component parts are

€tid Bayonet, ^c, in dose Mlion. thus previously prejiared. His lYta-

tise, which may be termed multum m

(Continued from page 144.) parvo, consists of an IntroductiOD, .

M^ eight Sections, and an Appcndii.

f\^^ Author is unquestionably The first five Sections are appropriatoi

V-/ the first who has givi?n just to individual, andT the three ast to ihf

rules for extending this science to mode of extending tlie science to anf

battalions. He seems to think, as we number of troops,

do, that the most arduous part of the We liave furnished our readerswitll

business consists in the preparing and citations from the Introduction, &*

grounding the individuals m the eie* Section^ and Appeodix, wiuchcaao^

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Vn the Science nf Dtfenci for the Sward and BayontK • 23f

liul to uDpre<»s them with an idea of Vegctius says, that the recruits, &cf.
the diligence, sagacity, aud erudition with th'^. wicker shields, and clubs
of' the author, -however short and im- twice as heavy as the real publie
perfect his description of the arm shields and swords used against th«

most be considered. . enemy, exercised against the post as .

. In the second Section, he gives an against an enemy, " ut nunc quasi
idea of the Roman practice of in- caput aut faciem peteret, nunc a la^
stracting recruits to cut and thrust, teribus minaietur, interdum content-
according to mathematical principles, deret poplites et crura succidere, ac«
the Jaws G/i motion, and the powers cederet, recederet, assultaret insiliret,
» pf the^lever. et quasi presentem ttdversarium, sic

" Previously to the attempt of ex- palum omni impetu, omni bellandi
iilaining the Roman practice, it may not arte tentaret, &c.'* ** The recruit
Le irrelevant to s4ate what Vegetius says wou)d one time strike, as it were, at
generally regarding it, in the 1 1 th and the head and face ; now he would
}2th chapters of his Ist book. The, menace the sides ; at times he would
purport et the Uth chapter is, ** that exert to cut under at the hams and
the recruits were exercised twice a day, legs j he would advance, retire, as?
everv' morning and evening, vi'ith anus sault, and leap in'upon, and exert all
pf double the weight of such as were his force in assaulting the post, l^ all
used in redJ action ; that every soldier the rules of war, as if it had been an
and gladiator, who liad acquired glory, enemy opposed," &c.
either in the field or upon the arena. Major Gordon's word^ are, that
had been in the habit of exercising, they were taught to sti ike at tji«
thus heavily armed : that after beins head, sides, ana arm.s, and lie makes
drilled in ihe attitudes by a master, and no mention of the hams and legs, for
instructed to make the most forcible the reason which we collect from h\M
cuts, (which, according to gravity* arc fifth Section^ and Plate XI. ^hich
vertical) they were practiced also in demonstrates (he absurdity and im*>
cutting at a posi six feet high : that minent danger to the person who cuts
there was a post appropriated for every low, at the legs or even thighs of tl)#
soldier; that they were taught how to adversary: he therefore omits *' inter-
strike at the head, sides, and anns; how dum conteiKlerit poplites et cruA^suc*
to advance,, * by throwing the centre of cidere.** Vegetius says, accedertit, rtce^
mvity dextrously forward upon one deret, agsultarei, &c. tliat is, that thd
ie^' and to retire, ' by throwing the recruit would advance, retire, assault,
wdght of tlie body backwards/' &c. but does not specify how. Our

We are of opinion, that Major author supplies the delect, by briefly
Gordon beinj^ determiiied to gi'ound saying, " that he was to throw th«
his system ot euttinff on that of tlie centre of gravity of his body dex*
Homans, shews much taste and judg- trously forward, upon one leg in ad« «
inent m omitting what he conceiv^ vancing,'' and ^' tliat he was to retire,
impertinent, and in superadding what by throwing the weight of the body
seemed to him pertinent to his pur- backwards." This is advancing lik«
pose. For example, Vegetius does a swordsman.

not in tlm Uth cliapter say that the ** 'JTliey were thus critically ins traded
recruits were previously drilled by a in a mode of fighting, whiclv they did
master in tliQ attitudes, and instruct- not practice for the reasons which he
ed to make vertical cuts; nor does states in the 12th, Chapter, which it
?ny authyr, ancivfnt or modern, we translated as a gem of inestimable valuc» .
have perused, lay down any jast niles and perhaps the only passage of antiauity
or dijections for that purpo^. Major which elucidates the Roman practice/*
Gordon is, therefore, not only blame- . *' Cap. XII. Non ca.sim, scd punc-
less, but noeritorious for suggesting tim ferire docendos tirones.

fte idea, and supplying the aefect j *' Pneterea non ca?sim, sed punctim
and in this Section, he lays down a ferire discebant. Nam CfTsim pugnantes
mathematical standard, which deter- non solum facile vicertj, seu etiam de»
mmes the force and tlie disadvantage risere Romani. Ca?8a enim q^uovis im-
pf all cuts whatojever^ derived from pelu vcniat, non frec^ucntur interfecit; .
gravity. cum et anms, et ossibus vitalia def!en«

- , Hha

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73^ On-ihe Science of Defence for the Sword and BaycnJH*

dantur. At contra, puncta duas uncias
adacta mortalis est. Necesse est enim,
ut vitalia penciret quicouid immergitur.
Deinde dum cfSesa infertur, bracnium
dextrum Iatusq(lie nudatur. Puncta
autcm tccto corpore infertar, et adver-
sarium sauciatanteauamvideatur. Ideo-
<jue et dimicandum hoc praecipuc genere
USDS esse constat Romanos ; duplicis
autein ponderis ilia cratis et clava ideo
debantur, ut cum vera ct leviora tiro
arma sumpsisset, velut graviori pondere
liberatus securior alacriorque pugnaret.'*
*' Translation of Chapter XII.

•' That the Romans were instructed
to strike home with the point, and not
with the edge of the sword. Moreover,
observe tha? they learned to strike home
with the point, not with the edge of the
sword, in real action ; for the Komans
not only conquered with facility all
those who fought with the edge, but
also derided such a ridiculous practice.
For a cut, however forcibly airecled,
seldom kills, because the vitals are de-
fended by the opposition of arms, and
by the bones : whereas, on the contrary,
a slight pnck of the poin,t, penetrating
only an mch or two into the vitals, is
mortal. Again, in drawing the cut, the
right arm must be raised ; consequently
this arm and the right side are exposed
to any thrust, (if you deviate or raise
your hand out of tne line, you are un-
done) : whereas, on the contrary, the
thrust IS sent'home, whilst the body is
perfectly covered at^ the same instant ;
and it is sent with such velocity, that
the wound is infiictcd before it is possible
to see or avoid iu Such were the in-
controvertible reasons, which determined
them to use the point,- and not the edge
of the sword, in close action. They
were in the habit of using such ponder-
ous arms at exercise,' for the purpose of
doubling their dexterity and alacrity
with the light ^ms which they used in
■teal action."

Our author,* in his researches,
finding these two chapters to be the
only passages in antiquity, which give
a satisfect cry detail ot the Roman me-
thod of cutting and thrusting, adopts
and appropriates them as a basis for
the construction of his fabric of indi-
vidual defence. He promises no li-
teral translation or imitation, hut, on
the contrary, he selects, supplies, and
rejects from them.

Although he is no advocate for
^cutting, He prescribes and demon-

fitrates the rules for it in socl^ari
light, that every person not blinded
by prejudice and pre-conceived opi-
nions, must yield to the force of nis
demonstrations. All cuts should be
made as much as possible Jn con-
formity, and not in opposition to thd
laws of gravity.

'* Gravity is that uniform tendency
of bodies exerted in a perpendicular di^
recti on to the centre of the eaith: il
uniformly accelerates all motions, or
cuts vertically downwards, and retards
uniformly alf bodies projected perpen-
dicularly upwards. T|he force of any
cut from gravity, is determined by di
following well tnown proposition, viz.
•* The force of gnrvity, oy which &
body descends along an inclined plane,
is to the whole force of the gravity, with
which it falls perpendicularly, as the
height of the plane to its len^h, or at
the sine of the angle of elevation to it»
radius." This he demonstrates by a
diagram. Having thus found a matbo»
mjtical standard to determine the force
of one cut, the force of all cuts, from
gravitv, is found in the same manner.

" For example, the force from gravity
of a cut in a line or plane, ten w^rees
above the horizon, compated to any
other cut, must be as the altitudes or
elevations of the planes. Coinpare it to '
the horizontal cut. The horizontal cat
has no angle of elevation above the ho-
rizon; it coincides with the hprizoo;
therefore it is io the horizontal cut as
10 : : 0. The vertical cut, being im-
pelled hy the whole force of gravity, is
the most powerful of all powerful cuts;
if compared to any cat ten degrees dis-
tant, it is as 90 : t SO, &c. It is to
the horhsontal cut as ^0 : : O. As the
force from gravity of all cuts delivered
from points above the horizon is pre-
cisely as the altitudes of these points, or
as the iines of the angles of elevation, so
the imbecility of all cuts made from
points below the horizon, is, in pro*
portion to depression of t^se points,
below the horizon. All such, therefoit,
and particularly the cut made upwards,
in a line, from the nadir to the zen^g
should be rejected, as the most diametri-
cally opposite to the laws of gravity, and
thepractice of the Romans."

The author demonstrates here, by
the means of letters and dragniDas,
what we have attempted in general
terms without such aids.

In his third Section, he demoostiateii

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On the Science tfDejinceflr ike Sword and BayimeU

fte adrantages of ttsin| simple thnists
rather than compound, and proposes
the reduction oTall cuts and tiirusts
to two denom'mations-^uarte and

'* A simple thrust is one direct mo-
tOQ, iinpelied with such celerity as to
be finished in the least point of timie.
A complez thrust is a combination of
two or more simple motions. All cuts
are invariauiy complex. Simple ihmsts
are to be used in preferezxce to the com-
plex, as will appear from comparison,
rdats are either single or double^ but

" The single feint is the least complex
of all the compotkod thrusts; it menaces
an atta^ on one point, to cover the read
impulse intended upon another. The
French mode (which is erroneous) is as
foUows:— The point of the sword is
moved from the one side to the other, de-
aciibingaiine: it retiosprades in the same
iiae, that is, describing the base^ or the
'whole trian^e twice : 3dly, the point is
projected to fiiuish the thrusts. Tliat is,
the sin^e feint is composed of three
i^&otions, equal to the tnree sides of a
^iangje. Bat by Euclid^ 20th Prop.
iib.4, any two sides of a triangle are
greater than the third, and the three
sides are much greater ; and the times*
being, as the sgaccs described, the ve-
locities being equal, th(> of the
fingle feint is to that of th<2 :»^mpie thrift
8 : ; I ; therefore the advantage of the
simple thrust is in that proportion O. R.
D, Any further illustration of the ad-
Tantage Of the simple thrust over ciUs
and thrasUi, still more complex thm the
feint, seems to be superHuoiH, &c. &c."
The fourth SetHion, in a clear and
nervous style, details the triit? prin-
ciples of .ranking the simple thrusts
andguard&ofqunrte, tierce, &c.

According to Cicero'.s definition of
agrwit orator, or 'swordsman, as MaUjr
Gordon applies it, * Vir bonus divmdi
West) (jefhi(L\ndi^i:T\\x\ii,* ** Worth
and mtrit are the primary quail ties,
and sk'll fn the science merel)r se-
condar)'." " The detenders of the
country, adorned with the inherent
pnmnr)' qualities, will tind the science
of delence concentrated in the three
following partioularK. lit. In the
Paceful comma ml of the body and
umls, ^nd in the:5cquisi:ion and j>rac-
tioe of the ess.^ntial^ su*)sor\icnt to
Aisend. 2dly. lathe proper oppo-
titioQ of die haodj and m the appli-


cation of the firt to the foilfle. And
3dly . In the possession of the proper
line of direction." , ,

He gives directions to acquire pre-'
cision and expertness in each of these
essential points, and how to stand, ad -
vance, and retire on j^rdj which he
Cdii-s the second position.

*• The sword must not be hdd in a
line oarallel to the horizon, asL that
woula subject yoMX foible to his fortj
and much less should jrour point be
depieb:.ed below the horizon, for the
same reason; therefore it should be
.raised thirty degrees above the horizon,
and directed nearly in the line of his
eye. You cannot be too much prac-
tised in advancing, retiring, and in par-
rying simple thrusts and cuts in this at-
titude. Having completely obtained the
graceful command of your person by
this practice, you are to spring from this
into your third position, which is that
of the allouixe. Plates V. and VI. ' In
the s^'cond position you are to sink on
your knees, and to have all your powers
restrained, ami ready to be exerted : the
exertion of these powers will place yon
firmly in your tWrd po-^iiion, your teet
at right angles, 4boiU thirty-six inches
asunder. This tliird position or attitude
is termed the allonge. Although the
alloii'j^e, in due time, will be maae with
rapidity, yet you will better accomplisli
it, by en ji'avmg the ideas of tne mode
upon your mmd, one after another.
'Inus, lirst form your extension, Plate
y. Elevate your right hand iu c^uare
as high as the dicection of your left eye-
brow ; lower your point in the line of
the cvivity under your adversary's arm ;
extend your left hand and left knee;
then project the thrust, rolling your
right hand still more in quarte, or' feu-
pination ; throw forwiird your right foot
at the same instiurt, fifteen or sixteen
inches, so that your feet may be at
least thirty-six inches asunder. Practise
thus« until you acquire firmness, ease,
aiyi precision. The blades are to touch
in a point about ten inches distant from
their extremities. Tlie quarte is to be
thus delivered. Form the extension by
a rotatory motion of the arm and wrist
raised and extended, &c. Project the
sword or firelock in and along the
identical point of fontact, as in a vick ;
oppose your fdri thus against bis foiUe,
as it were in the nick. Direct your
thrust or cut in the line, in such a man*
ner as to infix your point ihto the cavit)

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On ike Science ofDeJkncefar ike Smord and Bayonet.

Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 42 of 108)