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fce s^s, with too much reason, nion with T>t. Lambe, as to the dei«*

"No medicine has yet been discovef^ tttious effects of leaden cisterns,
^, capable of speclhcaHy curing this pumps, and pipe^, nor of the injuri-
Asease ; variods poisons, both c? the oCm quality ot mineral salt found in
Rnnersland regetable kingdoms, have the water, the quantity beiuff so Very
fceen recommended, which often in- minute j yet we have thought propet
jure the constitution, without aflbrding to give the above exract at length, aS
inueh apparent relief. Even the pre- containing a qtaesdon, of rather en-
tciwiohs of eo^irics have not escaped quiry, well deserx'yig the notice of
(he examination of practitioners of can- other analysers of the most Useful and
door, and their nostrums have been nec^ssar}' of beverages. '
tried with perseverance, without any Our author takes an oppottunity of
crideat advant^^ whatever; and it mus't giving a lash at the nuraerons em-
be acknowledged, f hat since the fime pirics of the present day, and espe^
of Hippocrates, (a period of upwaids cially to a certain (fuach dhirte turned .
of two thousand years) notwithstanding ijnac^ doctor. It is undoubtedly a la-
'^c important discoveries that have been mentable circumstance, that sO many
»ade in the anatomy aaid physiolo^ of persons, wholly unj^killed in the sci-
die koman bochr, and in chemistry, ence of anatomy and physic, should
*« can add nothing new as to the na* be "permitted to deal out medtemes^
ture, cause, or even symptoms o( thfs which, to say the least of the matter^
disonlcrihat has uotbwn noticed by that rriay do as much harm as' good. Not
iccurate detailec of diseases- The \-cry that We object to'a regular practitionr
^wterina reports of medical men, on the er selecting one branch of tne profes-*
•wectsorthe exhibition of different dirs, sion for his Mrticular occupation and
lod particularly the topical application attention. The multiplication and
ef rac* air to the open cancer, ample division of labour in the arts tends to
experience has proved erroneous, and the facilitate and improve the produce of
jHJctice is very deservedly abandoned, them. It is tlie same with the
HW by those who were its warmest sciences. We have, therefore, gentlc-

•^'^Haites. In fiict, the different spe- men of the first respectability, who

.OTcs recommend^ by practitioners in confine their practice to diseases of tlie

wHs country, and on the Continent, ey^s, the ears, &c; others who pre-

«v« turned out mete p^lHati^es. scribe only to cancerous, dropsical,
^ Dr. hecOibc, |r pfaysiei^^ of great c^icnkms casey. But wHen wo heat

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244



OntheMhuridcalbdlKcka.



of a mecbaiiic styling himself Medt- To conclude our teinarks on iht "foik
cinae Doctor, and. a dancing master' before us, exbcpt in tke inaccurlcks
vaulting into a doctorial chair, we are which sometimes occur, by the want
disgusted with this mockery of a sub- of grammatical concord, we liave no
lime calling, which can never be suf- doubt of its giving satidaction to its
ficiently well understood by tli^ most readers,
laborious researches and observations.



EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN

NICKEJU.

IN a Memoir lately published by M.
Thenard, and which has been read to
the National Institute, it is observed by
the authof , that the mineral called Nickel
has not been known scarcely these fifty
years, and that in the said space of time
It has- been the object of a great number
of researches, and that nevertheless, by
a striking contrast, there is no substance
that has given rise to more discussions,
and in respect of which chemists have
been so much at variance. Sonfie, at
the head of whom appears Cronstedi, to
whom we owe the discovery of ii, and
Bergman, who 6rst investigated it care-
fully, have considered it as a metal of
Mfi gtneris, or of a particular nature ;
Others, not, suiflciendy . consulting ex-
periment, and seduced by its magnetic
properties, have made no scruple to pro-
nounce it of the nature of iron, more or
less impure, or more or less altered.
These last, who hmt suffered themselves
to be imposed upon, more especially by
the blue dissolution of its oxydes in
ammoniac, have confounded it with
copper ^ nie former, relying too con-
fidendy on slight or not profound re-
searches, have only discovered in its
composition the arsenic and the cobalt
which accompany it almost always in
the mines, an J they ha\'e taken it for an
alliagc or mixture of these two metallic
substances. Opinions so different and
$0 singular should disappear in the pro-
cress of time : the interest of science
demands that this be done; and it ought
to be a necessary sequel of the products
of mineral analysis, formerly uiicertain
in its course, and consequently in its
results, but in our day brought to almost
Its highest point of perfection. But al-
though all doubts nave been dispelled,
with respect to the existence of nickel
as a mineral, and although this has been
proved incontestibly, by numerous exact
and authentic cK]x:rimcnts, its magnetic
property which it partakes of, or seems
to partake of in common with iron, has
>ot been demonstrated. If several che-
ats, amon^ whom is Bergman, allow



AND DOMESTIC JOURNALS. .
it, several others dispute it. This isf
therefore, a (Question that has not bad,
as yet, a definitive answer; and so much
the more so, as we are not certain that
we have hitherto been able to procuit
it in its greatest sttte of purity.- In feet,
art is destitute of means wherewith to
separate the cobalt from it : those rs-
sorted to, to separate arsenic from it, aw
not exempt from blame ; and perhaps a
rigorous analysis may give rise to suspi-
cions, witii respect to those that hare
been adopted, m order to separate iron
from it. The problem to be r^olved»
and which forms the subject of this
memoir, is consequently the foUowinc
one, viz. to separate exactly from nickd
all the substances that alter it, and piv*
ticularly arsenic, iron, and cobalt. The
author names these three last metals»
because they are such as can comma*
nicatc to it or take from it the magnetic
properties. The min^ of nickel, which
was the subject of the author's investi-
gations, had been already melted at se^
veral reprises ; and thus, all the terreous
substances, and a part of the arsenic,
and of the sulphur, were separated from
it. Different experiments, which the
author judges it unnecessary to repeat,
proved that it was composed of nickel,
of iron, of cobalt, of bismuth, of copper,
of arsenic, and of sulphur, llie author
then proceeds to describe and state th^
mode of analysis which he pursued in
five successive experiments, and the
result of which, as he remarks in the
cpnclusion of his memoir, is more thaa
sufficient to solve the question which
the author. sets out with: in fact, he
says, they establish in an incontestible
manner, that very pure nickel really
possesses the magnetic virtue, as BeiK-
man and other chemists have sunuiseo.
It demonstrates, that this property which
it possesses in common with iron, and,
doubtless with cobalt, may be masked
or destroyed m these metds, by their
union with other bodies, and zbovt all
with arsenic ; from which we must ne-
ccssurily draw this consequence, that
the loadstone is an inaccurate instni-



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0» PcadntUhn hy Serj^rm. t!45

ikoA io asMrtain them, and that it highly probable that the ^ellov coloii^
can onU' indicate its presence decisively oftlie earth of M. Klaproth, is owini
there, where they are only tnterniinglcci, to the presence of a small quantity 3t
but Hot combined. They confirm the iron which it contains, and that the
properly of 4eini-ductility, which has name of ^cr«V is not perhaps verv suit-
been recognized for some 'time past, and able to it. As to the earth itstfff, the
its approach, under this point of view, analyser had not a saHicient quantity o£
to zmc and to mercury. The above it to distinguish its characters accurately,
experiments shew, that \i is much more and to decide whether it is redly a new
dtmcpit to melt than has Jbeen hitherto one, and different from those ahead j
tbodght, and induce a presumption that known ; for it has as many metallic cha-
it has been only obtained hitherto, as meters as terrestrial cha'racters.-^But,
teinglcd either with arsenic or with adds M.'Vauquelin, there is every reason
cobalt. They instruct us, that it is sus- to expect, that the autb6r, whose abiiitt
c^tible of surox)'genation, and that it is well known, will, himself, fumisn
Auy form a new black oxyde, soluble in some details that shall enable tlie che-
4ttiphunc and nitrous aCias, with disen- mists to judge concerning it.

figement of oxygene ; and in muriatic t

acid, with disengazemcnt of muriatic FASCiNATioir.

add oxygenated. They ascertain the Dr. Benj. Smith Barton, Professor of

presence of bismuth in the mines of Natural History in *the University of

nickel, and the passage of this latter to Pennsylvania, has attempted to contradict

the state of insoluble arseniate, when and refute the power of fa^cinatiou^

they aie treated by the nitric acid, which has, in so many ages, been atiri-

Thev likewise fiimish us with an as- buted to the serpent tribe. After col-

tnieS method iiow to extract arsenic lecting different statements in a ntimbcr

fiom any mine whatever, and to deter- of authors relative to the manner ill

jnine the qoantily of it. And, lastly, which this power is represented to have-

tbeyexhibit an unexceptionable process, been usually exerted, &c. the Doctor

whifch was hitherto wanting to analysis, proceeds to say: '* In almost every in-

aad which it had long called for, to se- stance ] found that the sup]X)sed fas*

jttrate nickel from cobalt and from iron, cinating quality of the serpent was cx-

and of consequence, to obtain these two erted upon the birds, at the particular

pfime or principal metals in their greates.t season of their laying their e^, or of

state of purity. their liatchlng, or of their rearing their

— young, still tender and defenceless. I

I Ocroite. ^ovr be^an to suspect that the cries and

M. VAUQUELIN lately read to the fears of birdi, supposed to be fascinated,

Qass of Physical and Mathematical originated in an endeavour to protect

Sciences of the National Institute, a their nest or their yoimg. My inquiries

irtier whi(;h he had received from have convinced me that this is the case,

M. Klaproth, which, among other Though the rattle-snake docs not ciimh

things, noticed iha£ he had lately dis- up trees, yet thfe black snake does, and

«>vQed, in a mineral brought from some other species of the gcntis colubtf^

Hiddarhvttan, in Sweden, a new earth. &c. When impelled by hunger, and

|o whicn he has given the name of incapable of satisfying it, bv the capture

J|[^«fe, because it acquires a yellow co- of animals on the ground, they begin

Wur finom heat; and that he, M. Vau- to climb up trees or bushes upon which

?Klin, had likewise received a small a bird has its nest. The bird is not ig-

«>n|>leofit. On this substance M. V. norant of the serpent's object; she

™e several experiments, the results of leaves her nest, whetVicr it conu\ins e^g*

^ordirce of which may be mentioned or young ones, and endeavours to op-

*'^* I. It communicates, by fusian, a pose the reptile's progress. In doing

!*ijow colour to borax. 3. The disso- this she exjwses herself to the most im-

lotion h without colour ; its taste is minent danger. Her ciy is melancholy;

•od and styptic. 12*. The dissolutions her motions are trcnmlou^. Some times

•f the Ocrku, deprived of iron and of she approaches so near the reptile, that

•npcrabounding acid, have a sugary he makes her is prey. But this is fox

•aste, Tcre analogous to that of th*e from being universally the case. Often

Plria. From the whole of the facts, she compels the serpent to leave the

*■ VtnqueUn concludes that it i$ trte, and then retiimi to her nest .

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Mr. Theaphihu Swjft on Rkme,



%i6

Oftentimes she prevents the destruction
of her youD^ attacking the snake with
her win^ her beak, or her claws. Some
years since, the ingeaious Mr. Ritten*
house was induced to suppose, from the
peculiar meiancholv cry oi a red-winged
iMoivtriSiifilht orioUu phaniaetu of Linn.)
that a snake was at no ereat distance
ffoxn it, and that tbe bird was in dis-
.tre^s. He threw a stone at the place
from whence the cry proceeded, which
had the elFeat of driving the bird away.
The poor animal* however, inunediately
leturned to the^me spot. Mr. Kitten-
house now went to the place where the
bird alighted* and to his great astonish-
' ment he found it perched upon tlie back
of a large black snake, which it yvas.
pecking with its beak. At this veiy
tinke» me serpent was in the act of SMraU
lowing a young bird ; and from the en-
larged size of the rq^tile's belly, it was
evident that it had alrcadv swallowed
two or three of the young fcirds. After
tlie snake was killed, the old bird flew
%way. Mr. R. says, that the cry and
acfiouii of^ this bird had been precisely
einiilar to those of a bird which is said
to be under the fascinating influence j
and I doubt not that tliis very instance,
would, by many credulous {xrsons, have
been adduced as a proof of the existenoe
of such a faculty," &c. &c.



IN' an Essay on the Use and Progress
. of tlhime, lately published by ITieophi-
lus Swift, and to which the gold prize
medal, proposed by* the Royal Irish
Academy, ror thej)est treatise on the
subject, >vas adjudged, the author makes
this remark : '* It has Ions been my
o^iinion, and the more I nave lately
considered the subject^ the less I have
found reason to change it» that rhune
hath its origin in no exclusive laii2uage»
l>ut is original in all those where it hath
iftt any time prevailed. To Hnd, there-
fore, 'die origin of rhime,. we must seek
it in theori^n of language itself.** In the
course of his work, Mr. S. exaiiiines the
llchrevv, Greek, Latin, English, Italian,
Spanish»and Dtaheitean language, in all
and every one of which he nnds the use
of rbinie in a greater or less degree ; and
collects a variety of curious particulars
respecting tlie subject, which appear to
have escaped the notice of other writers.
* The Ef^say terminates with a list of con-
clusions, Irom which we' shall select the
«AJur j^rt^ That the hi^t cmpircsj^



itates, and govennneDts bcgm froft iht
East, and having spread met Chaldca,
India, Penia, Arabia, £gypt> Tartary,
and China, from thence diveiged into
Africa and Europe. That e^^ vac^
cessive people, at the confusioB of
tongues, and- at their first migiatioB
from the parent source, used the has-
guage in which they were eapable t»
converse. That each langhagr had
great affinity with the other; and in
proportion as each people advanced \tL
remiement, their poetry was deconki
with the rhime or correspcndent sound.
That tlie descendants of each people sbH
use ih» rhime in the structure of their
poetry, as they had done oiiginallt.
That the first colonization of Eoropeab^
Greece was from Egypt. That UDcTet
whatever names theirleadera were called,
their language was Egjrptian, and adopt-
ed the rythmus to which it was congp-
nial. Ihat the Greeks, and ai^erwwh
the Romans, were the ooly people who,
by adding quantity and feet» pretended a
melioration of their verse, i>y abstmdiBg
the rhime which all other nationt bid
found so natural to language. That
when the Greek and Roman states k)st
the power of conquerors, by which
alone their languages weie either
extended or sustained, the different
tongues into which the Greek and Lalb
were split, each as soon as formed, ie>
sumed the rhime that had been cfimtt-
nued by general use. That althooeh
the language of Greece and Rome tor
some centuries denied the ihime, by
adopting quantity, yet no sooncv c^ itt-
vadmg nations destroy that eostOB,
than a return to the anoienC rhiae ia
their several poetries became uiiivenal*
and remains m that pristine stete. That
as poetry was prinuaily introduced, it



Iionour of the religion of the codBtnr,
no sooner was it restored, theft thf
Greek and Latin languages also biii
their rhimes in the service of the Chf»-
tian churchy a mode that ooiuiniiei ie
Biactice^ as well in the hymns of the
Greek, as those of the Romaa and oihcr
churches. And, in fine, that from t^
first ages, rhime ever was, aad now i^
and ever will be^ the univessal voiee dT
nations.

6I.OBULBS OF THX ^tOO0.

( Concluded Jrem page 150 £^^ ^^}
BITI this aperture, ttiis diaj^n^
which only leaves fipee a diameter of
h^a Udc, (a Uae it the twdfih^fttt «f



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On tie GhHtu if the Blotd,



i4f



ill jiidb)'for die lenMs of four lines of
focus and upwards, or even a quarter
oTa liar ki diameter for the lenses, the
Ibcuf of which is shorter, ought to be
ftaoej. behind the lens and not next to



tlsli^.u Otir pupil, nevertheless, is
9\ir.iA in front of, and not behind the
iti'ii 01* the cri&tallyiw humour of the
eye. But our pupil is moveable, sus-
ceptible of dilatation or of contractxoft.
Besides, tike transparent cornea and the
aqueoQS hunour are before the pupil,
m order to serve the place of an achro-
matic glass. The study of the eye has
iBiproved our achromatic glasses ; but
weliave not hitherto been acquainted
witii,or sufficiently appraciated, the mar-
fdlotts structure of this organ, so as to
VBture to think that we know all its
nechanism and perfection. Experience
kas taught me, that the microscopic len-
u$, the diaphragm or aperture of which
is placed in front of the external si^le or
•f the lij^t, produce less effect than
when the diaphragm or artificial pupil is
placed behind the lens of the side of the
BHCTOscope. The skilful and ingenious
I)o{loa was not ignorant of these advan.
^^jg^l three excellent microscopes of
ius constructicm, which I have had in
»y hands, were thus made; whilst all
those wfaicb 1 have seen at Paris, and
even those ot Delabarfe him3elf,have the
^peiture of the lens close to the light,
ttd without Side of the lens.

It woukl he superfluous, aod even
fueriie, to dviFell longer on the mecha-
*CA and the use ot microscopes ; I
haft only marked out some of the most
fppareat advantages and inconveniences,
ill order to enable the reader to judge of
Uiede^FFee of confidence which he may
*tta^ to the observations that follow,
*HMcdng the gh^bules of the blood.

if we pot a small dro|>. of blood on
fte objeetive glass of a microscope, we
see the globules so much the more
^^istinetly, at the drop is smaller, or as
Uis soattmd on the edges, and diluted
•Hh a Httle water, milk, or other liquid ;
H order to perceive them, by the simple
HiCRMocype, there requires to be a lens
^twe lines of foeus ; and in the com>
f^and nieroseope a lens, of 10 lines
•^ws them as large, but not so distinct-
^; their £ameter appears with these
»a«e leases, to'be about the lOth part
^f aline; but they magnify the diameters
50 timet. Aad then the ^obules of ^e
litood-aie about one hundredth part <of
«Ubc ia diameter, arO«0PO,22^.



Another manner of measuring them^
is the following — I have observed thaft
the visible focus of each 1 en trcuhr glass,
fipom the convex of the Palais Kcyai^
which has more than lO feet in focus,
to the smallest lenses, which hare only
a millimeter, is a sphere at their focus,
the diameter of which measures the lOiil
part of the lenatli of the focus. But ill
taking a lens of half a line of focus, and
fixing the globules, we may count fron%
20 \^ 25 inclusive, on the greatest dia-
meter of the small circle which the
focus, visible by this lens, embraces-
Jn multiplying these two numbers,
one by the other, we have 500 3 for th*
10th part of a demi-line is assnredly the
20di part of a line. If we consult the
Physiology, vol. ii. page 55, and that
of Blumenback, page 1 1 — IS.parag. 19
and 14, we shall find this measure to
be a mean proportional between the di-
mensions given to the globules of tlie-
blood, by a great number of learned
naturalists that have examined them.

When the blood is^Tiot, issuing from
the vessels, the globules often toucli one
another; but in getting cool, they become
isolated, leaving between them' intervals
to about a third or quarter of theirdiame^
ter. They then conglobate of themselves^
and diminish their volume as they get
cold.

If wte cause a small drop of hot blood to
fell upon a fCiall drop of hot milk, is-.
suing from the breast of a nurse, and re-
ceived into classes that have, been held
in hot water before, a curions 'phenonie-
non will eftsue. The globules of blood,
as being heavier, cause the gMbuIes of
milk to give place, just as small shot
plunged into a glass of water, would re-
move pease ^ at the least shaking, a very
lively movement is made ; the globules
of milk are somewhat smaller than the ~
globules of blood, and have an argentine
colour, like quick-silver; they retire
probably when rolled, whilst the reflec-
tion of theiight, changing its direction,
gives them an apparent motion every
way. This little combat only t-vkes
place for a few instants ; but it' is very
curious and amusing, and may serve a)
a oaution to keep us on our guard against
miscroscopical illusions.

Little drops of blood, when dried on
a glass,, quickly form a curious net-work
by blaek fll-traccd uxiequal lines, which
divide the little cake into compartments,*
square* pentagonal or irregular, but al-*
ways in right Unes, like a kind of bri<;k-



On, tfie Gkhuki ql the Blood.



248

work or Mosaic. Tlie«e black lines had
leen perceived by Bonani, towards the
end of the 1 /th century, but, he had
iudicated them without treating of them.
These l^nes or nets have embarrassed me
ios a long time ; liiey are so much the
more numerousybetter pToix)rtioned, and
more ready to form themselves, as the
object is more robust and morevigorous:
the blood of infants produces but Httle ;
that oi' the turkey stiU less. I thought
M first, that these black lines might be
the fibrine in its birth or fat'us ; their
^loiir, however, militates against this ;
licsides I found myself qiistaken, for
tiiey are cre\'ices wHich take place, in a
manner, in miniature, upon a stmng ar-
^lous land analogous cre\'ices take place
Dn a larger scale, as is likewise the case
in a number of argilo^s stones. The
blood as well as argile, contains iron —
can these two substances have any other
affinities ? their cohesion, their tenacity,
their withdrawing by evaporation, are re-
■larkable enough ; other similarities may
perhaps hereafter be discovered.

When we leave the drops of blood
thus dried, for several days or c^^en
jnqntbs, it will be found to retain its
lively colour, the middle part of the
polygons will appear to sink in a little,
like tiie black clefts, then to separ^te,and
thelightwill appear through moreorless:
\y inclining the mirror oiF the micros-
CO})e which is underneath, we see a-
ternateiv disap[3ear and appear again,
these black llnc^, close by a blue or
>vhitc line which sejiarates them ; and
we are then convinced that these blaqk
iines arc only the effect of the shadow
pmjected by the thickness of the borders
of the little cake of blood.

1 f we dilute with water,blood that hag
Ibeen dried for several days, there will ap-
pear aguin globules surh as they were be-
fore, but darker and ir> a smaller quantity.
. Qlobule«: isolated out of the vessels
jfTc pale, yellowish, never red, not more
in tnc simi>Ie microscope or in the con-
vex, than in the com pound micrqsoopc:
. when combined and two or three of them
are brought near togetlier, they are red;
und when they are placed two by two,
there appears' a commencement of an
aurora red colour.

. Human blood, considcrd as to the
globuh'b, ditfers but little from that of
cundnjj^tsd animals, oxen, hogs, &c, but
Xhz K^obtilf's of oviparous animaU and
tepcilcs^.%^lrich have a mutual rcsem-*



blances are essentiallf difieient id (Mt
form and in their volume.

The iclobules of the blood of the frog
and those of the tetard, are at least twice
as large as thoseof the human blood; th^
are elliptical and fiat and are eUiptical
lenses ; those of the green frde, the rara
/«B/wdrw of Liftnaeus, are of the same
form, but are a little less voluxniDOu*
and more colorous.

Globules circulating in the vessels ot
the frog, appear to liave a diameter tripltt



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