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vhich it may be wanted. If it be in-
tended to make the iron perfectly malle-
able, from one half to two thirds of its
'Weight of iron stone, iron ore, or other
tubatdnce will be found necessary : if
only partially so, a much less quantity
■will be sufficient. Five or six days and
nights will, in general, be found suffi-
cient during which to continue the
heat, which, towards the close of the
process, cannot be too great. Care
should be taken that the })ieces of cast
iron be not of too rjreat thickness, as it
would have the eiTect of lengthening the
process. But tlie proportion <»! the se-
veral substances ujade use of, and the
degree and duration of the heat to be
applied, must materially depend, not
only on the nature of those substances,
but also on the nature and quality of
the pig or cast iron empli»vcd ; a know-
ledge of which can only Ix- obtained l>y
experience- T:ic cast iron to he ren-
dered malleable, and the sul)>.lan(«*9 to
be made use of for that purpose, may be
placed in the f^jmace in alternate layers;
and in order to prevent the iron stone
from adhering to the iron, a thin la\er
of sand may be placed between them.
For the improvement of articles manu-
factured of cast iron, the vinic directions
may Ixj obscrvcti, exccpi tliat when the
articles arc smiill, a less proportion of
the substances for proilucing malleability
will be required, and also a less degree
and continuation of the heat.

Patent to Mr. Jnh R'der, Clock and
Witch^muher, of Belfast, Jor certain
I/nJ)rorements on the Steam-engine. —
This invention consists of various im-
provements in the steam-engine, that is
to say, J, in lining the steam-cylinder
or c} linders with a soft metal, or a com-
position of metal similar to hard pewter,
of a suflieient thickness to admit of fi-
nishing the inside of the cylinder or cy-
linders of such metal, by draw-boring or
otherwise ; 2, in applying a hollow pis-
ton rod, answering the purpose of an
adnction pi|xi : 3, the order of o}>ening
and sUuttuig the valves : and 4j ia ra-



Eulating the engine's speed by a pea
dulum.

Mr. Matthew G region of Liverpool,
has been led to inveatigate the various
means which may render useful the aiU-
cles that remain after the calamity of
public fires; and in consequence of the
singular attention which be has success-
fully paid to this subject, a gold roedat
has oeen awarded to him from thcSocietir
for the Encouragement of Arts, &c. of
the Adclphi.

From the ruins of the warehouses
which were burnt at Liverpool, by the
great fire which happened there in the
summer of the year lb02, Mr. Gregson
collected burnt sugar, wheat, rice, flour
and cotton. The damaged articles of
every description sold for 13,OOOl. and
upwards ; but Mr. G. is of opinion, that
if the plan had been recurred to which
he has since adopted,asa\nn2 of 4-l,Q00l.
mig:ht have been made on the article of
gramonl^j; and he thinks that nearly as
much niiglit have been eained upon
rice, sugar, molasses, conee, cotton,
hemp, &c.

Th eprocesses which he has tried, and
which have been found completely to
answer, are as follows : The burnt sugar
was reduced to a fine powder, and m^e
into a water-colour jiaint. It answeml
also the purposes of a varnish ground,
an oil colour, and a printing ink— Burnt
wheat may be rendered applicable to the
same purposes. The burnt American
fine flour, Mr. G. successfully manu-
fiiciured into paste. — ^Thatcorn, when
charred, is incorruptible, is a fact that
was known to ancient writers; and if so
Mr.G. pronounces that thecolour will be
durable. Mr.G. does not decide whfcihcr
it may be used for dying, but he con-
ceives that the Chinese make Indian ink
of rice, or of some vegetable black — ^If
realised, this will prove a very important
discovery, in as much as cargoes of grain
and flour rendered almost useless in
long voyaces by heating, may be con-
verted to tiie most useful purposes, and
their value be thereby greatly increased ;
and the drying quality will recommend
their use, as lamp black is much object-
ed to, on account of its slowness in
dr>'ing.

A gentleman already well known in
the literary world,, will shortly puplish a
work on the Trinity, under the title of

A NEW WAY OF DSCIDIiTC 0L9 OOM-
TR0VBRSl£6.



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Modem Discoveries, &e.



A* second edition of that beautiful
poeni, entitled the Sorrows of Seduction,
with two additional delineations which
eomplete the work, is now in the press,
—it will be embellished with engrav-
ings, from, original drawings, by Corb-
hoid and Buck.

In the coune of the ensuing month
will be published, a small treatise, en-
titled the ]>omestic Guide, in cases of
Insanity— Pointing out the causes, with
the means of preventing, and proper
treatment, of that disorder.

Mr. Sutcliffe of Halifax, is engaged
in translating a new volume of Saurin*s
Sermons which will shortly appear, uni-
formly prin^ to correspona with the
sixvotomes already published, as trans-
lated by Robinson aitd Hunter;
• Johii Cartwright, Esq. will shortly
publish a very important work, entitlecl
the State of tne Nation, in letters to the
Duke of Bedford, which will comprise
a concise history of the administration
of Messrs. Pitt and Addington, tending
to enforce the absolute necessity of a
P^liamentary Reform, as the only radi-
cal cuie for tnose evils under which the
nation has so long laboured. We un-
decBtand that the Duke of Bedford has,
10 a correspondence with Mr. Cart-
wiig^t, expressed himself decidedly on
the necessity of this important mear-
suce.

TTie Rev. Theophilus Brown^ long-
expected work, entitled, *' Plain and
useful Selections Irom the Books of the
Old and New T«stament" will be ready
for delivery in ten days.
- It is not unknown to such of our
Raders as Ire conversant in chemical
tulnects, that Mr. W. Peel e, of Cam-
brio^ has lately announced the pro-
. diKtion of muriate of soda, by theGal vanic
decomposition 'of water. — A continua-
tionof similar experiments, it was natural
to suppose, mignt probably lead to some
knowledge of the composition of soda,
•nd the base of the muriatic acid. M.
Cuviers, in his late report of the labours
of the class of the mathematical and
physicalsciences ^ftheNational Institu te,
win the 20th of June, 1804, to the
SOthoCJune, 1805, published on the
2jth of the kit mentioned month, states
that M. Pacchiani, of Pisa, has dis-
coreied the radical of tlieacid in question,
which he pronounces to be hydroccn.
By taking from water, by means of the
^vsmic pile, a portion otits oxygen, he
HKits that the watgr b coaverted into



255

oxy muriatic acid ; and that cohsequent- *
ly muriatic acid is hydrogen at its »»«*-
mum of oxydaiion ; the oxymuriaticacid,
hydrogen in the middle state; and water,
hydrogen at its niaxtrmim of oxydatiom

A new edition of the Travels of Ana-
charsis the Younger, in Greece, will
shortly he published, revised -and cor-
rected, from a copy in which the ItOA
Abbe Barihelemy liad made nnmerou*
corrections and additions. Four nevT
tables are also added, viz. 1 . Of the at-
tic months, 2. Of the tribunals and
magistrates of Athens. 3. Of the Gre-
cian colonies. 4. A geographical tabic
or index of the countries, cities, ' &cc.
mentioned in the work, with their mo-*
dern names.

Mr. Maclachlan, of Calcutta (East
Indies,) has lately communicated to the
Society of Arts, the particulars of a pro-
cess for dying by means of the chaya or
red die root, which has been long known
as a powerful astringent. Mr. Mac-
lachlan further observes, in the said
communication, that many of the hilU
in Baharand other parts of India contain
immense quantities of mica, talc, or
Muscovy glass. The natives of India
and China make splendid lanthoms,
shades, and ornaments of it, tinged
with different fanciful colours ; and it
is, moreover, used by them as a medi-
cinal drug. When calcined, they u.^s
it as a specific in obstinate coughs, and
in consumptive complaints. When
powdered, it serves to silver the Indian
paper used in letter-writin;^, and is, in
short, applied to a great variety of pur-
poses.

Mr. Roscoe has lately published an
Address delivered before the Proprietors
of the Botanic Garden, in Lri-erpool,
previously to opening the garden, May
3 , 1 802. This work which was printed
for private use, contains a Defence of
tlie Study of Botany, in general, as like-
wise the Laws of tKe Institution, and a
List of the Proprietors. W'e leani that
a haiKlsome fund has been raised by
subscription for the support of this par-
den, consisting of five acres, surroiinaed
by ^ stone wall (held by a 21 years lease,
under the corporation,' who gtfuerously
made a free p:rant to the proprietors of
the reversionary interest, so lont:; as the
.same should remain appropriated to the
purj>oses of the ori^j^inal institution)
and stocked with specimens of every
plant, shrub, and tree, medical plants^
iho»e u«edui agriculture, and grasses;

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959



Modem Disawertef, ^d^



a laige and wet! furmshed conservatory, artificers, will be entitled to {ittrcbiad
Ji libraiy, and the coUectton of dried lands ; and those who wish to engaglr
^ants, of manv thousand specimens, in the pursuits of agricultuie, and pos-
Vy tiie late Dr. Foster and his son, in sess no personal property, are to have a
the Sooth Sea islands, and by his cor- certain portion of tne crown land^.—
Kspondents, Linnaeus, Thunberg, and Such as may incline to establish ma-
Jacquinae. At the opening of the ^ax- nufactories, are allowed to enjoy, in the
den, lectures were read by Dr- Smith, carrying on of their commerce, all the
fvesident of the Linnsean Society. franchises of Russian subgects.

There are now in the Menagerie of During the Pope's late i^idenoe at
fhe National Museum of Natural His- Paris, one circumstance took place,
tory at Paris, two Bactrian camels, each which, though but little known, may
liaving a couple of bunches on its back* be considered as unparalleled in the ail
—They are both males, and were for- of printing. On tne Ut of February
nerly employed on particular occasions last, the pontiff visited the national
to draw a carriage. They always sleep printing-omce ; as he passed along the
with their eyes open» and are supposed gaUeries,. I50 presses furnished him
to be at least fifty years of age. with a sheet each, upon which was

Eating the leaves of bohea-tree is given the Lord's prayer m some different
•tated, in a reoent nrovincial print, to language or diakx;t, in Hebrew, Sama^
Ihave effected seyeral striking cures in ritan, Chaldee, ancient Syriac, Rabbi*
eases of a dropsicitl habit-*- to be con- nical, ancient and vu%ar Arabic, Ar-
tinued during the course of three or menian, Persian, and also in thcwlan*
four days. Let nearlv two large tea-cup guages and letters of the Crimea, th«
fulls of'^the tea be innised in a quart of Malay, ofHindostan, of China, of Tar^
water, and the decoction should be taiy ; in all 46 dialects of Asia. We
taken, and the leaves eaten at short in* cannot enumerate all the European kn-
tervala. S^'S^ ^<^ dialects ; but we learn thai

The foUowin^ is recommended as tJiey amounted to T5. Afiica fur*
leaving in many cases proved an eflec* nisned 12> and America the remain^
tual cure, for the complaint of which iBgl7*

cattle in the summer months are some- The following is pieseribed in some
limes apt |o die, in consequence of eat* 'vreekly provincial papeis as a method
ing young clover :— -Fill an egg-shell to drive away or to keep crows froii
with tar, and make them swaQow it, cora-growtng fields : Take a quart of
talking care to break the shell as it goes train oil, as much turpentine, and
down their throats. bruised gunpowder ^ boil them toge*

In thelate4rea<'ful earth quake» which ther, and when made .sufficiently hot#
took place in the kingdom of Naples^ dip fragments of old rags in the campo**
not less than 800 houses were destroyed sition^af^er which fix them on slicks
in the city of Naples, and 4000 da- in the fields, after the nt« or propoitkm
maged^ besides wnich, 40 churches ofabout four for an acre,
have been shaken to tlieir very foonda* Rats and mice will instantly qoit
tions. In some parts whole villages bams and granaries, if the ileld-pl»it»
have been desuoved> and all the inha> known by die name of Dog*s ToogM^
bitants. The little town of Isernia has (theCuxieglossomOffieiBakof Lirmaeu^
been reduced to a heai» of ruins, and gathered vrhen fall in sap,. and pievs-
1500 individuals have been buried un- o«isly bruised witk a hammeF, be plaooi
der them. or strewed in ihem.

The rights of citizenship have been Dr. Dvce, of Abeideea, haa latdy
lately extended, by an < imperial ukase discovered a mine of madB^anese, equal
published at Petersburg, to the Jews dis- in value to that imported mto Londoa
persed throughout the immense Russian fronv DevooshiM and America, and
empire. The clvUdren of Jews wiU which sells at about lOl. pertda. This
henceforth beadimtted, like the other mine contains a very 6Qt teiA of maiv-
Kussian subjects, into the different gasese, of immense extent whiah yieUi
schools, colleges, and universities. — to the labour of J 2 men 20 toitt per
I'lic Hebrews will be divided into four week. The bed of veictsnios through a



classes, viz. farmers, artificers, and work-
HKin, merchants and . citizens. The
farfurr;^ ase decUuced^ aad 9» wdil a&.the noith^ coaxmanaz^ a&tlicbtt^ «£ th»



larae tract of countxy^ exiendtng 7 or 8
miwa ifi the direction frcna south 6o



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Modem Discoveries and Improvemenis in Arts, Sciences, tSfiK 457

jfcr Don, and proceeding from thence racters, lately issued from ihfe British
in that line to the sea, where it is found press. Among others, the Rev. Eh*.
ip the form of block sand, and some- Render's* * German and English Gralm-
times in pretty solid masses mar,' and his • Exercises on the Rule^

Mr. W.Pontey will shortly publish a and Construction of the German Lan-
nevT work, on Forest Pruning, and on guage.*

the Training and Management of Bri- Among the memoirs lately pubKshei
tihh Timber Trees, wjiether intended for in Germany, containing a notice of the
yse, ornament, or shelter, illustrated labours ofthe members of the university
with plates. / and academy of Gottingen, to the vear

The German journals announce the 1803 inclusive, volume 15th, pubfish-
late discovery of a thick rampart, in the ed by Dieterich, 1804, we find the fol-
feiritory called the Margravate of An- lowing by Professor Jfeeren, entitled,
ipach, which extends from the foot of Explkatwplaniglobii orbis terrarum faciem
the highest hills in the country, to the exhibau^ ante medium sotc. XV. iumrna arte
Rhine; and is supposed tO have been confecti} agitantur simui de kistcria map*
erected by the Romans, to stop or pre- parum geograpfncarvm recte instruenda can*
Vent the marauding incursions of the sHia. The first notion of drawing up
Gcnnans. this memoir was suggested to M. Hee-*

[ For several months past, a newspaper, ren, by a monument very interesting for
in the Italian language, has been pub- geography^ which is extant in the mn«
lished weekly in Malta, which is said seum of his eminence, Carcjinal Bor-.
to be actively distributed in the Medi- gia, and of which he had received ao
tenanean,. and at the regencies on the engraved description. He made use of
coast of Africa, &c, this opportunity, at the same time, \fi

Every person concerned m the praq- draw up a history of geograjphical charts,
tical part of gardening and rural econo- which nas been much ancl long wished
my, will hear with pleasure, that a new for. A good history of geographical
periodical workf is now in the press, and charts becomes more and more neces-
will shortly be published, entitled. The sary, in proportion as their number con-
Practical Gardener, containing plain and tinually increases ; but it, likewise,
familiar instructions for propagating and becomes the more difficult, in the sam«
improving the different kind of fruit- proportion. Its excellence will depend
trees, plants, and flowers, with a new upon the arrangement that, will be pui*-
.gardener's calendar 5 being a 6omplete sued, and 00 Uiis account^ it will not
directory for performing tlie different he amiss to hear the opinion of different
work which may be required in every learned men. A history- like this, ii|
month throughout the year, in every the author's opinion, ought to contain
department relating to gardening and soniething more than a simple catalogue
nxral economy. Ine pnncip^l articles of charts, although this said catalogue
irewritten by Philip Miller, esq. F.R.S! must necessarily compose a principfd
and the whole arranged, with consider- part of it. In order to make an advah- "
aWe improvements and additions, by tageous use of such a catalogue, - cer^
W. Shaw, M. D. The work I is to be tam necessary branches of knowledge
.completed in about t^vclve numbers, to are t6 be acquired ; and for this rea-
be published weekly. son, the author requires that the futurp

tTGoithe German Journal of Literature^ historian of the geographical ehart
4rts<fnd Sciences^ &c. AprilZ, 1805. should divide his work into two prio-

The rapid progress German literature cipal parts, the general and the special,
has made in England, during the short — ^The general part should advert to all
period of twelve years, is at once a proof that kind of knowledge which is ne-
that the English now assiduously apply 'cessary in order to judge of cliarts, and
themselves in the cultivation of that as every chart requires, in order to. ita
language; a language become indeed completion, three different species of
highly necessary, not only to every knowledge, viz. historid^al, mathema-
commercial man, but likewise to all tical, and technical, this part must,
ftfficers in the British service; and tra- likewise, be divided into three others,
^"ellets in general. We are led to thjs The historical part ^ must be fotmrfed •
.Koork, from beholding, we confess • The Doctor is now eng:aged in the com-

pilation of a complete Genrtan and £c£ii«l|
Pocket Dictionary, EoiTy*.

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-With much pleasure, tlie elegant spc-
Wcns of printing ij) Gerouu^ «n



is 8 Tmportant Discoveries and tmproventenfs in Arts, Sciences, 9c,



upon the examen of the globe itsclf»
and oir it^^principal parts, miisinuch as
»ll -iinprmeinents with respect to ac-
curate representations on charts, are,
conclusively, to be referred to the pro-
cress that has been made in the know-
lcdG;e of the object represented ; and so
it IS, that voyages or expeditions by sea
wars, missions, &c. extend the hniits
pf geographical knowledge. Then the
penods present tbeiiiselves to our no-
tice, agreeably to which the history of
charts ought necessarily to be divided.
OiW of tliem comprehends the attempts
to repfesent the land, before the disco-
rery of America, and, in oarticular,
$ince the times of the crusades. The
second comprehends the l6th century,
which comes down to as low as the
voyages of the HoUandurs, and will
present the Spanish and Portuguese
charts. But, nevertlieless, as these
chiu-te are, in eenenil, very rare, and
but little or at all k^iown, the charts of
the two first periods msty be comprized
under the general denomination of
geographical antiquities. For the history
of modern charts, such as were made at
Srst, by Mercaetor and Ortelms, com-»-
mences with the navigation of the Hol-
landers, and thiiir voyages to the Indies,
or in order to discover the Iridies.—
"this third period, which embraces the
first half of* tlie l^th ceutur\s mieht
vety properly bear the name ot the HqI"
Utuitfi period. It was from the shop*
of tiie filaeuw*s« the Jansson's, tiie
Vischers', &c. that proceeded the charts,
Which very shortly enjoyed a general
estimation which, wa» not confined
xvithin the limits of Holland. The
French were the first who imitated tlie
Hollanders ; and it may be observed,
that the second half of the l/th cen-
tury, that is to say, the reign of Louis
XIV. forms the fourth period, which
might be not improperly named the
French period. The semces which the
academy of sciences, then established,
renderecS to eeoCTaphy, the charts of the
Sansons, of the De Fers, of the De
Li^es, &c. have secured tliis honour
to France. Under the name of the
German pcnod, the author designates
the first half of the I8tli century, from
the time that the Homann's flourished
at Nuremburg.

With respect to the last half of this
century, or the sixth period, which,
'perhaps, has seen more charts publish-
«4 than (he live others to^eth^, ■Ithouglh



the English have merked well of the
science during this time, the author is,
nevertheless, of opinion, that it cannot
be designated with propriety, as of any
nation, as all appear to have'anequ^
riglit in it.

(J'O he concluded in our next^)

A new Instrument, to which tht
Greek name of Topognomon has been
eiven, has been lately invented by M. de
Ries, Adiutant-General of the Danish
army. Ihe principal object of this in-
strument is to discover the Eastern point
of the compass, which may be ascer-
tained, as we are told, by means of it,
even in the darkest night, as it points oat
a place where there is a light, although
we cannot perceive it. This invention,
it is a'dded, will be found of great im-
portance in the operauons of war, and,
particularly, in sieves.

The same ingenious officer has like-
wise invented an instrument, by means
of which, in a given place, and in the
darkest night, we may xoeognise the
precise moment when a vessel sails out
of harbour

A new method of mantifacturing and
spinning yam^ has been lately invented
and published. Its principal object ii
to lay the fibres of the flax, hemp, &c.
in the yam, without being doubled, and
as nearly as possible, to theit full length;
by which process much unnecessary con-
sumption of the raw material is avoided,
and the yam, at the same time, conside-
rably strengthened.

A new and neat edition of the latt
Rev. Mr. William Mason's, (of Yoii,)
poems, containing Caraciaats, JEifretiaf
monody on the death ofPope^ odes, elegies,
letters, &c. &c. are in tlie press, and will
speedily be published in one volume,
small octavo, accompanied with an ele-
gant portrait of the author.

From certain experiments made by J.
M. Romero de Terrcros, Doctor in Alfr-
dicine, and lately published in Le JokT"
nal de Physique^ &c. it appears, that the
aqueolis extract of opium, prepared bv
a long digestion, may be administefed
in excessive doses, without producing
death, inasmucn as the t>oc\ot has
eivcn eighU'-four grains, in one day, to
dogs of dinerent ages, and tirelve to %
very young animal, a puppy Only thirty-
five minutes of age.

Mr. Belsham is preparmg, we under-
stand, a new edition, considerably cot*
xecved» of the Eswx-ilzeet liwrgf.

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Modem Discoveries ami Improvements in Jris,_ Sciences, (sTe. tsg



^I. BodeaUy |>ninarY Institutor of the
Commune de \ iniontiery in the depart-
ment of Ome, has lately announced to
the pre«ident of tlie National Institute,
ivhat he calls a new prodigy of intelli-
g^ooe, in a child only seven years and
sqpie months old. Tlie facts reported
by the Institutor, W attested by a yer-
hal process of the council of admini-
ttxation of the chief place of the Can-
ton ; it is also signocl by the maire, the
^junctcs, and a justice of the peace,
and by a great number of individuals.
H)* following are tlie principal facts : —
A child of seven years and four months
old, bom of indigent pjireiits, not know-
ing either how to read or write, takes
Measure, on the market days, to repair
to the place where the merchants ajid
others reckoned up the accounts of their
purchases and sales. Tliere he calmly
hears them -, JMid, if they are wrong,
pats them right, saying, i^nth a
unile, '* That is not cast up right — it
comes to so much.** He repairs next to
the cloth-hall, and, as soon as he has,
heard the aunage, or admeasurement,
*nd the tjuotiU ; that is, the pro rata, or
the fixed sum to which each part
amounts, he says. This comes to so
much, and then passes on to another
stall. Thus he performs, in an instant,
the calculations of all the sales, and
then retfres, with a self-satisBcd air and
a sort of irony, amusing- himself tp see



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