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the ^eater part of the merchants em-
plovine themselves, pen -in hand, to
vcnfy his operations. Oh the report
that was made of him fo the primary
institutor, the latter wished to oe per-
sonally acquainted widi this little pro-
^igy.— Tlie first question that was put
to hiih, viz. how much is 9 and 7> he
seemed to disdain, as too easy,^ and the
Institute passed on successively, to
questions of subiKiction, multiplication,
and division, both simple and com-
pound — Take 25 from 5p, how much
^oes there remiiin ? 7 times 7> how
much is it? 6 times 13? 8 times I6?

13 times 17? How much is the worth
of 83 ells of cloth, added to 3 livres, 2
•pus? how much is 88 do. added to 4
Ij^Tes, 10 sous? What does 24 francs,
flivided by 6, come to? 32 francs, di-
vided by 4? 72, divided by 8? 53 li-
vfes, lo sous, divided by 5 ? (?3 livres,

14 sous, divided by 7, &c. Precise an-
•wers were given, instantaneously, to
M) these questions. — The Institutor
^td a& casici one, viz. (Itici at U tkn ct



demi de l6 francs ? or What is the third
and one half of l6 francs ? To this the
cliild replied, that he did not know what
a tliird was ; aiid, on being told that
three thirds made a w-hole, he answered
on the spot, that thethird and one half
of \i5 francs was 8 francs. — ^Then, eye-
ing the Institutor archly, he says, **itnd
you, who put questions to me, teW me,
how much is a thousand sous, a thou^
sand demi-sous ; a thousand liards, and
a thousand demi-liards ^ a thousand de-
Jiiers and a thousand demi- deniers ?**
After enjoying the embarrassment whicH
the Institutor was plunged in, he re-
plied, with an agreeable smile, and a
turn of his shoulder, ** Celafait cent
Jrancs\^ that is. It comes to a hundred
francs, and then took a precipitate leave.
The primary Institiitor observes, that he
has exercised this child, but taught him
nothing. His physiogpomy is pretty
regidar ; his head is large, and the hind
part of it projects in length j his face is
ffat and broad ; his eye, is fine, and de-
. notes abundance of wit; his sight very
wenkj his smile agreeable, and his
n^ovements lively. Tlie Ilistitutor and
the council of administration affirm^
that thev are well assured, that the an-
swers of this child are not the effect of
a cultivated or happy memory, but of
intellectual faculties of the most exten-
sive kind, and adapted to the purpose9
of calculation. His name^is Louis Ro-
bert Desvaux. His parents have not
the means, apparently, to bestow upon
him, any kind of education.

^Ir. Joseph Matthews, of Great Bar-
rington, Glo'stershire, intends, shortly,
to publish, by subscription, tables under
the title of *'* Tlie Fanner's and Laud-
Measurer's Assistant." By this work,
any person may leara the exact sum of
money, which every rood and perch, iu
an acre of hoeing reaping, mowing,
&c. will come to, from one fiu-thing lo
twenty shillings per acre. Mr. M. will
likewise soon have ready for publica-
tion, tables, by which any person may
leani the accurate contents of any piece
of land that does not exceed a certaijiji
degree of length and breadth. •

From a. report of the Society for bet-
ttring the Condition and increasing the
Comforts of the Poor, lately pUblisnetl,
(the whole of the reports in 4 vols. 8vo,
ll. 48. and in duodecimo, 1 8s.) it ap-
pears, that this truly patriotic society
was founded in the month of Decem-
ber, 179^* itt consequeuce of coavcr§a»

^ ^ ^ digitized by GOO^ . "



!2Bo Uodem iHscoveries dnd Improvetnehts in ArtSi Sciences, tf&,

tion hi^vin^ been held on the subject, men, or even boys, may do the worjc of
between his lordship the Bishop bf sewing or stitching, without sitting, and
Durham, Mr. Bernard, Mr. Wilber- as. easily and as welj as a man.
force, and the kte Hon. E. J.Elliott, We leam from a report lately made
who dieii shortly afterwards — that the to. the Society de Medecine, by M, du
business of the institution, when it had Puytren, that a foetus %vas lately found in
been once fully resolved upon, was in- the body ofa young man, named Amadee
trusted to a committee, now consisting Bissieu, fourteen years of age, who lived
. of eighty gentlemen, some of whom at Vemeuil, in tne department of the
meet monthly to conduct it — that the Eure. This person had complained al-
Bishop of Durham has, from the com- most from his infancy, of a pain in hit
mencement, occupied the post of Pre- left side. This side had risen and pre-
sident ; that four Vice-presidents are sented a tumour. The above s^mptomt
annually choseb— that tne institution had remained, however, without pre*
is supported by the annual subscriptions venting the faculties, physical and moral,
<rrom one to five guineas each) of nearly of the youth from developing themselves'
400 gentlemen, and (from 10s. 6d. and and ripening ; and it was only at the age
upwards) of 200 ladies. The accounts of thirteen years, that he was seized all
communicated to the society, of various at once, with a fever. From that time,
means which have been successfully the swelling became voluminous, and
resorted to, for affording local relief and very painful, and his evacuations pun-
encouragement to the poor, amounted form and fetid. At the end ^f thrw
to 124, at the close of the 4th vol. of months, after the attack of tiiis first
the reports, not including fifty-eight malady, a sort of puhnonary phthisis
articles of useful information, which begjan to shew itself. Soon after the
serve as apj>endLxes, and are collected to patient evacuated aball of hairs, and died
l?ind up with each volume. — Although at the end of six months in nearly the last
the communications ai?e so multifarious, stage of a consumption. When "bis body
that we could not possibly attempt to -^^-as opened by Messrs. Gperin and Ber^

five even a summary of them, jret we tin, of Mardellcs, there was found in a

not observe one article that is not po^ch placed at the back of the transverse

more or less ^estimable, and inlercstihg colon, some balls of hairs, and an or-

^^^^^"^*y- , ganized mass having many features of

The bank directofs have ordered a resemblance to a human ftetus. From

^^1^ J -^ ^^ printed of the names ah exam en of the pieces sent to the so-
ftnd descriptions of the proprietors of ciety by M.Blanche, sura;eon, at Rouen,

undslwned dividends On bank stock, and there can be no doubt that the organized

?^ ^^P^^^^ ^""^^ transferable at the mass was inclosed within a kystus situa-

bank of Faigland, which became due on ted in the transverse mesocolon, near to

and before th^ I'ith of October, 1800, the intestine colon and out of the trade

and remained unpaid the 29th oT June, of the digestion. This kystus commu-

^^?^u 1 V nicated, indeed, with the mtestine ; but

It has lonfe beeft thfe Opbion of the the communication was recent, and itt

medical feculty^ that the position of some measure accidental ; and the re-

>Bitting of several mechanics, while at mains were evident to be seen of the par-

their occupations, and particularly of tition which separated these two cavities*

shoemakers, is Very prejudicial to the In the forms of this organic mass,

^onsututlon. A correspondent of this ^nong a great number ^of resemblances

magazine, who is himself a shoemaker, to a human fcetus there were also visi-

represents to iis, that, after many inef- ble a multiplicity of particular disposl-

^ctual Uials, he has, at length, brought tions ; some of which seemed to depend

i^atters. to ansvm his purpose, by on the vices of the conformation, anJ

changing the position from sitting to others to deformations successively pro-

ltandiris,%yhereby he is able to perform duced by time, and bv the position

.. r!i *V'^^\^"^''^* short time'and which itiiad taken in the me^ocoU.Th^

^uZ.A ^ by sitting. The position dissections of this mass which were made

"Ih y^K « a.' *? '*^^"^^^* ''^s easy, inas- y^ith an extraordinary care, discovered

much as the foot is not used m the stir- the traces of some wgans of sense, a

K^^'thl!!.!^*" """"'f 'c u ^^"^- "^"^ y^' ^^ ^^^' spinal marrov., very voluminous

Wt;l Si"'*'' "^^ ^^^ '^'."?P '° V'^'y ««f^«S' ro^scles that had degenerated in.

^wction, the,5ame as m sxtting. Wo. ttt > Sort df fibrous mattci; a skelqloi

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Modim ^Dut^vefkB mid tmprmfeiAenh in Arts, Seiences, k^c. * 261



tiinposed of a vertebxal column ; of a
beadp a basin, and a rough sketch of al-
Aiastall the members : and lastly in an
umbilical cordon, very short and in-
serted in the transverse mesocolon, but
of the cavity of the intestine, an artery,
and a vein ramified by leach of their ex-
tieaities, near the sine of the foetus and
diatof the individaal to vrhom it.be*
longed. The existence of the foregoing
oigms is perfectly sufficient to establish
tlK individuaUty of this organized mass ;



length ; also apartments for the directort
of some great manufactory, and lodgings
fox the workmen &c. In front, tho
streets terminate in an extensive palace»
and there appears to have been a great
number of houses. The workmen em-^
ployed have likewise found a prodigioui
quantity of articles in bronze, fra^enta
of statues of alabaster, bass-reliefs ift
marble, fra^ents of Mosaic work, and
a multiplicity of vessels of 'glass and
earth, wrought in such a manner, as to



although, otherwise, it vras deprived of convey a very high idea of the art tff



tkeoij^s of digestion, of the secretions
of urine and o f eeoeration . This foetus
beins out oC tne alimentary canal, it
could never have Wen introduced into
the body of young Bissieu, after his birth,
and, besides, his sex having been accu-
Qrteiy ascertained, at the request of M.
^e Prefect of the department, by Mess»
Delz and Brouard, the tetus could
neither have been fecundaud, nor could



pottery in ancient times: and, lastly^
not a xew Celtic arid RomaA iQcdalshavt
been discovered, containing inscriptions,
scnne in a better, and some in a wors^r
state of preservation.

HUMBOLnr.

Among the rareat number of cu«
nous facts which M. Humboldt has coK
lected, in his voyage^ the following it
one of the most curious, and which h«



he have fecundated himself, as he was has recently communicated to the Na*-.

]»D¥ided with the organs of a male, and tional Institute. Several volcanoes of

contained not the sliehtest trace of those the Andes Cordilleras dischari^e, at times^

of die female sex. It is evident, there- dirty or muddy eruptions, mingled with

fore, that this unfortunate youth, had, large masses of fresn water, and what it

at his very birth, the cause of the malady very remarkable;, an infinite multitud^of



imder which he fell at the end of only
fourteen vears.

M. Scnroeter, according to the foreign
Journals, has lately ascertained tlie ex-
istence of an atmosphere to the moon,
by certain observations on the twilight
found that planet j which twilight ex-
tends from two degrees thirty-eight mi-
fiutes to three degrees six minutes* The
atmosphere of the moon is conceived by
this obser\'er to be 28-94 times less
dense than that which incompasses the
leneslrial globe.

A memoir has been lately addressed to
the National Institute, by M. de . la



fishes. The volcano of Imbaburu,
among others,* ejected once so great %
number, near the city of Ibarra, that
their putrefaction occasioned several dis-
orders among the inhabitants. Thia
phenomenon, astonishing as it is, is not
even a rare occurrence; on the contrary,
it is very frequent, and public authoritjf
has preserved the epochs of it, in an au-
thentic manner, tt>gether with those of
earthquakes. What is particularly sin-
gular, if, to find these fishes, in no re-
spect, damaged, altliough their bodies
be very soft, and they do not appear to
have been exposed even to, a strong heat.



Drouette, l^efect of the deportment of The Indians maintain that sometimes

*i.^ f T A 1^. .,.\.i^u -^i_.^- *i gygjj living fishes are known to fall at the

foot of the mountain. Sometimes these •
animals are projected from the mouth*
of the crater, and sometimes they art
vomited through the lateral apertures,
but always at Uic height of about 12 or
1 300 toises above the surrounding plains*
M. Humboldt is of opinion, that these
fishes live in the lakes situated about thft-
said height, in the interior of the crater;
and what confirms this opinion is, that
the same species arefouna in the rivuleta
that run at the foot of these mountains.
It is the only one that is 1400 toises in
height within the kingdom of Quito.
Tins species of Eshet is A ^ew Mic fof
oatu^aiMts* r^ ^ ^ ^T ^

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the Upper Alpst which relates the par-
ticulars of tiie discovery of the ancient
city of Mons Seleucu8,'and which, ac*
toniing to this account, must have been
overwhelmed and destroyed either by a
convulsion of the earth, or by some ex-
traordinary inundation. In the subter-
ranean researches which have been made,
during the last two or three years, by
order of the French government, there
have been discovered an edifice, five hun-
dred and niiiety-eiglvt feet in length, by
three hundred and sixty in breadth ; as,
likewise, a furnace, a semicircular bi&son,
stoves, brick cellars, covered with strata
ci very fine cement 3 also canals and
t^deducti, UqwI throughout th«if whole



Vte ^ Jiodem Discoveries and Imprcvemenis in Arts, Sciences, Be.



, Christoph. Theoph. dc Muir.— -There
. has been uilely published, at Mentz, a
icommenUry on the Greek' papers, or
.volumes, that have been found, at dif-
ierent times, at Herculaneum. M. De
^lunr, of Nureuiburgh, long known aa
^he compiler of a iournal upon the his-
^ry of arts and litemture, and by an
•bridged translation of the Antiquities
!o( Herculaneum, has given, in the work
here noticed, an extract of the grand
Neapolitan edition of Philodemua, which
.ivas hilt very little known, and but lit-
tie diffused in the coaixnerce of book*
sellers. . We find in it an historical in*
troduction, in which M. d*! Murr re-
beanes the labours which the court of
K^ples caused to be undertaken for this
purpose, and which informs us that,
4lown to , the year 1/61, there had
heen four volumes unrolled, vi*. the
i^th book of Philodemus Aipon music,
■vi'hich is now published ; the 2d book
t)f the rhetoric of the same author; a
^ork of 'N'letrodorus on letters ; and
akb another, of Philodemus, on the
.▼ices^ and on the virtues which res^m-
ible tliem. After havine interrupted,
oc suspendedr the unrolling of a '5th
.work, atihbuted to Phanias, this has
jbeen replaced by a 6th, which they have
.4ieen at work upon, since \y6lt out of
-which neither the author nor the argu-
ment is, known. M. de Murr, next
jgives a short notice of the life and writ-
ings of Philodemus ; and proceeds to
-analyse the work published by M. Piag-
-p. iHe discovers and shews, by two
cuts, a specimen of the writing of this
•roll, of tne moat ancient MS. unques-
tionably, that has come down to our
-times. Ji)ach plate is accompanied with
an explanation, abd with tne notes of
M. llossini, to which M. de Murr has
added a number of learned and judicious
observations. In general, we can re-
commend this work, which is not vo-
luminous, to all those who w^ish to
fbrm an accurate judgment as to the
.state of those books which have escaped
xlestruction, in so very singular a man-
.ner, and of the important labours which
it has been fnnnd necessary to under-
take, in order to derive advantage from
the circum^anccs. With respectf to
the work of Philodemus, we may briefly
.take notice, that he was an Epicurean
• philosopher, and a poet, contemporary
with Cicero, jmd that ^anv of his epi-
grams have been preser\'ed in the Greek
anthology. He eodeavoun, accoi^diog



to the principles of his school, to de*
monstrate, in Ills treadse, that music ii
prejudicial to a staia, aiid that it pro-
duces a fatal, or noxious, inflaeBoeupoD
the soul and upon the body. Although
it may be reasonably thought, fium fhis
statement, thai the'work of Philodemut
can^ consist of scarcely any thing but
common-place aiguments and desultory
remarks, it is, notwithstanding, not
destitute of a certain degree of interest,
and particulariy, when be quotes the
philosophers prior to himself, in order
to support his opinions ; ' or, whea ha
conlbats hts adversaries, Diogenes of
Babylon, Perseua, and others, because
he ti)en informs us> of a great number
of fiicts which we were not before ac-
quainted with.-*It is wdl known that
1700 rolls of pap3^-rus were discovered
and found at Hercujaneum, upwards of
fifty vear^ ago, and that artists hare
been long employed at Naples, in un-
rolling some of tliese volumes^ but this
labour has always advanced very slowly,
it appears, that a work copied and ex«
plained, in the year 1754, byM.Piaggi,
a learned Neapolitan, eniployed express-
ly for the purpose by his government,
was not given to tlie printers, until the
3'ear 1793, ninc-and-thirty ye^rs after;
when it appeared under the folkywing
title : Htrctdanensium Volurhimtm qua m-
fersunty Umus primus, Neafiolij I793. E»
regiatypograpiua^fol, cum 39 takulu^ «vtf,
delineatis ab Antonio Piaggi^ etQ.B.Ma-
lesei, et eeri incisis ah Antonio LaUariy Bar-
talomfo Oraliiy Josepho Aloja, et Jgmterii
Casanova, Pagin. 180, prttf. 2l,/ol. »0.
— To the above dissertation of M. de
Murr, two others are added, by Uiesame
author, the first of which is drawn from
a work of M. Ignarra, entitled. Commas
tarius de Phratriis, firimis Gracwwn poUti*
CIS Societatibus. Neapoli, 179/. ^^ ^
lates to an inscription upon a plate ©f
bronze, found near Policastro, in the
kingdom of Naples, and which has ex-
ercised the sagacity of the' most skilful
and discerning antiquarians of Eu-
rope, such as Messrs. Barthelemi, de
Vilioison, Lanzt, and others. - The last
of his commentators, Heeren, now pro-
fessor at Gottingen, tlioueht he nad
found in it, a contract of^ hospiudit\%
drawn up between two inhabitants of
Great Greece, in a ven* ancient time.M.
Jgnarra, on the contrary*, nnds in it, a
decree which punishes a criminal with
exile, and which menaces anv One with
the iviath of the jjoda that should pre-

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Mddefn Discoveriet and Improvement in Arts, Scimas, Be,

fciiiie to gi« him- an asrlutn. If the M. Ole^rius, the HoMein- ambassador,

literati, who have already' describeri this for the following reason. During a so-

monument, have fivcn to it,' explana- lemn p^cession, the patriarch was gir*

tions commendable on account of their ing his benediction to the people ^ e\ ery

simplicitv, that of M. Ignatra appears one fell down prostrate, laying their

to us estimabk on account of its mge- hands cross-ways, in the accustom^

nuity. manner j but the foreigners, that were

♦ Jjt. and Professor Engelbert Wichel- in the crowd, did neither the one nor

liausen of Berlin, has lately published the Other. This want of generation for

t tract which he calls a Picture of Mos- the religious ceremony, so highly ini-

cow, &c. &c. which, in a variety oT re- tated the patriarch, that he prohibited*

spects, may be considered as well de- upon the spot, with much sharpness*

jerring of the j^ublic attention. M. all foreigners from wearing the Russian

Wirhelhausen says, in his preface, that costume in future. This interdiction

his work contains only fragments of a occasioned some of the oddest scenes

medico-pkysical topography relative to imaginable. Those who could not find

Moscow. After having treated, in the tailors skilful enough, at Moscow, to

first articles, of the topography of this make them elothes, after their own tas^e*

ancient capital of Russia^ he proceeds saw themselves obliged, either to put on

to give us a^ rapid and concise view of the old clothes, which they had brought

.the manners of its inhabitants. This with them into the city, or to put oa

ii, doubtless, the most inte^sting part ^apparel of a description still older and

of his work; his observations are just, moregrotesque, which the Russisis had

knd the details which he gives ot the in some measure, inherited from their ^

private life of the grandees and nobles forefathers in Livonia, and -which ilie|f

teem a little too minute, but are not re%'erenced as real antiques. It is not

devoid of curiosity. What the author dtfiicult to coneeive the embarrassment

says of the costume and modes of dress- to which the foreigners, of whom ther*

»^in Moscow, desenre to be quoted.— were not a few, were reduced ; howevev

**The Russians," he says, " have partly it was requisite that they should apv

preserved their national mode of dress, pwir in public, and even at c«urt,

which seems to be of an oriental origin, with their superannuated clothes,
it consists in a long robe, which, far M. Wichclnausen attributes many of

from embarrassing them, sits very well the maladies which prevail at Moscow;

vpon them ; and we must regret, that in the superior class of its inhabitants*

the grandees have quitted it to languish to new custcfois imroduced of late years ;

in the arms of a tyrannical fashion ! It he finds fault with the inacuve and vo«-

ihust be admitted, nevertheless, that the luptuous life which they lead, a3 on*

intrckiuction of new fashions in Russia of the causes of 'the complaints with

has always met with great difficulties ; which they are afflicted. What the

in the beginning of the se\ente€nth cen- author says respecting the physical cha-

tury, they still held in detestation the racter of tiie m habitants of Moscow,

French and English modes; and every merits, likewise, a particular insertion,

voyager that appeared in them, exposed ** Although it is generally velv easy to

himself to the risk of public derision, discern and distinguish tlie Ituesians,

In order to remedy this evil, foreigners from other Europeans, by the exterior

were under the necessity of giving up form, nevertheless, it is difiicult enough
their costume, and of adopting that of to designate the principal characters of

the Russians J but the latter, afterwards, the national physiognomy ; because, in

perceii-ed the ridiculousness of their genehil, the distinctive traits are rare,

conduct, and foreigners may now enjoy The following, it seems, arc the most

their privileges as before. An un fore- common: a little mouth, thick lips,

leen e^'ent contributed materially to ac- small eyes, coWmonly of a blue prey,

celetate their resolution.'* A passage in- or of a light brown ; the form of the

tpoduced here by our author, and which nose varying much, but frequently thick,

is taken from a work of M. Meinert, and rather cocked up ; the ears flat, and,

appears to us to be too curious, to be as it were, glued on the skin j the beard

omitted. — ** Foreigners lost the liberty .^or the mosipart, tu filed j the hair of all
of adopting the Russian costume, at colours, long and coafse. Their com-
Moscowj «- Uttle before the anival of plexiooi is not a pe^fea yAxiXt, bat ha«

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tdt Modem DiscwerUs and Improvemmts,,Atts, Saenca, &€,



somewhat in it of a li^ht brown; the
proper expression of their figure is gra-
vity and sagacity/' The author adds, that
the Russians have, in their deportment
and gesticulations, an astonishing viva<
•ity, which resembles the French, more
than any other northern nation; and
that there are to be found, even among
the most . simple peasants, engaging
manners, and a very considerable degree
of complaisance. ** The same traits," the
author observes, " are found, likewise,
in the female sex : the figure is sveUo^ or
delicate, and very well made, and it is
very rare to find ifl-shaped women ; they
have large and expressive eyes ; we find
among them many fine rose-coloured
^heeks, and rouge nowhere composes
%nypart of their toilet.

Tne Petersburg Academy of Sciences
has lately nominated M. Julius Klap-
roth, son of the celebrated chemist of
that name, to attend the embassy of
Count Golowkin, which is intended to
be sent from Russia to China. The
embassy and its suite will consist of not
Jess than 3000 persons ; and as M.
}(laproth possesses great skill m oriental
literature, it is presumed that se^'eral ac-
' cessions of knowled<ie, in respect to the
Chinese empire, will be obtained from
it.

A collection of letters which passed
))etween that great mathematician and
universal genius, and several of his cor-
espondents, and which had never hi-
therto been made public, has been lately



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 47 of 108)