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published at Hanover.

M. Oeffig, formerly vicar of the cathe-
dral of Wurzburg, nas lately submitted
.to the Electoral Committee at Munich,
the outline of a new invention, by means
•f which niills of every description may
«|be set in motion without tne aid of
water. ' M. Oegg has undertaken to
execute one of these machines, on con-
dition that a monopoly or exclusive pri-
Tilege for erecting the same be granted
to him, during the space of twenty
years.

M. Bergmann, a clergyman, of the

Russian province of Livonia, who re-

. sided formerly several years among the-

Kalmuck Tartars, and whose learned

. and ingenious Account of his Travels

tile public are no strangers to, intends

. to set off, ei;^ long, on a new tour

among the Tartar nations, that inhabit

" Upper Asia. We have reason to expect

the. most satisfactory results from this

•aterprise, a^ M, Bergmana is a com-



petent master of the langoages of many
of the nations he intends to visit.

Dr. Trotter, of Noivcastle, intends ta
publish, when completed, a treatise,
which he is now preparing, and to be
entitled. An Enquiry into uie increasing
Prevalence, Prevention, and Treatment
of Diseases, commonly cSalled Nervous*
Bilious, Indisestion, Kc.

Mr. John Bone has published a Let-*
ter to the Right Hon. George Rose, o-
casioned by his observations on the Poor
Laws, &c'. It comprises the outline of
a plan for reducing tne Poor's Rate, and
amending the condition of the aged and
unfortunate, including those of the na-
val and military departments; and u
active ipeasures are pursuii^g, for caity^
ing the plan immediately into efiect,
reasonable expectations are entertained
that the public will lend every assistance
to so desirable an object.

A new ^ition of the late learned Dr.
Langhome's Plutarch, will shortly mak4
its appearance, in which some mis-
translations will be corrected, a number
of additional' notes inserted and the de^
ficient parallels supplied, also tables of
of coins, chronology, &c.~ and a copi»
ous index will be subjoined. Prefixed
to the work will be given a preliminary
dissertation on the de^e ol ctedit due
to the pubRc translations, &c. of the
first five centuries of the Ronian History,
The Rev. Francis Wraingham, M. A.
F. R. S. of Trinity College, Cambridge,
is the Editor.

Soon will be published, by Mr. G.
Dyer, a restoration of the ancient mode>
of bestowing names on the rivers, hills,
vallies, plains, and settlements of Brit>
ain ; from which, nearly all theexplana*
tions given to these by Verstegan, Skin-
ner, Vallancey, Bryant, Borlase, Whit-
aker. Price, Macpherson, and otber
etymologists, are snewn to be unfound*

St. Bartholomew.*— The following
courses of lectures will be delivered ^t
the Medical Theatre of this Hospital,
during the ensuing season : — on the the-
ory and practice of medicine, by Dj.i
Roberts, and Dr. Powell. On Ana-
tomy, physiology, the theory and prac-
tice of surgery, by Mr. Abemethy. On
comparative Anatomy, and the laws of
organic* existence, by Mr. Macartney.

An /original work is printine in Scot-
land, entitled a Picture of Edinburgh,
and will be found on the same pkm 01
the Picture of London,



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SiuUe^ of PulUc Affairs.



265*



Dr. Howuon has lately transmitted
ta the Socie^ of Arts, a barrel of the
prepuatioD of taD> of his manufacture,
which weig;hed 54lb. This was ac-
companied by a brief memoir, the ob-
Cof which was to prove, that ] lOlbs.
been prepared by nun, at the rate of
about l6s. per cwt. but which, in large

riltities, might be manufactured at
late of lOs. per cwt. This tanning
principle was extracted from Mangrove
Uik, and it appears that the apparatus
used for the purpose, consisted of four
wooden cisterns, much in the form of
coolers, fitted with cocks, and so elevat-
ed one above another, as to admit of any
liquid contained in the higher cistern
running off into that which lies imme-
diately under it. -The Doctor has, like-
wise, made an extract similar to the one
made as above from Myrabolans, which
he considers as likely to be extremely
useful in the arts of tanning and dying.
*-Dt. Howison has likewise commu-
nicated to the Society, the following
process for printing on cotton-cloths
what he terms a '* permanent substan-
tive black colour :"^-Take some Ma-
lacca nuts, which, he adds, may be
had in Bengal, at the rate of 2s. per
cwt \ boil them in water in close ear-
then (vessels, with the leaves of the tree :
during the boiling, a whitish substance,
foanA from the mucilage and oil of the
nute, will be found rising to the surface,
which whitish scum should be taken off
and catefuUy preserved. The cloth in-
ttnded to be black must be printed with
this scum, and then dried : it is then to
be passed through lime water, which
changes the printed figures to a full and
pennaaent black.

We are happy to be able to inform
our readers of the institution of a literary
»ciety at Bombay* for the purpose of
promoting the acquisition o\ useful in-
lonnation connected with' India. On
tbe 26th of November, 1 804, the Hon.
^ Governor, the Right Hon. Lord
Vbcoupt Valentia, Lieutenant- General
f^icholUj and several other gentlemen



of this settlement, met at Sir James
Macintosh's, at Parell, and formed them-
selves into a^ society, under the naihe of
the Literary Society of Bombay, for the
purpose of collecting useful knowledge
m every branch of science, and of pro-
moting a farther investigation of the
history, literature, arts, and manners of
the Asiatic nations. Sir James Mac-
intosh, who was chosen president, de-
livered a very eloauent discourse, con-
taining a comprehensive view of the
most suitable ODJects of the institution^
and of the line of research which might'
be pursued with the best hopes of ad-
vantage. We cannot help wishing every
success to an institution so well calcu-
lated to excite a spirit of inqui)>y, and»
in s6me decree to satisfy ^ the claims
which the learned at home, and. over
all Europe, have so good a right to
make on the learning and industry
of our numerous countrymen in In*>.
dia.

A new work is in the press, entitled.
Mineralogy ; or, an £asy and Simple
Method of Arranging the Substances of
tiie Mineral Kingdom, into Classes-,
Orders, Genefral Species, and Varieties,
according to their distribution on the
surface of the Globe. By E. D. Clarkcj^
LL.D.

Robert Fellows, A. M. Oxon, has
two new works in the press, the one
entitled, a Body of Speculative and Prao-
tical Theology, and will make two vq»
lumes octavo: the other entitled.
Bowers of Love; or. Poems, particu*
larly designed to describe and exemplify
the finer and more delicate feelings of
the heart ; and chiefly translated or imi-
tate from the German Idylls, and other
works of Gesner.

John Stewart, esq. will shortly pub-
lish a poem, entitled. Pleasures of
Love.

Evening Amusements ; or, the Beau-
ties of the Heavens Displaved, for J 805.
— ^A work by Wm. Frend, Esq. M, A.
Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge, is
in forwardness for publication.



STATE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.



TE0NHKE'*<Ai7r7ro^? « fi^x Aia.

THE fear of invasion is hi an end.
This load is removed from the
Moulders of administrauon, and the
VRtchcd &fthionable papers are very
^^ with Buon^Mute, for distiplining



his troops on the coast of Boulogne,
and preparing them for a different ex-
pedition from what they bad laid down
for him. To frighten our ministers,
it was necessary for the • French em-
peror^ to take a joiimey to Boulo^ 3

Mm r^ T

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266



State of Public Jffinrs.



but the nation, we mean the thinking
part of it,' has been tinder no alarm :
tor if, with the warning we have had,
the i;notions of a Frencn einperor, or
the embarkations of his troops, occa-
sioned any solicitude, we deserve to lose
thb honours of the English name, and
merit the treatment which the subject
nation receives from its conqueror.

But the tlircat of invasion will he re-
newed ; — the alarm will be repeated
on our .side of the water ; and it becomes
e\'ery Englishman to consider, that he
has too much at stake, not to be pre-
pared at all times for <in enemy, and to
shew him that face of defiance which
will inevitibly prevent an attack. It is
not the time, then, for the j>cople to
lay down their arms, and to think that
there is no occasion for them ; but, on
the contrary,' they must exert them-
selves the niore, tnat they uiay all b^
in a 9tate of discipline to cope with the
French with the usual couraee and skill
of their forefathers, though Buonaparte
.should return ""to Boulogne, flushed
with his victories over two emjxjrors. —
Now is the time to consider of every
plan for national defence ; and to the
iorcc of our volunteers we should add
that of all.ourmen between the ages of
twenty and forty. By enrolling them
in their parishes, and exercising them
at convjcnient times, we should from
ttiis moment inure our youth to mi-
litary exercises, and make the nation,
what circumstances hnperiously de-
mind, an armed nation ; not a nation
. armed for the idleness and folly of con-

?|ucst, but to prolect its own territories
rom the rapacity of a foreign soldiery,
aLrmcd for plunder.

The state of Europe presents an ex-
traordinary and an awful appearance.
Three potent chin(Tors are preparing to
take the field. Two of them were des-
tined to the iihjJCfial purple from their
youth — the other has assumed it, with
the iron crown of Italy, from his own
"taknts and braver\s aided by the times
ixi which- he was .placed. The two
hercditar\' emperors, destined to rule
from il>eir cr^^dJes, rcceised armies dis-
ciplined by their preijecessors : the spif-
"created sovcreij^n lias, in a great mea-
sure, created his own aruiv, is ac-
quainted with the services of his gcne-
*rah, has headed his troops, led them
on repeatedly to victory, nas rewarded
•their labours with munificence, and
postesbes tiic confidence of evwy «oU



dier, who will brane any danger with t
general, sharing his toils, and pos^esting
a superiority only from his merits. The
armies of the two emperors are more'
numerous than that of the French em-
peror ; hut the}^ arc not so easily brougjht.
nito acrion, nor can their manoeuvres,
controuled by a double cabinet, be «►
ei^peditious as' those of an army, where
one man is the life and soul of every
enterprise, and %vho knows not onqr
how to direct, but to select, fit person
far the execution of his orders. ' '

In this approaching con\'ul9ion, wfcat
part is En«:tand to act ? She is to assist,
11 is said, in both men and money. Of
the Litter \i'e have always been sufficb-
ently free, and an immense quantity of
silver is reported to have been sent from
the bank. The effect of our money in
the late contest gives us very little rea-
son to expect any great advantage from
this ; but after all, it is much better
that it should l)c dcaled out in handfuU
to the needy sovereigns of the continent,
than lent without interest at home to
members of parliament.

But for what are these mighty move-
ments in the three great empires of the
continent } Why has Buonftpiite
quitted his EngUsh expedition to march
his troops to the banks of the Rhine f
and Russia sent her hordes from the re-
gions of the north to co-operate with
those who are prepared to march under
the Roman eagle ? Pipers of mutual
recrimination have appeared ; and if war
takes place, we shall not want for ma-
nifestoes from every partjr, to prove the
justice of their cause j manifestoes^ framed
in tiie leisure of a cabinet minister, and
to which they only give credit, who do
not reflect how htde they are believed
by the persons who hare drawn them
up. In these cases we cannot too much
ponder on the cunning of the cabinet
minister, who was charg^ with the
consideration of the memorial delivered,
on the propriety of an immediate war
with Spain, by'the brave Col igny, to the
cruel and cowardly Charles tbc Ninth
of France. The unfortunate Coligny
had been drawn to the court of France
by the perfidious Charles, with the view
to destroy both him and all the pro-
testants. He was treated as acabiiiet
minister, his advice was received with
the utmost deference, and his memorial
on the war with Spain waited only for
the forms of farther inspection. He
had pointed out al^ the supp^^ed bad

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State of PulUc Affairs.



267



• wmduct of the adversary, a^d proved
that every one must be convinced of
the justice of the French cause. The
other cad>inet minister did not deign to
enter one moment into the justice of
the French cause: he examined only
the policy of the war, and satisfied
himself by proving, that more wouid
be gained by remaining Quiet* thau by
entering into a contest. The justice Af
a' war may be repeated over and over
ajgain, bat the true question is its po-
licy ; and, if the two emperors can
beat Buonaparte, no one will trouble
themselves about the justice of their
cause ; and, if Buonaparte should eat
his Christmas dinner within the walls
of Vienna, all the exclamations on
JQStice will not ref^in to its afirighted
monareh one single inch of his ter-
ritories.

But the peace of Europe cannot be
preserved, say the two emperors, under
the aggressions of their brother of
Fiance : they, whose predecessors di-
vided between them two- thirds of the
kingdom of Poland, without troubling
themselves c*i the balance of Kurope,
haye acooired more wisdom, and they
view with horror the acquisitions of the
Ffench in Italy. It cannot be doubted,
that the language of the soldier of for-
tune is strong— that he also gets what
be can, and is determined to keep
what he eefes. The single question
then is, v^ether the Runsians, Aus-
triaas, Turks, Enslish, Swedes, and
some little states of Germany, can make
him quit his hold. The question is
now pending— -the result it is not for us
to determine. France, in a state of
confusion, beat a similar confederacy,
though in a variety of battles her armies
were beaten, and ber navy was tohi to
pieces by the English ; and Philodore,
at the game of chess, would little regard
the number of persons who confederated
again&t him, provided that he had only
a sufficient number of pieces not to be
borne down by more strength.

The part tnat « Prussia is to take in
this contest, is not apcertdined. It will
etideaTOur to preserve its own, and keep
the north of (Germany in a state Of neu-
trality. Bafts and threau will be held
out iy both parries-; but it has strength
sufficient to despise the latter, and
whichever party it joins. will be very
i9«ch benefiteu by its assistance. By
sitting still it seems likely to ^aiii the
no&t^ and th« possession of Haaovqr,



•with the reversion of the empire of Ger-
many, 'may probably be the grand ae-
quisition of the Prussian monarch, and
a ffieater one than will (all to the lot of
either of the other contending parties.
Sweden has contradicted publicly the
supjposed bargain between it and Rus-
sia for the transfer of Swedish Pomemnia
to the latter ; but, if it has not ^ken
place, a variety of circumstances forbid
us to deny the probability of such an
event before the end of the war. Den-
mark, which has for so many years past
been governed wisely, still maintains
the usual tenour of her conduct. She
is not disposed to enter into the confe-
deracy, and her territory will be enrich-
ed by the commerce of her inhabi-
tants.

Spain remains closely united tp
France. The passions enter into her
dispute with England ; and she cannot
forget the manner in which she was
forced into the war. But her internal
tranquillity is by no Aieans secure, and
the authority of her Prinze of Pesit^
seems to be wavering: She joins with
France in the boast, that they together
have gained a victory over the English,
though we ha^ an inferior force, and
took two of their ships ; but foolish as
such a boast is, the union of the naval
force of Spain to that of France is of
great use to the latter in the present,
state of her affairs. As to Portugal, it is
scarcely thought of; and if an extensive
war takes pla<!e upon the continent,
another province will be torn from it
to satisfy Spain ; and already the king
of Naples is said to have retired into
Sicily. Wherever he is, his dominions
are a very insecure possession ; arid. the
tremendous ruin lately brought upont
them by an earthquake, must excite the
conipassioD of every humane mind for
the poor inhabiunts, who, smarting
under the scourge of nature, are dre^id-
ing still greater calamities frohi tlie
hands of their fellow-creatures.

Turkey can be of little use in the
contest. She has enough to do \y'nh
her rebel Pachas ; and whichever side
gets the better, the Porte may diead
some diminution of its authority.—
Buonaparte has shewn a good example
to the potentates of Europe, in his treat*
ment of the African states, as he has
compelled the Algerines to give back
two hundred and thiny-onc Christian
slaves ; and if the Christian blood and
treasure now to be wasted on internal

^^^^ n T

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288 Slai^ of Fuhlii: Affakn.

^8piitet» were directed to the northeup fjedition, axe deeewing of ^;Rat atte*
coast of Africa, they might destroy pi> tion : we shall hope mat tne conduct
racy on her torritory, and establish ci- of our enemy will oe thought not ii»-
vilizatioQ. The accounts from Algiers worthy ofimitation, who would scarcely
of the massacre of the Jews, puts us in entrust with a high military oommanda
mind of the ferocity of the aark ages, general, whose career had been marked
and , shews us how little pr6gress nas by a perpetual series of defeats or i)l for*
really been made, in many parts of the tune. With a fleet like ours, and an
world, to bring people to sC true know- army sufficiently lme> it is rather tt-
ledgeof human nature. traordinary that, we nave not hidierto

The American states will keep out of alarmed tne French with the fear of an
the contest, and enrich themselves by invasion on their coasts. We may land
commerce ; so that if Europe, from the when we pkase any number of men on
vice and folly of its inhabitants, should, the shores near Boulogne y and, if the
in the course of a few years, present the army there is materially diminished ^
same picture as the desolated r^ons of the drafts to the Rhine, a coan-de^majn
.Minor Asia, a place is preparing in might destroy, with Uttle loss, tne flotilh,
which science, literature, and libert}*^ ana set our own country free from fii-
may take refuge. The complaints on ture alarm for a considerable time on
.our treatment of their seamen are very that head, llie repeated attacks by our
loud ; and some of the American papers shipping off that port are attended with
do not scruple to talk of the propnety scarcely any otner result than great
and policy ot urging them, with greater noise and waste of powder : the Fiooch
ef&cacy than by the mouth of an am- gun-boats cannot venture beyond the
bassador. The West Indies are reco- protection of their batteries ; but these
▼eriqg from theif fright y and the inha- are so numerous, that they pass fraoa
.bitants of Jamaica have a respite of one port to another with very tittle risk,
aix months from the femine they dread. — An invention has been made public
■—The governor has, upon the returns bv Sir S. Smith, Which promises to en-
from several districts, proving a general aole us to come nearer, with advantage,
scarcity of both American provisions both to their batteries and boats ; but
and lumber, consented that the inter- it remains to be proved, whether the
course between the island and the United practice is equal to the theory. The
States should continue for six months enterprizing spirit of that brave corn-
longer, provided that it is confined to manner deserves every encourafpfieot.
these necessary articles. The aeal which The difficulties of the uciinista in-
the islanders manifested on the reports crease, as the time approaches for his
of the appearance of an enemy, enti^tle conduct to be investigated in parlia*
them assuredly to some degree, of regard liient ; and it is now found, that his
from this country; and we trust that support of Lord Melville has lowered
some independent member of parliament him very much in the public estiina-
will soon oring the. subject of Jamaica tion, and his Bill of Indemnity is hi
forward, that rising dissatisfaction may fi^m satisfying his former friends on the
be stopped by wise and prudent mea- propriety ot the measure, through which
iures. it became necessary. Yet it is said that

At home, the attention of the public a dissolution of parliament may be ex-
has been called to a great armament pected, and that, before this b printed,
prepared for a secret expediUon. Sur- the event will take place. The firiendt
inises on its t>bject have been published, of Lord Sidmouth wil^then be iemorad
i— If we really knew it, we should think from the government boroughs ; but it
it our duty to be silent upon such a ihay well be qiiestioned whether upon
subject; as we have such a manifest the' whole the minister will be a gaioef.
superiority at sea, it is evidently in our — ^The country will examine the preten-
power to make a diversion on whatever sions of each candidate with a degree of
«ide of the French dominions that are attention that Mr. Pitt has not been ao-
near the sea, we please ; but the pros- customed to ; and it is not improbable,
pect of any great advantage to be de- that material changes would take place
jrived from a landing, is problematical. — in the representation. The magistrates
The remarks p«bUcly made on the va- of Edinburgh, it is to be hoped, do not
nous surmises respecting the supposed speak the sense of Scotland ; for, if the
commander or commanders of tnis ex* aumer they have given to Lofd Mei*

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Usi of New PuhlkaiU^s in Septmier 1905. 009

4riBe impGle^ an approbation of his mea^ ings, and has deservedly met with uni«*
sues, we sincerely deplore the state cf versal approbation. The body was de-
that degraded countiy. posited m Windsor, and lay for one

. A change is expected in Ireland. -» day in state in London. From want of
The viceroy has conducted . himself proper arrangement, a small part only of
much to the satisfaction of all panics, the multitude, who crowded to see it,
and will leave to his successor a very could gain admission, and there was
.easy and tranquil seat. Todd Jones, a scene of tumult ill suited to the oo*
acconline to the Irish papers, has be^n casion. A slight degree of attention
ideased from bis long confinement ;-^ might prevent in future similar confU-
but this will not, and ought not, to 4ion, as in the same limits of time all
prevent the enquiry in parliament on who had taken the trouble to go to tlia
tbe propriety of his having been so long house of the deceased, might, by a
imprisoned. In fact, not only his case, 'suitable arrangement, have returned
but the case of Irish prisoners in gene- with their wishes gratified. The a^
lal, require serious investigation, and it lemnity at Windsor did not suffer any
4mght to be dearly ascertamed on what diminution from a similar cause ; and
crounds punishments have^ been in- every one, who was present at it, was
aicted on persons imprisoned in that deeply impressed by tne solemn parting
countiy. The proper means to prevent of the prmce from the remains of his
abuses in either respect^ is the certainty father. This unusual attention in high
ihat the proceedings of every court, or life to filial duties may, perhaps, stop
individual entrusted with power, will the indecent practice, in some niinilies,
be overhauled at a higher tnbunal. of leaving the whole care of their de«

The loss sustained by the Royal Fa- ceased relatives to strangers -, by which •
mily by the death of the Duke of Glou- not only much of the moral improve-
€e$4r has been deeply felt by those who ment which arises from a scene of
were acquainted with his general con- moumine, is lost ; but also the feel-
duct ; and the affectionate attachment ings of ute heart are blunted or dead-
of his son displayed itself in a manner ened.
which does great honour to his feel-

UST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS IN SEPTEMBER, 1905.
tT As this Department tuiU be of great Importance to Authors and Book-

ttLLSBS, as well as to Literature in general, it is remesttd Noticbs of
' Works moy he forwarded as early as possible, (free of FobtageJ, which wuT



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 48 of 108)