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Jn$wer8 to tke iSstmcttl and PMlosepJdcd Qaedms.



jaSkditidfthe society for d)e refor-
matioo of maunerst which howevt^r
suck desenedly iato contempt, and
ou^iithave been an es^niple to otliers,
HOC to obtnide themselves with oj^-
ctoos zeal and vicious actions to cor-
iTCt irrepilarities. The deadi ot the
ling of Spain opened a new scene of
MoMsfaea; he left his kingdom by
)> iJI to one person ; various powers
ID Europe cnoae another; but little
^id the contending parties tliink of
the advantages the subjects of Spain
« ere to receive from their intei po-
fttioo, and the Spaniards had not
ipirit enough to meet in their cortes,
and elect lor themselves their o\\ n
jovcreign. The act of succession in
England established a precedent for
JSuropc, to shew the true depend-

i ance of the crown on the legislature ;
nd that a kingdom is not the pro-
perty df a sovereign, but an onice
coDterred on him, and connected
witdb certain duties. A scene oi war-
6se and bloodshed, arising; from the

; Spanish succession, disf^;ures and
disgraces Europe during me greater
part of Queen Anne*.s reign : and
the erecting of the mansion at w ocxi-

I stock, named Blenheim, from a vie-
toiy obtained at a place of the same

I name in Germany, by the duke of
Marlborough, is a monument of the
gratitude of the nation for his ser-
vices, at the same time that it makes
OS deeply sensible of the folly of hu-
loan nature, which, throwing rea-
son aside, betakes itself to brutal
ftrce, to bring to pass designs, in
which it seldom or ever by tliose
means obtains success.

The famous vote of the house of
commons, for disbanding all the
forces raised since the year l680^
psbsed in tlie year Itigf, and the
courtiers were, from the ferments oc-
casioned^ in the nation by the fears of
a standing army, obliged, though
"With the utmost reluctance, to ac-
^oicioe in the general wish, llie so-
Oetjnfbr the reformation of iniinners
«9S fotmed in the year l698> the
members inr^e to Inform die magts-
fratcs of ^* vice and immorality, tnat

m is, in offier words^ to become a set of

m spies and informers, and to give en-

f ooora^ment to the worst passions
of the human mind, by teazing iadi-
vrduals, linder the pretence of sonu-
Uemkh in their neighbours' conduct^



and wreaking their vengeance on him
for real, or sup|X)bed injuries. Tlie
act of succession jwssed in the year
1/00, and its importance ou^ht to
stamp both the date, and the matter.
of diis bill, on every person V memo-
ry. By tins bill the crown of Eng*
land ih confined to a protestant, wU-
ling to join in communion with the
church of England : England is ncjt
obliged to defend the king's foreign
possessions, if he has any - the king
cannot leave his dominions without
tlie consent ofparliameut : no perM>n
holding an office of trust or profit
under die crown, is to have a seat in
the house of commons; and no
pardon from the crown ran be pleaded
to an impeachment. With diese and
some other wise regulations, die suc-
cession to the crown was settled on
die princess Sophia, after the death
of die pruicess Anne, and to her lieirs,
so that all die claims to the crown by
inheritance, and they were numerous,
weie cut of^'j and, as the Frencli
have lately done, tlie English d;en
exeircised their right of electing their
future sovereigns. The manor of
Woodstock was conferred oh th«
Duke of Marlborough, in 1704, and an
immense, heavy, cumbersome palace
was built in it, at a veij great ezpence,
and with very litde taste, either in
the external or internal decoradons.
The English nation is so much ac-
customed to jobs, diat it is very dif^
fictdt for any public work to be
execute in a manner that would do
honour to the country.

Quest. IV. To wnat reflections do
the above occurrences give rise ?

The resistance ma£ by our an-
cestors to a standiiw army, in the
reign of William lU. ouRht to im-
press upon every Englishman the
danger tnat attends a large military
iorce in any kingdom. Liberty and
a large standing army are things in-
compadble. However well educated
a young Englisliman may be, and
however noble the spirit of liberty
which he has imbibed, diere is always
great daiiger that it should beexdn-^
guished by the spirit too firequently
prevalent in a standing arniy. The
jealousy that has been expressed by
some military ofiicers against the
volunteers, is a proof of this assertion ;
and yet perhaps d;ere is no institution
which uie nation ought to hold in

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Answers (6 the Htsi&ncal mid^PHihso^fdcat ^tt^iftMir*



&^her honour than that of the vo-
lunteers. With a voUinteer force of
upwards of three hundred thousand
inen» we may less fear the increase
h^ the regular army; and, when
«very man nas learned the use of arms,
«nd tlie titles of colonel, captain »
Ae. are diffused among a sufficient
Dumber of our fellow citizens, the
soldier colonel, that is the colonel
tuid for his services, will learn to
bave a proper regard for tlie citizen
colonel, who taJces up arms in the
defence of his countr)', and instead of
deriving any advantage from, is at a
preat expence on account of his rank.
Tliat Englishmen sliould view witliout
•hhorrence a lai-ge standing army, is
sii inconceivable folly. The navy can-
not be too much cherished. It is our
honour, it is our safeguard. The offi-
cers, when they come on shore, mix
with the people, and bave no interests
separate froni those of the people.
Tne sailors, afler fighting glorioasiy
tlie battles ot tlieir country, are not a
burden to it^ but increase its wealth
by wafting its commerce to every
loore. Ine na\7 can never be made
an instrument to enslave the people.
Jf it were increased too much, which
k is never likely to be, it would add
<mly to the expence of the nation : the
increase to a large standing army, is
not only an increase of expence, but
an increase of terror to those who have
any regard for the liberty of tlieir
country.

The societjr for the reformation c^
manners in king William's time« na-
turaUy carries oar thoughts to the
socie^ for the suppression of vice,
now established amongiit as, and to
the benefit or miscfaiels of such instl*
tutions. The title of these societies
catches the fapscy ; and in their ab-
horrence of vice, many put their
hames down, who looking to the ad-
vantages proposed, think little of the
evil connected necessarily with the
execution of thdr designs. The per-
sons who established the inquisition
in Spain, thought that they were act-
ing for the honour of God j the am-
sequence of this teal was however
general livpocrisy, azMi the destruction
of social intercourse. There arv
doubtless, maxiy respectable persons
in the society. for the suppression of
vice, and their names give a counte-
ttaoce to its proceedinfs: but th^



have little iufiuence probably hi lllli
transactions of the society, and afb
not acquainted with the secret sprin|^
by which it is conducted. The so-
ciety we know fi'om a public trial,
employs spies for its purposes, and
encourages by that act alone, more
vice, than it will ever be in its power
to suppress. It fells us of the number
of pettv irregulai'ities that it has
stopped : but the trial, in which it
appears, that it subjected a variety &
innocent individuals to the expencb
and inconvenience of a prosecuticm.
outweighs all its pretences to r^ara
for the checks given to petty offenders;
and besides we do not know how mudi
vice may have been occasioned hf
the threats of its spies, and what mo-
ney may have been extorted by theift
from innocent persons, to avoid thft
terror of a' prosecution. It becomes
every member of tliis society to reflect
seriously pn the e\'il he may produce,
both to individuals, and to the man-
ners of the public : for duelling is
better than assassuiation, and drunk-
enness a small crime, compared with
the odious h3^pocrisy, which such a
society has a tendency to create.

The act cif succession, passed iti
the year 1700, leads to many reflec-
tions on the nature of sovereign power,
and the disputes occasionecTby it iti
most countries. How it is legitimately
acquired, and how it has in general
been acquired, are questions which
may fill many yohimes j the divines
were fools enough in former times t6
assert that kings reigned by right di-
vine, when every page aliuost iti his-
tory, and the siigntest view of thts
various governments in the world,
might have taught them the folly 01
such an assertion. We have bowevet
nothing to do witli these disptltes.
The right of our sovereign to fhc
crown; IS founded on the best of titlesj
an act of parliament The compact,
SO much disputed of between King
and people, has actually taken plaa
among us : and George I. u'as seated
on his throne in right of that compa6t
the parliament asstiring^ to him thi
allegiance of the people on certail
conditions, laid down for the preSu
med benefit of both king and people
In vain did the duchess ot Savoy, th
next heir to the Crown, after the desi
cendants'of James II. pf otest agaio^
this act } Urtb can be a tkle ofily wici

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:9nsw9rs to ike HUiorical and Phihsaphkal Questums. ' %&



fte cooieiit of the* state ; and it
wooid be hdieulous to suppose that a
wbofe oatkm^ in the exercise of its le-
ffisb^ power^ is to be contronled
Sam th^ mere drcumstanee of births
bf the opinions of a single femilv.

Tbe palace erected for the duke of
IfariboroDgh, must compel every vi-
^ to it, to make a comparison be-
tween the glory acquired by the
English in his wars, and the indiiterent
ig^ we made on the continent du-
nog the course of tbe last war with
Iraice. . The English resisted at one
tiiae, and were t& chief instruments
in defeating the ambitious plans of
Louis XIVT to subvert the liberties of
&rope.. An Engtish eommander
was the soul of the combined armies,
and victory every whefe followed his
Kandard. The last war saw the En-
glish serving among the combined
mnes with their usual bravery, but
erery where acting a subordinate part,
and oD the very ground on which
their ancestors acquired so much
Itoopor, they were compelled conti-
nually to retreat With immense
tieasQies at its command, and ^ub-
ȣzing V9st forces, England, last
m, had to act s^^nst a nval, torn to
pieces by iiitemafdissentions, and yet
that riyal succeeded in every enterprise,
ad acquired more territory and influ-
lenceinEurope, than Louis aIV. in the
height of his ambition, either wished
orexpected* What a subject is this
fo the future hbtorian of the reign
of Geoigelll.,! What a comparison
vflll it occasion between his ministers
ffid generals, and those of Queen
Anil!

.(^t. V. Does London a^brd jto
s rdfectixig mind a greater number of
fnah in &vour of civilization, or. the
vantofit?

AbdoUah, Ebn Achmet, £bp Dini,
BmDinarl;^, was descended from
the ancient race of sovereigns who
ipifenied the track of country from
fte vast desert of Sahara to the Equa-
tirial moiBitainsi and trough whose
BQithem territories tbe Niger, after
washing the walls of Tombuctoo, di-
fects its rapid course, till it smks in
^ sandy plains of Charaba. No
IhiFopean has for manv ages extended
his researches to this nappy country 5
>n1 the fame of the Hntish nation
voild never have reached the throne
ifQuli fibn Sbemesh,if the tbuoder*

VoUV,



of its cannons in the bay of Abouklr
had fiot filled the minds of the Ambs
with reveiepce and astonishment.
Abdollah heard, the almost incredible
tale finom a Jew, who was* present at
the scene, and whose traffic ext^ded
from the shores of the Mediterranean
to the mountains of the moon. The
curiosity of Abdollah was excited : he
had travelled much in his youth, but
nothing that he had seen conveyed to
his mind an adequate idea of the
people who had perforined such won*
ders. Yet he was npt by any means
ignorant in the philosophy for which
Europe is ftmed : and he nad sought for
wi&'dom in the colleges of Carthochma,
whither the sable inhabitants between
the tropics send the choice of their
youth to acquire the maxims of know*
Ied|?e and experience.

Carthochma is situated within tlie
first deeree of latitude south of the
line. Its professors hav^ long been
known for their erudition; and the
language of Beujah is no where spoken
in ^eater purity. In this language
Abdollah was a great proficient 5 and .
possessing a peculiar fondness for geo.
graphy and natural history, he was
particularly anxious to gain informar
tion on the state of every country, and
its inhabitants, on the globe. The
maps of Carthochma are known to be
excellent 5 for it is not permitted to
piit down the situation of any ^)ot^
without authority; and where that
authority is wanted, a blank space
declares that tliat part of the globe is
an object of future researches. Of
course the maps, however excellent
for Afirica, gave no information on
Europe. A great sf a, tradition said,
separated the continent ^om the re*
gions of cold, in which' human nature
could scarce subsist ; and such was the
eflect of climate upo|i the human skin,
that it lost its origmil colour, and pn^
sented the melarafoly appearai^Ceof
pallid whitene^^ intermixed*' with
streaks of afevfrish Tfii.

The nMtil^ of ^9 Jew made a
deep imnf^saipA Oh the mind of Ah-
dolkh/^but DuU and his courtierg
it as the execration ot'i/^
and declare^ it impossibjg^
with red aqd white faces
|erform'such.wp|iders. Ontho
t ^y Abdollah ^questioned the-
in/)rivate,on the countries which
e ^tnsordinary white men inlia?

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90 4fuw^$ to the HisUiriaii and J^UhsopKcal Questiom.

bited ; on the causes which brought mighty wisdom. ' Sufier me to leare
ttiem to the shores of Africa ; of me the regions, enlivened hj you/ pre-
rage \^^lch could possess their m^ds sence»to wander in pursuit of wisaom
to destroy each oth^r ^yith such in-* among the tombs otdarkness. I may
fernal iury. l^^rom ope whose soul perhaps bring back something worthy
had been occupied with the concerns of the notice of the colleges of Car-
only of his traae, he gained but little thorium } and the happiness enjoyed
information. All t&t the Jew had by your subjects will be heightened
learned was. that these white men by the contrast of the miseries to
came from a distant region >. that their which they must have been ^posedj
minds were inaccessible to any ideas if nature had placed them in the re-
qf politeness^ relidon, and morality; gions of perpetual cold and gloom^
ana that they excelled only in devising which notnins but insatiable curiosityi
plans tp rob and murder each other. I con&ss, coi3d excite in any one a

The philosophic mind of Abdollah desire to visit.
wa$ little satisfied with such vague Ouli reeretted the resolution of
information. He intreated the ^w AbdoUah;T>ut as a year would elapse,
to make; frtrther enouiries when he trusted that calm rejection would
returned into the f ezzan, and to change so strange a design. He gave
learn, impossible, whether there were his reluctant consent to the plan; and
any means of travelling into the coun- Abdollah, with emotions of gratitude,
tiy of the white men with a tolerable saluted the thigh of the monarch, and
degree of security. The influence of retired from his presence with a firm
Abdollah was suphj th«^ the Jew was determination to explore the unknown
happy in the opportunity of acquiring world. Every body loved Abdollah,
1^8 interest, tn a few days he de^ apd every breast felt a pang, when the
parted from the court of Ouli, for the rumour wa^ spread, that in a year the
jB'ez^an, havix)g promised to meet sage would leave his country, never
AbdoUah the next year, and to give more perhaps to return. His o^n
him the result of his enquiries. family wei:e a01icta} with the deepest

The thoughts of Abdollah troubled concern ; and when he took his leave
l^s countenance, and the sov^eien to return to his hermitage on the
with his accustbmed benignity sou^it mountains of Jarcha, aU sent up their
for the cause of his uneasiness. To prayers to heaven, that he might in
80 amiable a prince what could be nis solitude overcome what appeared
d^ied ? Abdollah in a long interview to them so sti:ange a desire, and en*
explained bis intentions; and OuU, livening them as usual on his an-
fearing for the dangers to which he nual visit, leave them again .£:>r many
miffht expose himself, endeavoured successive years wixhout the dread of
to oivert him from his purpose. V/1iat eternal separation, and the miseriei
can possibly be learned, says he. by that must be ^perienced by a wi«|
a man of your capacious mind, from man in the mid^t of pale-faced barb%)
pjale barbarians, in whom the light of rians.

reason seems to be almost extinct; The hermitage of A^ollah was 419
who inhabit a country which the sun t?iated on a mountain, whose base k
never warms br its beams 3 and who washed by the Nerola, a rapid s^eanj

fat the le«i?ons of philosophy, whose waters, by the art of the sag«
person w£ip utters them, with were raised to his mansion^, and gat
pt. Bemaip in your own verdure, to 1^3 fields. It was not dj
where you m, honoured and hermitage of a solitajry l^ing, yffi
, and do not ^pose yourself retires from the world m disgust wi
19 useless dangers* , Fr^tbe pismire, his fellow creatures, and passes h
replied AbdoUah; we q^ir^nstruc* time in the idleness of devotion. Ai
tion ; 3nd there is no aninoai i|Jbase) doUah had made a paradise of a|>of
which does not discover the lAd of three thousand acres, which he ij
its Creator* The light of reasoiiVjay served fronvhis paternal inheritan*
be nearly extinct in minds habituaW and he enjoyed here the lettered
tp darkness; yet neither they ritf pf an English- country gentlen,
their country could be permitted A Twenty years had elaMeJ since i
exist witliout some olyect to bt aC retirement from the onides (k stajj
tainei^ wtable to the purposes oi \ll The resolution ^aa taken on bis ]



(



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Answers to the Sbimlcal imA Pi^oi(^Jicdl (Questions: , tf

gtnittge to Mecca> from which place several laws against those who dif^
M jctamed with forty camels load fered from them ; these laws increa-
* of tlie choicest manuscripts of ed accordiiidy, and are a disgrace to
And>ia. , To these he determined the statute books of most countries
to dedicate some part of his time, where the protestant religion has
and to the valuaole writings left been established. People are begin-
bim by his ancestors, and those ing toopen their eyes to this absur-
which he had procured from Car- di^, and to see that religion is a
(hoima and the libraries south matter of personal concern : and
of the Ime. His ample estate was if some form of it may be natro*
Qiade over In trust for his children ; nised by a state, every other should
with the power, however, of resum- be left to its own discretion. Itt
in? it at hzs pleasure I and he reserved the united kingdom there are two



mself only the estate of Naam- established religions, the church of
Aa, and an annual income often Scotlandand the church of England;
fSiousand ounces of gold. One wife but the disciples of both are daily
(Snly^ and three concubines^ were wil- diminishing in number^ and the at«
nng to accompany him; and now in tachmeht to the church is vetydif-
1^ grand climacteric, he found him- ferent now from what it was a century
idf deprived by death of t\vo of the a^. The methodt^ts are carrying
coDcabines. The nursuits of agri- on the lower classes from each com-
coltofe, his stud of Nubian horses, munity: and tlie higher classes in
and his books 3 made the time appear £nglana continue their countenance
^rter in the mountains of Jarcha more from habit, and the influence
than at the court of Ouli. arisinc from the property of the

Quest. VI. What are the chief dis- church, than any particular zeal fof
tinctioos among those protestantswha its doctrines. Next to the popish
worship three persons as God ? the English is the richest church in

The great and material distinction is Christendom: it affords very com*
ia their connection with the state ; the fortable provisions for the younger
religion of one party beilif establish- sons of tne nobility, and . the chief
cd By the law^ the other being only landed property-; and the votes of
tolerated. This circmnstance makes ecclesiastical peers are very* seldonoC
anastonishingdifi^rence^mongnum- found to be against tlie minister ot
Bers who profess or pretend^ to be thedav. »

christians j and yet certain it is, that In Sweden, Denmark, and many
Dot one word is said in scripture on parts of Germany, one class of pro-,
temporal preeminence of one body testants is established^ the others only
of cnristians over anothier; and there tolerated. In Switzerland this tole-
cannot be a^eater insult to the chris- ration varies j but what it is now we
tian religion, than to suppose its au- cannot at present well ascertain. It
thor or his apostles, desirous that is probable that the powerful han,d
tficir £>ilowers should, as sooi^ as of the French has brought the op-
QTcumstances permitted, assumatem- pressed to a better temper with each
poral power, add knock down, ill. other, and introduced that mutual'
treat, or despise those who would not toleration which would have t^ken'
OMne to their church or meeting, place, if the^ had obeyed' the prer
How many are there in this country, cents of Christianity, instead of in*
who, because they jgo to a church dtuging their passions. In Atnerica,
^idi has bells in it, and hear a a greater degree of toleration still
preacher in a white surplice, ot a prevails,- and in seiVeral states no^
plack gown, think themselves of prefen^nce is given to any sed of
much greater cons^uence, and that protestants. 'Inis is evidently the"
tbey' possess a purer religion, than wisest mode of governing the coun«
thme vrho go to a preaching, where try ^ for so many are the subjects of
the preacher appears in his ordinary contentions amon^ mortals, tliat eve*
robes, and speaEs by no other autho- 17 prudent statesman vnll exert his'
ilty than that of the free consent of utmost endeavours to prevent reli*
kis.hearen. It wad natural, that gious disputes from increasing the*
wfcen a party or factig^n had got tlie number.
Ue to, back^tb^m^ th^ woula makef 1 he secondgrand distinctioaateons

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On Restoring L^to the Appairenily Dmi.



theprotestantsvwbo wors)up diree per*
sons, is in their ecclesiastical govern-
ment, ou which subject the books
written are very numerous \ but hap-
pily the green-RTocers and pastiy-
cooks are daily diminishing the
quantity of' paper that has been
wasted upon so iale a subject. Here^
as in most questions about religion^
the scriptures have been sadly ne^ect-
ed; for certain it is tliat neither
Chhst nor his apostles have laid
down any rules for christian meet-
ings ; the circumstance was too trif-
ling, and' it was not doubted that
they who had imbibed the spirit of
Christianity^ would hav^ sufficient
good sense to regulate their meet-
ings for religious service according
to circumstances^ The mode adopt-
ed in the apostles' times is certainly
a good one; but it is not binding;
this was under the regulation of ft
committee of the meeting, formed
of a president and elders, the presi-
dent being called the overseer. The
name in Greek of overseer is Episcon
^05, from which comes our teim bl-^
Shop ; and In the same manner priest
comes from the Greek word presbu^
ieros. But the bijshops and priests
of these days bear no resemblance
to those oi the apostles: the bishop
being the head of a large district, and
the priest either the head of a parish^
or omciflting.as one* The English,
Danes, and Swedes' have 'bisKops ;.
the churches of Scotland and Genoa,
and many in Germany, are under
presbyters, or elders. Vun vaut
autant que F autre.

Questions to be answered next month.

Which are tlie principal epochs
between the taklne of Babylon and
the battle of Marathon ?
. To what reflections do they give
rise?

What are the principal occnjten-
ees between the union with Scotlandj
and the peace of Utrecht ?

To what reflections do they give
rise ? ^

Does London afford to a reflectiil^
mind a greater number of proofs in
£ivour of civilization or the want of
it?

Can a pastiy-cook md^e a good
colonel }



ON RXSTOaiVG tins TO Tlfc£ kttk* .
£ENTLY DEAD.

WE mentioned m one qf our fbr-.
mer numbers the fortunate incident



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