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bespeik, yet certainly a vein of contest, if not even of personal abuse, a monotooous note
of indiscriminate censure run» through it, from beginning to end. Without CDtcnaun-
itag the slightest idea of wounding the very delicate feelings of X. C or of depredating
his well-merited fame, as a liberal and ingenuous scholar, we must beg ieare to difier
from him Mo cactoj as to theremigrks and reflections which he makes on the subject of
|hs letter. With regard to an £ditor being particularly obliged, when called u^n, to
nserc^political disctt».sion% and to correct whatever does not exactly accord with ths
ideas of a reader^-Tand moreov^, to insist that every one should have full liberty> and an
opportunity pven him to contradict, in different periodical publlcationsa all such seoti*
ments on political, or other topics as he ma^ conceive to be erroneous, and to tell lus own
opinion thereupon-— this is a cono&sion which cfertainly must ever and invariably depoid
upon the natilte and various circumst ances of a case.— There are, no doubt, naaay laint
and olucure, and controverted questions in politics ; and many men may-have many and
different minds, and opinions as to differtat facts and circumstances therein ; b«t to weem,
hurt at a notorituj and confesstdy a mdni/esdy coidtat, and even undeniaUe tntb- — (and migfat
not truth to be the primary object of our every research ?) to us appears astonishing, and
amazing indeed ! To deny that Mr. Pitt has frequently had the horrid mortification to
be branded with the name of an apostate, would be weak and silly, and ridicnloos in the
extreme— and it would be equally void of all modesty, and of all likelihood of truth, eqoal*
If repugnant to 'or rather utterly^ exterminatory of) all reason, and all liberal and umo-
|»histicated common sense to suppose, that dxspassionata, and unprejudiced, aiad compe-
tent judges can hold the opprobrium to be at all misapplied ! To us, it appears to be as
clearly established 'n the plenitude, the original allocution of fair and can^d observation,
as any axiom in the well-known elements of Euclid. To assert the contrary, would lie
quite as comical as if a person, after having classified, and defined the idea of wisdonii
under all its different modifications, &c. &c. were to assert, with the ludicrous import*
ance of a philosophical author, to pronounce with Johnsoiftan formality, that Solomon^aod
Socrates were not wi<c men-— that Abraham did not bezet Isaac — ^and that black had
actually changed its colou', and was become white. In sliort, it does not scarcely scent
possible for the wit of man to deny a truism so certainly and generally known, for, at
icast, it seems very difiicult to conceive it poiisible) ; for in that case, we must run direct-
ly contrary to matter of fact, must absolutely ^Ueve virtue to be vi«r, and mce virtit. And
therefore should not truth be spoksn with all convenient boldness, strongly, and teoa»
cioualy, and distinctly, and fairly made known to all the world, and the more especially
9t\ this is a very great truth, almost universally agreed upon by the vm p^uli, and justly
considered by the whole ma<s, or the collective body of the people, (iMa-drnm tnd^t reeUm
v/iAriy as FisMLT FIXED AN uNB AS IS A ROCK? Is it uot vcTy mcct, and right, and
reasonable, and pertinent, and necessary that a free mam should boldly dare to say at
all times, that truth u truth — even although, peradventure, it may highly offend some
certain readers ? The opinion of X. C. that ** It is the oppojition who goes to every ex-
tremity to ruin the country/* is not only ridiculous, passionate, absurd, and rhapsod i ral,
but it so far exeeeds,as we noust ingenuously own, am the known limits of decorum, that
we are greatly surprised to find it in this correspondent's letter, whose otherc ommunicatiom
for the Universal Magaxine, are seemingly symptomatic, in many reacts, of the finished
gentleman. Nothing is more clearly demon>trable than the contrary opinion, (or this
obvious reason, that it h mcon^ruous, prima faat, and it i^, moreover, impossible to be
proved with an% degree of moral certamty, teeause eppositiotr have ii*ver yet had m epfw^
tunUj ci acting up to their principles : in fact, it is so wild and whimacai a notion, that we
cannot forbear from efaculatiag : O rem ridiculam ca.to st jocosam ! X. C. sboaM,
therefore, speak more difiidcntly concerning a matter by him taken for granted, but which
is so far from being so, or to say the least oift, a fact in any questionable shape, that^ in
realky, it is no fact at all — nor is it even so much as possible, that it ever could have been
so. Another observation, still more extraordinary occurs, in the very har.>h, unwarrant-
able epithet of ** Seditious Baronet,** as applied to that good and excellent man, that de-
servedly valued character, Sir FrancL Burdett — and, indeed, to insert sui.h an odious im-
putation, such an horrible calumny, without a comment upon it, might subject the pr»-
prietors of this Magazine, it is reasonable to bdieve, to the vexatious consequences astes-
dant upon a prosecution £or a libel.

We nave also to thank thi^ gentleman for his very excellent Poetry, which came safe
t> hund. His Qncstious art now under consideration, and will be admitted in their
ourse. at a proper opportunity. His arrangements for the Poetical department cannot
, tajce place until the prcseac volomc- be completed, previouily to whi^ Wf shall giw it
yiature consideration*



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THE



UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE.



Jjo. XXIII.— Vol. IV.] Pw OCTOBER, 1805. fNew Sebies.



SKETCH Of THE LIFE AND WRITINGS
OP THE LATE WILLIAM PALEY, D. D.
ARCHDEACON OP CARLISLE, WITH A
. PORTRAIT.

IN th"^ course of our perkxiical la-
bours, we feel a pleasiue in bring-
bg fon^'aid to the notice of ouTj^eaders,
the character of the great and the good ;
and it is our duty to hold up tbeur talents
and virtues to the admiration of . man<»
kind. Bioj^raphy yields ample materials
for instruction. It presents human na-
tore in every attitude and form of which
it is susceptible. It kiodUs a spirit of
emulation in the breast of the yoUng, by
the exhibition of examples worthy of
imitation — ^whilst it leads the thoueht*
less and unsuspecting to consider tneir
ways, by placing before, them indiridu-
als,' whose vices or foiUcs have hivolved
them in misery. Thus operating pow^
crfully on our hopes and our fears — ^this
species of writing conduces eminently
to die promotion of our present and fu-
ture feucity* We are now, however,
called upon to pourtray the oharacter of
t man, whose wriUngsndLY^ contributed,
in no small degree, to the intellectual
iod moral improvement of the world.

William Palet was bom in 1743,
at Peterborough, and his (ather was a
^pectable ciei;^man, who held a small
finng in the vicinitj of that city. Soon
after the birth of hts son he removed to
Ciggleswick, in Yorkshire^ where he
iras appointed master of the Grammar
ScboM, a situation which he retained
till his decease. Thus employed in the
education of youth, it is to be supposed
that the improvement of his own off-
^siog woofd not be neglected. Ac-
. «ordingly, we find that the son received
ferery proper attention— and at this early
Penod of his life, was laid that solid
touni^tion for hterary eminence, which
he aftarwaids obtained. With pleasinz
emotions indeed, must the venerable old
gentleman have contemplated the pro-
cess of his pupil to distinction. Here
the fond labours of th& parent met with
thdr appropriate reward.

In the KvaOeaOh year of hi* agSi Dr.

Vol. IV.



Palbt iktt the house of his father, and
bteame a student of Christ College,
Cambridge. , His time here must have
been diligently improved, fot he brought
himself into notice upon the first op-
portunity afforded him, for the display
of his talents. Questions, it seems, were
imitated in^ the public schools, on the
topics of Natural and Moral Philosophy
— «nd he discovered on these occasions,
extraordinary specimens of quickness
and sagacity, it is, however, to be ob-
served, that in tliese contests, he was
apt to put himself into peculiar attitudes,
as was also Dr. Watson, the present ce-
lebrated Bishop of JLanda(&— and both
ofiheinwere caricatured in a drawing,
by Bunburv, so as to excite the risible
faculties oi the residents in the Univer-
sity*

In 1763, Dr. Palcy took the degree
of B. A. and received the ajiplauses to
which he was entitled, in passing
through the accustomed process of ex-
amination. Indeed it appears from the
teAimonies of contemporaries, that he
acquitted himself with an ability which
shewed the vigour of his powers, and
the extent of his attainments.

'Having completed his studies at the
University, he became an assistant to a
school at Greenwich, where he conti-*
nued about three vears. At the expira-
tion of this period, he was chosen Fel-
low of Christ Culi?^c, and took up his
residence at the Uuiver^iiy. Soon after-
wards he was appointed to be one of
the tutors of the collepre, an event, im-
portant in its literary cooscquences.
Far from contenting himself vvitJi a iibt^
less and indolent discharge of duty, he
immediately applied all the energies of
his mind to the purposes of instruction.
Here it h imagined, he laid the basis for
most of his publications— ^nd frpm the
lepetition ol his lectures, he gradually
improved them for the eve of the public,
by whom their merits have been duly ap*
p'reciated. The office of tutor has, \n
Qther instance*, led to fame — ilxe wprkt
of Rod, PritUleyj and Btaltit in particular,
at least mimv of th«;p> orlgipated in a se-
Pp

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290 Biographical Shkk of the Life and Writwgs of TT. Paley, D. D.



ries bf instniction to the rising mncrt-
tion. Whilst he retained tlie office of
ttttor, he'becamc acquainted vnxh Dr.
John Law, son of the venerable Kdmund
I^aw, Bishop of Carlisle, Uiough at^bat
tinie, master of Peterhouse. llie con-
nection thut formed, had an important
influence on Dr. Paley's life, for the pro-
moiioA he obtained in the church, wa«
through this means, and ' led him ulti-
mately to relinquish a situation which
he had filled for many years with repu-'
tetion.

In r776. Dr. Paley <jiTittcd college,
and foniied a matriiuoniai connection.
At first he resided on a small fcenefice in
Cumberland , and afterwards he was
presented li'ith the living of Appleby, in
Westmoreland. Nor was it long after,
that he wr.s promoted to a prebendal
stall in the cathedral church, of Car-
Use ; together with the living of Dal-
ston, in the vicinity of that city. In
the year 1 782, upon Dr. John Law's
being made Bishop of Elphin, in Ire-
land, he became Archd^con of the Di-
ocese of Carlisle. These preferments
were the fruits of pri^'ate friendship, and
do honour to the regard that gave rise to
them. •

IniySQf Dr. James Yorke, the pre-
sent Bi^shop of Ely, offered him the
mastershipof Jesus College, Cambridge
—a singuiar'instance of honourable ahd
disinterested patronage. He, howe\-cr,
declined the offer after shme hesitation
-—but has handsomely expressed his gra-
titude for the favours intended him, in
his dedication of "The* Evidences of
Chrislianity.^* His publications (which
we shall aften^i-ards notice) began at this
time to be pretty generally circulated,
and attracteo attention. Further prefer-
ment now flowed in upon him, through
various channels, and from quarters
which were by him little suspected.
The Bishop of Lincoln,>r)r. Prettyman,
gave him the sub-deaner\' of Lincoln,
on condition that he should vacate hrs
stall in the Cathedral of Carlisle, and
procure him the liberty of naming his
successor, with which the present Bishop
of Carlisle, Dr. Vernon, enabled him to
comply. The Bishop of Durharh also
bestowed upon him the valuable living
of Bishop Weiirmoutli, in the county of
Durham , but it was at the same lunestTpu-
latcd, that his lx)rd8hip should be allow-
ed to present to two other livings, then in
the pos^^sion of Dr. Paley;. and it is but
jusuce to add> Ufuc Dr. V^emon, t^ts



ther with th^ D«an aad Chapter of Cai*
lisle, who were the patrons, with great
Doliteness, ttansierrecf thdir ri^t& to his
L^rdsh ip. In consequenceofthese pro*
motions, Dr. Paley was in the .babit of
passing his winters at Lincoln, and hit
summers at BishM>p Weaimoiith, at
which place, this great and eood man
breathed his last, on the 25 tn of May,
1805 ; after having undergone three
weeks of severe indtsposftton. No par-
ticulars of his illness have transpired—
but he is said to have borne it with chris
tian patience and devout resiKnatioD.
He was a large muscular man, above the
ordinary size, inclining to corpulence,
and of a florid complexiwi. He was '
twice married, and has left eight chil-
dren by his first wife, four ?ons and four
daughters. He was partial to litde
amusements, bi?cause they relaxed his
mind, and exhilarated his spirits, tfe
was fbnd of the pacific employ of ane-
ling— it being, according to honestWd-
ton, favourable to study and contempla-
tion. As a proof of His attachment to
ilt, his portrait has been given to the ptibli&
in the wry act of angling — and the sin-
gularity of his appearance u*ith the usual
appendages of rod and /mt, has led tibe
spectator to some odd speculations
on the subject. As he is said to hxvt
deri^Td peculiar pleasure from intelligent
and chcarful company, so the corusca-
tions of his wit, and the sallies of his
humour were the frequent subjects of
admiration. For his friends he retained
a special ardour of aflection, and indeed
he was to them the subject of particular
endearment. It is seldom that so sta-
dtous a man possessed so many pleasing
habits ; nor must it be forgotten that he
Ocliibited the mild, cheariul, and bene-
volent spirit of our common Christianity.
Indoed his works contain the best dis-
play of hi » temper and character — tbey
are at once the substantial memorial of
his fame, and will hand down his name
to succeeding gerterations. Such was
the life of 1>. Willialn Paler— we now
proceed to the eirameration of his mris
— these are few; but highly important,
and v^ll known. We will take a cur-
sory suney of their nature, deskn and
tendency.— We, however, shall c«i-
sider them not after the OrdjCr iq which
they were published 3 but ac^oiding t*
the order in which they ouglit to be pe*
rused. That they should be composeif
and given to tfie world in Ibis retrograde
mauner, was' perhaps ^eidental^ l^ii

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Biographical Sketch of the lAJe and Writings of JT. Paley, 1). D. 2gi

'Mftuitdlya matter of inditference. They pernicioascflfects. Thus&aturalistshav^
^together fonn an admirable system of observedthat such is the goodness of Pro*
•peealative and practical truths and vidence, thatMrliereveranyspecie^ofpoi-
^annot be read by anv thoughtful ami son^rows, there also will be fbund'an an-
•erious individual, without contributing tidote to countenct its baneful tendency.
•to his impHKrement. 2. A View of the Ezndtnca ofChristiani^



1. Naiural Tkeelfi^ ; tfr, Evidences tftke
Ensiemu amd Attributes of the Deity ; eel-
iecled from the Appearances of Nature. Th^
work is distributed into twenty seven chap-
tew, with thece titles — State of the Ar-
gument — State of the Argument conti-
nued — Application of the Argument—
On the Succession of Plants and Anl



(y, in three parts, has been deemed as
masterly a defence o^reveaied, as the for-
mer is of natural religion. The first
part treats of the direct Historical Evi-
dence of Christianity, and wherein it is
distinguished from the Evidence alleged
for other Miracles — tlie second — of the
Auxiliary Evidences of Christianity —



mab — A|)plicationof the Argument con- and the third is a brief Consideration of
tinucd — ^Ilse Argument Cumubiive — popular Objections. It is an admirabfe
Of the Mechanical and Inimechanical compendium of all that has been advan-
Functions of Animals and Vegetables—- ced, by different writers, onthisinterest-
Of Meehanical Arrangement in the Hu^ ing subject. The learned and venerable

Dr. Lardner had, with incredible pains,
brought together the testimonies of the
earliest writers in favour of the leading
facts of the New Testament. To thift
work Dr. Paley constantly refers, and
^f its contents He has judiciously availed
himself. He has ulso defended revela-
tion in its grand' leading features, avoid-
inff the intermixture of foreign topics,
and not touching on those contro>'er8ial
doctrines which have perplexed the un-
derstandings, and spoiled the tempers of
more than half the christian world. He
has shewn special wisdom in thus oon<-
d acting the argument with so m<}ch ad-
vantage to himsclf, and with sliT much
benefit to others. The alarming pro-
eress of infidelity, in the course ot the '
last century, rendered a production of
this kind 01 inestimable utility. We are i
not therefore surjirispd at its flattering
fcce{)tion by every sect and denomina- .
tion. Though we had many other ex-
cellent treatises in defence of revealed
religion — there were none so plain, yet
so convincing ; so fiill, and yet so con-
cise — in a word, there were none so
well adapted, in ever)' respect, to arrest
the progress, and silence the clamours of
mfiJclrtv. Indeed it is impossible to
the peruse tliis " View of the Evidences of
In- Christianity," without feeling our best



Frame— Of the Bones— Of the
Muscles— Of the Vessels of Anim;il Bo-
dies— Of the Animal Structure, rej?ard?d
as a Mass— ^Comparative Anatomy — Pe-
culiar Orgtnization— Prospective Gonti-
-nuances — Relations— Compensations —
The Relation of Animated Bodies to In-
animated Nature— Instincts— Insects —
ftants— The Elements — Astronomy —
feaonality of the Deity — I^'atural At-
tributes of the Deity — Goodness of the
Deity—Conclusion. Such are the con-
tents of this inestimable work. The
Bnatomieol p:trt, we understand, was
given him by a gentleman of the suigi-
cal profession ; and it is marked by an
uncommon accuracy. The ground had
Itecn occupied by Derham and others j
but the progress of science has been so
tceat of late years, .that fresh facts have
(een ascertained — all tending to streng-
theo and consolidate •ur belief in the
•xistetice and attributes of the Deity.
The constitution of the human frame js
closely investigated, apd with good rea-
son J lor this argument brought over Ga-
fcnfrom atheism — tlie celeorated phy-
iician of antiquity. The chapter on the
CfloiBc«</M< jD/2/y has boen much ad-
mired, and the Conclusion is so drawn up
that the recapitulation conveys
atfOQgttt coDvicuon to the mind.



<ieed the materials ef which . the volume hopes cherished, our noblest expecta-



is composed ; and the skill with which
thev are arranged, &re entitled to the
bigjiest commendation . 1 1 may be pro-
QOaoced the nxost materly production
diat has ever yet appeared on the sub-
ject. And it is a pleasing reflection
that if (as some insinuate) atheism has
W^ its progress amougst u&, we have



tions confirmed ; thus leading us to in-
dulge with greater confidence, and with
more grateful emotions, the prospect of
a blessed immortaiuy. ** V\ upn a fu-
ture state, and the revelation of a tfuturo
state (says this able vindicator of our ho-
ly religion) is not only perfectly eou-
sistent with tlie attributes of the Betn^-



thebe^iocaafl pos^bie of checluug its who governs the universe ; but whkix it



Pp2



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202 Biographkd Sketch oftke Life and ffrilings of IF, PaUyy JD. B-

is mpre^-;- when it alone lemores the ap- 3. Harm Pauimet; «r, tieTfutkefik 1

peanmces of contrariety which attend Scripture Ifjstory §/ Sl Paul eomed, kf I

the operations of his wUC towards ciea- a Comparison of the Epistles wkicAhear ht \

turesy capable of n>erit and demctU, of Name ndtk the Acts of the ApostUs^ and aial '

reward and punishment ; when a strong oi^anotAer, The celebrated Lord Lvttk-

bodyof histqrical evidence, confirmed toilhad written on the character of Wul, |

by maay internal tokens of truth apd au- as a collateral evidence for the truth oi i

thenticiiy, gives us just reason to believe Christianity. But our present author ha^

that «uc4 a revelation hath actually beeii by means of his thirteen epistles in the

made 5 we ought to set our mmds at New Testament, ip conjunctioii with

rest, with the assurance that, in the re- the Acts of the Apostles^ produced a nev

sources of creative wisdom, expedients and striking species of evidence in £mmr

cannot be wajittd to carry into effect of revealed religion. Ifc points out cwr

what the Dei fy hath purposed ; that tain circuiiistances whicn shew there

^it^cranew and mighty influence will was no fraud, no collusion in that pait

descend upon the human world, to re- of the sacred history 5 and as the vrrit-

si^scitate extinguished consciousness; or ings of Paul form so great a part of the

that amidst the other wonderful contri- New Testament, he has thus perfpnne4

vances with which the universe abounds, an acceptable ^service to the reiigi(rai

iind by some of which we see animal life, "v^orid. It must, however, be acknowr

in many instances, assuming improved ledged, that this treatise was not the most

forms of existence, acquiring new or^ popular of his w^orks, though competent

^ans, new perceptions, and new sources juages are'of opinion; that it is strongly

of enjoyn^ent, prt)vision is also made, niarked by ^njj^tf/tity of design, and u^iwr

though by methods secret to us (as all of execution. It certainly w»as ground

the great processes of nature are) for which had not been previously trodden,

conducting the objects of God's moral and therefore we are the more obliged tQ

government through the necessary an author who thus unexpect^W bnng^

changes of their frame, to tliose final ^ditional support to the cau<ie ot simple^

distinctions of happiness and misery, pure,andunaclulteratedChristiapity.Bttt

which he, hath declared to be reserved as this work is not so generally re^i) as i(

for obedience, and transgression, for vir- deserves, we add the cu}singpara|graph-*T

tue and vi6c, for the use and the neg- *< Here then we have a man of hteral atT

lect, the right and tl)e wrong, employ-r tainmentsi and in oth^ points of sound

ment of th£ faculties, and opportuniiics judgment, (Paul) who had addicted hi|

with which he hath been pleased seve^ life to the service of the gospel. W«

rally to entrust and to try us." see him in the prosecution OJ his pof

This extract is a fiiir specimen of the pose, travelling from country to coun^ *

mode after which this work is planned try, enduring every species of hardsiup»
and executed. A sensible friend indeed,

once remarked to the writer of this a^c Moravhm^ht in another part of the woA

ticle, that the pertomiance had too much observes, «« I fcel a respea for the Metho-

of the professed advocate in it ; but it <tfsts, because I believe that there is to be

^ay be questionecl, how far any one found amongst them much sincere pictf,

ireatise, written in defence of a specrBc and availing, though not always ci;f//n/or»«<

cause, can be altogether free from tl^e Chriarianity ; yet i never attended a meeting

charge. Certain it is, that the most po- of theirs, but 1 came away with the refleo.

pular objections against revelation are tion, how different what 1 heard was from

brought forward and answered. At the ^^!^^ ~^5 ^ ^° "°* «^ "> ^"^"^^^

same tijne, it must be candidly confess- J''^ ^^<=^ ** ^r""^! *'*?*,"'' TT

*A .»..,♦ :i;a'^,^«. .^\^a^ t \ \L ^ c c but m manner; howvdifierent from tbecdm-

€.1 that difterent minds feel the force of tbe sobriety] the go^iense, I may tdddie

objecuons m different degrees, and ,^^^^ ^^ Ltbcri!7 oi our Lord's die-
therefore the replies giyen cannot, m the coursc:>." As a celebrated Methodi>t prca-
nature of thmgs, impart to every reader cbcr, not a hundred miles from the metro-
the same measure of satisfaction.* ' pdi^, sneerinvly thanks Dr. Paley for hating

mentioned the resemblance of the Med»-
* It is worthy of obscrv^ition, that Dr. diiti to the primitive Christi ns 5 it J^hall
Paky has spoken of the Metbadisti in a mati^ only be here added, that the above passigc



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