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'•'•but the contents of these edifices tional ceremonies, unless they were
might foe too ponderous to be reniov* well persuaded it had sQpae reference to
ad.'* Here, however, some difHcul-* cmeM^hom they regarded as a prophet^
ties- arise. Did the sarcophagus, late- no less than a hero — ^tbr as sucn^ with-
ly removed from Alexandria, come out doubt, all the MahooaetanA
under this description? Did its beauty, esteemed Alexander. That they did
Its weight, or its magnitude, preserve tlms venerate this sarcophs^us^ not«
ft ? Ur did some regard, still lurking withstanding the various figure* scdip^
in the breasts of tlie Alexandrians, to- tured on it, which is contrary to too
ward the founder of their city, afford injunctions of tJbeir religious code,
it protection ? These questions are tliere needs no other proof than the
Jenderedstillmoredifficuitbythe tri- following anecdote receivj^ by Mr,
umphant language of St. Chiysostojfn, Henley, from General Turnei:, who
only eight years after the destructive had the care of the sarcophagus,
fuiy Of these Christian vandals had ''The last instance of devotion paid
i})ent itself. The, orator just menr to this sarcophagus was at its depar-
MovaA, exdaims, *' Wliere is now. ture from Alexandria, in th^ Madias
the tomb of Alexander ? Shew me ! ship of war, conuif)nnded by Hear
Tell me tho day of his death !** Now Acuniral Sir Richard Bickcrton, when
(f these, (juestions could not be aur the Capirano Bey, with his suite, ani
ewered within so short a space of time, many Turks of 'distinction, came on
yvhat hopes can ive entertain of ideii- board for tlie purpose, aitd all sc^emnn
iifying tliis consecrated relic ? Had Jytouched the tomb with t heir tottgiw*.
his tomb been presciTed, although Tlie permission and |»^ilege to ren*
degraued to tJie baspst of purposes, der tliis act of adoration, wbHe tb«
w;>uiil this primitive faiiier of the monument remained in its ioiiiaer sit

tuat ion, was obtained from tJio iroanft
. * See Barbaras de re iixor. lib. i. c, 1, of the Mosquet ^^ PW^. ^ contriba*'
Keri^auus, lib. iii. ITie tnictb of Eras- tioa of six paras or medins for each
musrinlatjd. inatii. and Kornmanuus de individual. On taking his leave, 4he
liuea auioiis. ^ , fQv'^pltaao Bey declared that proVidepco

Digitized by LjOOQ IC

%{m!d never Siitfer the t??mb in otir comtcnts odCcTMonaHyTemovcd. TlierJe

band?, to ^o to England." do not apjjear to be any traces of a lixi

We shall now proceed to state, a on tlie present subject.* Some evi-

- diificulty RiggestM by the critical gen- dence should likewise be. adduced to

tJemen of one of the conteroporary explain the nature and origin of thfe

re\'ietrs : *' Diodorus SicuUis ex- holes on tlic side? for the admission <jf

pre<.slv says, the fegvptians preserve ^ater cocks. ' These are evidently not

the nlammies of their ancestors, in the cosetaneous or original orifices, biit

wme attitudes, and with the same subsequent fabrications 5 diey intcr-

pftpiogiiomy and personal appearance fere with the lines of hierogt^-phic^,

as If they were still livings they de- and have every appearance ot beihg

posit them in their houses, or places pierced by clumsy force, and not by

prepared for tlifit purpose, like the suixjiior ingenuity, or workniartlikb

cendiiarittm , the suoject of the pre- skill. If ever any record should bb

iKnt discussion, uprig-ht against the found, importing tliat after their' sa-

valls. The same is She attitude of vage devastations, the5oi-&fljz/ Chris-

cvef}' mummy now in existence; and tians had employed the sarcophagus

manimy^cases have flat bottoms for of Alexander as a public fountaui,

this purpose; yet it is evident that the then might die evidence of these per-

present vessel was intended to lie in an fbrations become in some mcasxird,

Horizon tid position." In this particu- decisive— and lastly, it may be'ob-

lar po'mt, however, it must be allow- ser\'ed, that there are medals of Alex-

ed, that it agrees Mnth the sepulchres ander, yet extant, which entide hina

ilill extant at Thebes. Conditor or tfiQ Founder, but we knovir

We further believe, that every re- oH none which exhibits his tomb j

tnaining Egyptian Monothelitp temple should any such, hereafter, be disco -

or sanctuary (and such appeats to he Vered, it might atford considerable as=*

the true notion of Alexander's condi- sistance to direct us in this enrjuiry. *

iorium) is upright, and we presume, "We sliall how proceed to furnish

that such as those were which oour an accurate description of the sarco-

tained the ancient deities of Egypt 5 phagus itself, and then endeavour to

such was the one adopted for this ascertain how far the testimOiries of

lAirf pCTi/A deit>' of their country. To the ancient wTitera,. concerning th^

this inclosure or stone cabinet, after acknowledged tomb of Alexander, cani

the golden envelope had been taken possibly be reconciled \vith the pre^

away from the mummy, was appended sent antique monument. The4*om-

aglass front, capable of being opened, position of this sarcopha/^us is define^

?nis, it appears, was removed to gra- by professor Hnilestone, in his letter

tify the curiosity of Augustus Caesar^ to' Dr. Clarke, to be an indefinite coni

It was not a closely fittmg membrane cretion of fragments, in which jispet

of glass, adhering, as it were to the and hornstone Ibvm the mo^st i)reclo*»

body> like the golden envelope, for minate specie- . The basis' ot it seemi

St seems impossible that glass could .to be a grei-r.ish, ar^: iilaceous sub-

tver have been either cast or ham- stauce,reiemblin^chiuiiice-rt}i, con-

mered .so as to fit the countenance, nectin^ small grains olpeiiucidquart^.

Through this glass, preservative, ordi- and minute tiagiuents of -.a black

nary spect:ttofs mi^ht contemplate the and schristous rocK. Its beiutyi exda-

rcmahis of Alexander ; and this being sive of its workmanship, is mccsupa-

tiken away, Au^justus miglit survey rable. The curliest mention of the

the mummy as distinctly and closely tomb no.v iu tlie British Museum of

as he pleased. Moreover, it ftpi>ears more modern years, w,:^ maac bjf"

tljat every horizontal tomb was closed Leo Afnc;'.nus, who visit Al Alexin-

t))- a ponderous lid laid upon it; the dria in the year 149 1, above ijuij
removid pf which, for the purpose of

hispecting the body or of taking any • The author of Lcbtarckh, or thi

thing out ofthe tomb, must have been Marrow of liistorles, a Peisi^nwo.k^

attended w ith no small labour, trouble about iht year 15/0, says that Alcxan4

andexpcnce, of which we ha\e not der's bodyVai canriedto Alexandri*i, in

the slightest intimation in reference a golden cotfin,>vhich his m«t her datisc}

to the tomb of Alexander, although to b* cl^iQged /or ga»i^ad«of£gypuda

ithad'b«en repcatcdl^r opened^ «ad rt» imthlc. - j

Oq^ Digitized by Google


(9& Al^a$ider's TonA,

yebn' after theexbtenee of th& real
tomb had been last recorded or mea-
,tioped. Marmol, a Spanish voyager,
'who followed him early in the l6th
.'ieutiiry, also takes notice of it, but
•Jiis work was almost a verbal copy of
Lelo*s; he says, toiidem verlis, tliat
the sepulchre was honoured by the
Mali^metan. sectaries who believed Jt
to contain the body of Alexander the
Great; From this it should seem that
tlic sarcophagus was closed at thepe*
/rlod when he, visited Eg}pt. liiis
curious chest, be it also remembered,
is mentioned by the gieat body of
.subseijuent writers; but none of them
-appear to have considered it as the re-
coptaclc of any particuhir person
whose name had oeen tninsniitted
down from precetling ages. It is
likewise wortliy of notice, th;it several
voyagers of higher aulliority, and
greater character than Marmol, ex-
pressly declare that all their enquiries
after the tomb of Alexander were
fruitless. Furer, who travelled to
Egypt in the year 15G.5, though mi-
mite in his notices of the city of Alex-
andria, is totally silent on the subject
of the tomb. Boucher, who publish-
ed his Bovquet Sacre, in tlie year
i(jl3, is cquallyso;andVansleb, who
performed his voyage, m 16/2, and
io^a, seems to have bt»cn eaually un-
conscious, tliat such a tomo was in
existence. Dr. Pococke's words on
die subject are these : " As the Ma-
iiometans have a great regard for the
memory of Alexander, so tl»cre have
l)een travellers who relate tliat they
pretend to have his body in some
mosque, but, atprcs^cht, they have no
account of it.'' JCorden's words are
, Jet more pointed. ' He states that the
tomb of Alpuinder, wliich, acoordiug
lo the rejKJrt of an author in the 1 5 th
century, subsisted still in his time,
and was respected as such by the Sa-
rnceiis, is no longer to le seen. He
flddt, **Eventlie tradition of tlie people
ironceming it is entirely lost. I have
^)Ugiit without success for tliis tomb ;
I hjive, in vain, endeavoured to in-
for|n my self about it.'* Van Egmont
reports that he had heard of tlie sar-
cophagus we are now considering?
but DC heard of it only as a cliest,
which according to tlie tradition of
fee Turks, no man could apj^iroact!
Viclunit, danger. ' He fuj tiicr tells u«
^hat'the Jcws^wbo^ sltuatiou audiji^

terccfiirse most have rendered th^
access to common traditions etsy^and
who were very particular in tlieir ac-
count of the mosque, which contain,
ed it, acknowlec^ed tliemselves en-
tirely ignorant with regard to the
" dangerous chest.'* Niebohr makes
no mention either of tlie tomb or of
any tradition concerning it. Brace
confesses that he was as unsuccessful
in his ennui ries as Nordcn. Irving
who saw the chest, and speaks of it a*
an interesting object, only says, that
from a rail which enclosed it, Hap*
pears to liave served some religious
purpose ', and Sonini, whose investi-
gation was minute, not only in regard
to the sarcx)phagus, but the temple
that enclosed it, which last he ob-
serves, was erected by one of the
Caliphs, merely expresses a hope
that w hen the liieroglyphic language
sliall be understood, we may perhapi
learn \l\e origin of the sarcophagus,
and the history of the puissant jsmi,
whose bodv it containea.

Wc shall conclude this enquiry for
tlie present, with a view however, to
resume it, as circumstances may of«
for, at some future opportunity, by
inserting, in Dr. Clarke's interestiog
words, the means by which he ascer-
tained, at least to his own satisfaciioiH
that tlie sarcophagus now in our n^
tiohal Museum, vas the real deposi-
tary of" Alexander's remains. "1 ar-
rived at Alexandria," says Dr. C. " by
day-break J yet even at that early
hour, the couamander in chief haH
been some time on horseback, in-
specting the lines. At his return, he
received me witli the greatest kind-
ness ^ and as tlie capitulation had be-
gun, he sent me immediately into Al-
exandiia, supplying me with horses,
forage, a pas^port^ and every th'uig
that might expedite and&cilitate ni?
enquiry, and c^use the raonmuent of
whicli I had received information at
Cairo, to be surrendered. I had aho
his permbsion to receive the Rosetta
stone, and to copy its inscrintious j
fearfiil any accndeut might neiai it,
either while it remained in^ the pos-
session of the enemjr, or hi itspasUge
home. His Lordship had already re*
cxiived an impi'essiou from tlie stone,
made upon pajierj by some member
of the lufititute, which he kindly al*
loued me to use ^ but the characters
$a i^resk^ were too imperfixtif

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Memotrtqf Robert ^)rmij Esifi


mnfked, to afford a &ith|ld rq>resen-
tatjoQoftlie original. Ihis invaluable
moBumeot, die stone of Kosetta, was
afienn-ards delivered up, in the stijeets
of Alexandria, (Mr. Cripps, Mr. Ha-
pjSlioa, and oiyself being present,) bly
a member of the Institute, from the
varebouse in which they had conceal-
ed it, covered with mats The ofjri cer
vbo surrendered it, expi'essed, at the
jame time, his apprehension lest the
indignation of the French troops
shoiud cause its destruction, if it re-
mained there. . I mads this cir-
camstaoce known to Lord Hutch in-
soQ, who ffave orders for its immedi-
ate removs?, and it was given in charge
to Colonel Turner, under whose care
it came «afe to England." " We had
scarcely reached the house in Alexan-
dria,*' continues Dr. Clarke, " in
which we were to reside, when a
party of the merchants of the place,
who iiad heard the nature of ou(. e^:-
raad, came to congratulate us on the
capture of Alexandria, and to express
their anxiety to serve the Enclish. As
soon as the room was cleared of otlier
Tisitants, speaking with great circum-
spection, and in a low voice, th^
asked if our business in Alexandria,
related to the antiquities collected by
the French ? Upon being answered
in the a&mative, and in proof of it,
the copy of the Rosetta stone bein?
produced, the principal of them said,
' Does yopr commander in chief know
that thev have the tomb of Alexan-
jkr ?' we desired them to describe
it, upon which they said, it was a
heautiful green stone, taken from the
niosque of St. Athanasius, which
aoiong the inhabitants, had always
borne that appellation. Our letters
and instractions. from Cairo, evidently
referi;ed to the same monument ! • it
is the object,' they continued, ' of
•ur present visit, and we will shew
you where they have concealed it.'
Thev then related the measures used
ly the French; the extraordinary care
tiejr had observed to prevent anv in-
telligence of it ', the indignation sxiew-
ed 1^ the Mahometans at its removal,
the veneration in which they held it,
aad the tradition familiar to ail of
«cm, respecting jts origin." '' I con-
vaaed afterwards Tsays the Dr.) with
levecal of the Mahometans, ,both
Aiabs and Turks, on the samel sub-
^i ootqply, tho&« i^ho werd na-

tives and inhabitants of the- city, but
also der\'ises <ind pilgrims ; person^
from Constantinople, Smyrna and
Aleppo, who had visited, or who had
resided at Alexandria, and they aH
agreed in one uniform traditioux
namely, its being the lomb ot Lscan-
der, ^Alexander) the founder of th%
city of Alexandria. "We were then
told that it wa.s in the hold of an 1k>s-
pital shipf in the inner harbour ; and
being provided with a boat, we thero
found It, half filled with filth, and
covered with tlie rags of the sick.**

Tlie authors citedToy Dr. Clarke, as
mentioning the facts which he re-
ports, and on which he chiefly grounds
iiis opinion are, Eutychus, patriarch
of Alexandria, in the year oi Christ,
033 } Benjamin, of Tudela, who li%*ed
two centuries later > Leo Afi'icanus^
who flourished about the year 14^1 :
Maimol, early in the 1 6tn .century j
Jandys,in the year 1 61 J) Dr. Po-
cocke, in 1743 ; Egmont and HayeSj
and James Bruce, in 1 JQS ; E. Irvin, ia
1777 J Sonini, iu 1 780; Mr. Brown,
in 1792, and Denon and Dolomieiv
ajso in 1792^

Memoirs 4>f the late Robert Orme,Esf»
Historiographer of India, &c.
(ContiDUca from page aa6.)
ON Mr. Orme's arrival- in London,
in the year 17^3, he found the British
ministry engaged in consultations re-
lative to theanairs of the East, in con-
sec^uence of some strong verbal and
written representations, which had
been noade to ministers, concernuiff
the late hostilities carrying on, ana
not yet terminated, upon the coast
of Coromandel, the Directors having
solicited tlie national assistance tocon-
tinue the wafagainst the French India
Company ; winch company wajs then
openly supported by the government
of France. Mr. Orme, who p08ses,sed
a winning, obliging address, and de-
portment, and aii agreeable manner
of communicating information, was
much noticed iu the metropolis, by
all such as desired to obtain intelli-
gence respecting the political condi-^
tion of tiie ditterent states, &c. ii^
Hindostaii. With this intention, be-
ing introduced to Lord Holdernesse,
then one of the secretaries of state, h^
received the particular countenance
and support of that nobleman 3 and a
long cocrespoiidttaqes took place be^

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Memoirs oftlobert drme^ Ssq^

Iween them, oto the subject of otir
oriental settlements, which corres-
bondence is now preserved among
Mr. Ornie*5 MSS. in Ixadenhafl
House. It is wry reasonable to be-
lieve tiiat the kilowicdge andobserva*- ,_^ ^, ,

tions which Mr. Orme bad obtained cohsentea thtit tlie disJ)Utes of the two
imdmade, durtn?; a reaitlerice of at comp^lhies should be adjusted by com-
kast 10 years ip India, and the infor- mlssaries in India« on a footing of

ver^tice in th^2r sdiemes of m^rii
conmiests, and of obtaining dominJofl
in Hindostan, would soon involvil tl*
two nations in a general war, for
which Prance was not, at that time^
at all prepared: and they, therefore,

mation wiiich he imparted to the
feritish ministers, made a very consi-
derable impression, and was attended
%ith very important effects ; for our
ministers soon jtfterwards commended
a negotiation with the French minis-
fere, (^pressly for the purpose of put*
ling a stop to tlie ambitious {)rojecti
of M. Dup^eix.

Jn the year 1753—4, M. Duvaliere,
a tHrcctor of the French East India
Company, together wiUi his brother,
tlhi^ Count de Ludcj who had both of
I hem resided m:tny j*ear8 in the East
iridics, were deputea from Paris, to
treat with the Earl of Holderuesse,
who by diligent application, and fre-
<|ncht enquiries from all persons ti>at
%'ere thouglit capable of aftbrding in-
fonnation, had gained an extensive
knowledge of U^ subject.. This rai-
rtster perceived the tiecessity of iriter-
fcring rigorously in the wftrof Coro-
tnaonel, and finding tliat the French
^deavoured to gain time, nmder the
|»retence of negotiating^ he prevailed
on the late king to order a squadron
fjf men of war to be equipped, on
boai'dof which a regiment was to be
embarked for the Fast Indies * This
Vigorous resolution con \i need the
("i^ench ddministration^ tliat a perse-

* Admiral Watson's fnstrnctions,
dated March 2nd, 1/54, arc, in part a$
follows : *' Tlic company having, agree-
ably to royal charter, entered into com-
pacts with some of the Indian jmnces,
I'or ^viog them aid and assistance against
tiicir enemy, but •fiDdingthe burden too
heavy, the* ktng, willing and desirous
to maintain the company, in all ^heir
just rights and jirivikgcsf, has sent a
squadron to. perlbnja surh services as
may be most conducive to the interest
ofic^id company, *nd.of such Indi-
an princes, with wiom they have or
may contract engagements.*'' ** From
tiiiis period, says ifir. Oraxe, ** Jt is use-
ful to contemplate the progress *made'by
Ae English in Hindostan, both in tlic
fteknee aj>d'^irit df -mnr;**

equality, \\ithout regard to the aMn-
tages \vhich either tte one or the otbcr
ot the two companies might be in
possession of, at the time i*heu tfce
treaty should be concluded. The
f^rench ministers well knew that M.
Dupleix was not a proj)er person to
be trtisted with n eonmiisslon, uiiicfa
so strongly contradicted every part olf
his official conduct since the beginning
of the wafof Coromandel, and the^
foresaw, at once, that the Brftjab mi*
Hister would suspect the good faith of
■e\ cry mcific profe«ion they had late*
1v made, if t)iey should nominate M.
Ihiplelx as a commissary to adjust the
terms of peace. Havii^, therefore^
no alternative, tliey took the resoln-
tion of suddenly remomgM. Dupleii
from the government of rondicbeny,
and this was done- without any appli-
cation from the English ministry oo
£I)e subject ; and soon after ihey apf-
oointed M . Godeheu, a dh-ector of the
French Company , their commissary to
negotiate the terms of peace; and,
likewise, hivested him with absolute
authority, as a militfiry^ commander^
and govenior-^neral m'er all theif
settlements in Hie East Indies. Attfrt
«me time, the English India Comja^
iiy empowered Mr. Saunders, arid
some other members of the council of
Madras, to treat M-ith M. Godeben.
For the conclusion of these important
events, we beg leave to refer the reader
toMr. Orme's veryjttiiiciotis history
of tlic military transactions inHindof-

In the spring of the year 1754, Mr»
Orme returtied to India. Having takeu
shippmg on board the "Warreii East
fndiaman, Captain Alphonsus Glover,
he arr»ved safely at Madras, on the
4 t th of September, of the ?nine vear.
Pre^iouslv to his departure from Eng-
land, he nad been appointed' by tlll^
court of directors, a member of tb^
council at Fort St. George ', where,
on his wrival, he ft^rthwitii took hi*
great at the board accordingly. Here
he soitm4iad a iaToorablie ^opportumty

digitized by Google

Mmolu ofRoter^ Ormej E$q,

(/dUplajin^ that politkal -.acumen,
0Dd ot exerting that active spirit aiid
temper of vigorous decislop with
which his excellent understanding,
strong oatuial p^^and fbnner expe-
rieoce of the politics^ and manners of
tjie diifezent nations of India had fur-
ni^ed him. The united wisdom and
ih^ength of the council and tlie army
were, indeed l)oth highly necessary,
to counteract eifectually tlie ambi-
tious views of the French, who:>e ob-
j^u'as nothing less than the expul-
sion, not only of the English, but of
all the other £iuropean powers, from
the peninsula of India. — It appears '
from many parts of Mr. Ormes his-
torji that the Portuguese and tjie^
Dutch, at the earlier periods of the
British setdements there, strove like-
iiTse, |o eftect this same object, but
with no better success tlian what l)as
attended the aspiring eifort» of the
Fieuch in latter tunes.*

* The court o/ Fxance had instructed
• y. Lolly to (Wstroy^ in a manner in-
liiscnminately, 'all auch of the maritinie
l^cjsif scions ot the English in India, a9
m^ht be submitted to his arms, in the
course of the war. But as these instruc-
tions had fortunately been intercepted,
iHe Court of Directors of tlie English
East India Conipany, hiui time to fore-
ivam the di0ereiit presidencies, and like-
wise transmitted orders to the same, to
Rtaliate the same measure on %he French
seuiements, should favourabie opportu-
oitjes occur. Mr. Pigot, with the ap-
probation of the council of Madras, re-
solved to demoFish the forutications of
Poodicheiiy'; and as iiUmiral Stevens
bad sijgnineJ hb intention to repair
forthwith to T}ombay, in ord^r to relit
(lb squadron, the demolition wm com
menced w^ithout delay, lest, in failure
p/this, a French armament should im:-
?)re, during their absence, and a^ain
take possession, while the fortiiicauons
yet remained in a condition to ailord any
fd^:antage in niaiut^ining and defending
the place. Here follow some extracts
{rom the iostmctions that had bc'eii
even to General Lidly, by the i'Vench
pit India Company/ ** llie Sieur de
Lally IS aothorized to destroy the forti-
Gcauons of maritime settlements which
ply be taken from the En5z;iish ; it m.iy
le proper, howexer, to except Viiia^d-
l^tau, by reason of its beii:^^ so nearly
ItjtUitedtqaDiudi factory, Ijiauli^t*


. ILe British ministry, being, . at
length, made truly sensible of thet

nam, which, in that case, would be cnv
richerl by the ruins of Vizagapatam, &c.
TiieSieur deLaliy, is to allow of nor
English settlement being ransomed. In
reppird to the English troop's, to both
ouicers and writers bHonging to the'
English Company, and to the inhabit
tants of that nation, die Sieur de JLally
is to permit none of them to remain oxk
the coast of Coromandel. He raay^ if
he pleases, permit the« inhabitants to
proceed to England; biit as to tlie oifi-
cers and wrters, os well as soldiers and
sailors, lie is to order them to be con-i
ducted, as soon as possible, to the
isLmd of Bourbon, where it will be per^
mitted for the soldiers and suitors to
work for the inhabitants of that place,
but it must be by a nuuiiul agreement.
One should avoid sending them to the
Ecench islanls, (generally speaking) to
prevent their beina acquainted with th^
coast, as well as the interior ujitrts of tl)e
-islands. It is by no means his majesty's
intention^ that the English ctBcers,.
soldiers and sailors should be ransomed y
as none are to be delivered up but by ex-*
change, man for man* according to
their ditiferent ranks and stations. No
English ofticers, soldiers, &c. are to .ba
permitted to remain in a place, ai'ter it i*
taken, neither are they to be suffered ta
retire to any of their otlicr settlements,
or to any neutral settlements ; the Sieur
de Laliy is not in the least to deviate

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