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notions or caprice of a single person,
which are so ruinous in a monarchy,
could have no sway in this country;
that we should have th^ advantage of
a dignified aristocracy, and tlie peo-
ple would not be groiind down by
oppressive taxes or iniquitous laws,
since none could pass but by the con-
sent of n^enobers of its own body.
The theory in doubtless excellent ; in
practice however it is not easily kept
up 5 for it is natural for every person to
extend liis influence -, and we must
not blame either^ king, or lords, oc
amr man c^ large property, for doing
iwt most men in the same situation
would think it tiieir duty to attempt.
The whole great business of each
party should however be, to prevent
the others from infringing on their

r^ow, if the k'lxig can command a
wtain number of votes of botli lords
and commons ; and, if certain lords
and great commoners can command
also votes in the commons house,
then the. constitution may appear to
be QomiDally 'the same -, but in fact
^ government is chanced : each
party lias not that incfependence
vhich (he constitution supposes. Sliort
parliaments have a tendency to pre-
vent, and long parliaments to increase
«is improper nifluence. That this is
the fact will be apparent, when we
consider what would be the effect if
the member of parliament was elected
fcrlife. Estranged then from^Ucen-
wte of his constituents, their welfare
*^owd not be of so much importance
*o him as his own individual mterest ;
Jjd according to the length of time .
■ttt the durafioa of paiiiamcat is of.



comparedwith the natural life of xnaui
so will be the preponderance of pri-*
vate over public interest.

The long duration of parlrament ii
l^owever as in^urioos ultimately to the
king as to the people. For there wUl
be formed a new species of goven>^
ment/ that l^ an ol^archy, or a small
number of persons, whicii is perhaps
the worst form of government that
-can subsist. This small body will
consist «of those who can produce a
majority in parliameut. Thus, to make
tho matter plainer, suppose that ia
fiiture time the influence over tho
house of commons is divided into a
hundred aiKi eighty shares, of wliichr
the king possessed forty, the people
thirty, and as the other hundred and
ten shares is possessed by peers, men.
of large landed property, jobbers of
boroughs, stock jobbers, contractors,
and monjed men of various descrip-
tioas^ it is evident, (hat if king and
people are umted, and the otliers are
also united, the king and people must
be beat on every question. If there
is a division in tne party, seventy be-^
ing on one side and forty on the other,,
then that party to.whicli tlie sevent/
unites itself, will have the preponder-
ance 'f and in fact, however it may
appear in the debates of the house,
the appointment or rejection of a mi-
nister will not depend on tlie choice of
the king or affection of the people, but
on the secret intrigues among the pos^
sessers of the hundred and ten shares.

The delusions about whigs and
tories are now happily over, . and-
thinking persons, who are attached
to the cause of then* king and eouii^
try, are fearful, and not w ithout rea-
son, that such an oligarchy may soon.
be formed > but they are not so h:ippy
in the measures they propose to pre-
vent it. They talk of petitions to
parliament: but it is too much to ex-
pect of human nature, tiiat tliey should-
abridge tliemselves of power and con-
sequence, whether properly or tm pro-
perly acquired. The true way is t6i
shew both king, aiid those peers who
are not concerned with the oli}<archy,»
that tlieir influence must suiJer by sue ii .
a breach of the constitution, and tiuit
both king, peers, and commons will
be happier, when each party iicij^*
more independently of the otlier, aivl.
totally free from tlie intrigues ot'thwc.
wh^ possess the hundred and tea



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Tlia nwrciHuit, ia dM o^om rflb
elerkfihip an^ the two or tbree nc^
cecdiog )Fears, ha4 travelled oiwr the
grefttitr part of the floiHh of Bww,
and, by j[ivinff iw a very little imk
tipoe than the obmltile ^oneenis of
his house required, fie contrived tt
see wh«t was wort^ of iiimctioBia
^ery place through which lie travd«
led; and to. learn more of Che relkksQ,
Gonstitutioa, and loaniMrs of ei^
ooQntnr» than is gained by Iheratef
part of our nobility and gentry « ftopgh
assisted hi their pursuits by the vn^
found aequinitions of their traveHinr
tutors. With ,these atfcainnientsj it u
not very wonderful^ tbat^ ^t diem of
iive and twenty, he w«b admitted to a
»mali sha^e in a great commerdal
liouse, and tliat'by degrees he ro9e to
be the head of the concern: yet, £[im
bis travels and his obaervatiofis od
human life, he aoquired this situatioD
witliout any great anxiety on his p«t,
and his mind was not so engrossed bf
trade^ a^ to be inattentive te the equal-



The king would then ^mer^
dsa his prerogative, of which the
hundred and ten shares men may
faetna^er deprive him, of disserving
tMtfliament at tlie end of every one or
two years, and thus destroy in a great
meaaune the influence of a pestiferous
oligarchy, equally injurious to his own
eoosequence and om rights of the
people.

Quest. V. Does London aflbrd to
a TtfiecXxT^ mind the greatest number
ef proofs m favour of .civilization, or
the wanted it?

A mutual regard for each other,
founded on a similarity of disposition
in many respects, had taken place be-
tween Abdoilah and the inerchant,
with whnm the former had his regu-
lar abode, and where he found that
jpeHbct ease and ready information,
which were so requisite to him in his
porsuits.. The merchant was a man
0f that character which does honour
to bis profession and country, and
which is very rarely to be met with
m other countries, and will not per-
haps much longer esust in our own.
Aner a common school education, in
which many years were lost in at-
tempting to learn a little Latin and
Crfeek, under a master who knew
very little of either, but made a toler-
able income from the appointments
and proiitir in his situation as head
master of a foundationgranunar school,
he kamed the usual requisites for«
mercantile life $ and was initiated jnto
his business in a counttng<4K)use on
the continent. The knowledge of
aeveral languages was there necessary,
and, to his great surprise^ at the end of
five years he could write and converse
in FVench, Italian, Spanish, and^Ger-
man, though after being > eight years
at the grammar school, and ragged at
nothing but Latin and Greek, he
oould not read twenty lines of any
one author whatever in either of those
languages. This circumstance he^onoe
ventured to hint to the head master
of the first public school we h^ve^
who firom an immense wig uttered an
oraailar distinction between dead and
livin? languages, winch silenced the
merchant completely j for, though he
knew every assertion to be wrong,
that related to the living, he did not
choose to doubt the propriety of the
remark on the dead languages.



ly important objects of life. In 'ftctA
he had very oariy imbibed a notion,
which may seem very es&aordioarf
to many moa of wealth in a^iatkir
bctUwiHerB, thai trade was ma^ fer
man, and not a)an for trade.

This maxim of hi| wim not heafewr
at all hurtful to him In his porsQili}
for it was balanced by one eqaal|j,
potent in his mind, that> in whatever
piofesHon or empieyment a Qum ii
Qngaged> b^ sbouwl e|Kleavoiir to (W
utmost to make hinisl^ inaster of it«*
How ridiculous, he would say, is k
fer a merchant to be very knowki^ia
the game laws or the game of wh|st»
in hunting or shooting, or rural spprtii
in the amusements of the west eod </
the town, Qnd in hsbioBB of dM»i
and yet be entirely ignorant in every
important question coneaming m
nlaoes with which he trades, aq4 to
a now nothing more of the eonunedi-
ties which pass through his Kaodsi
than by the oeotage of his profits.
What ought we to say to the soMJer/
who was skilled in the returns of tba
custom liOuse, but gave himsatf <h>
oonoeni about die evplutioQs of h»
regiment $ and how impertinent k
must be in a man to pretepd lo pt
inte.a pulpit, and to Imtruot his coup-
tr}"men in the kpewkdge of 4j
script\un6^ whv haa not ^veo hiipw



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Amiimlqihi mfMM mi flM$^lMM ^a9Mm>^



Sit

flit MUtte dflcMi\ttg fhe brMk'afttf thtn^; mi 'nAti^ fiUftd dtt: bUsiflfts;. li
HebTMr, the toflguages in ^^hteh these • • -
lefiptiifeft tfo written? The Idtt&r

Cry fliet ^th ho qttfltt^f ftt7f»
', hA tofisldntl^ ealkd them im-
tef(or»» aiid tr&s vMy a«Ai(h]D^s in
wan^ hii ^rks sot to b« dut^ by
tlwir fmj : fbr how, sAvs h^^ caA yoti
MtfcTfe thMe metr to be in ^twaX.
in irhit tliey ^, when th«v will not
{ire thems^ltei the trouMe to leorn
tte first rudiments of their prdl<Msi6n<
In consequence of these notions,
tfad itierchaut did not parsde his busi-
ness merely a^ the tMU\% of obtaining
onohimentfof hitiiMlf; he consider^
it as a very useful employllieot in so*
dety> tfid one itl which it became
hkn to exercise hb abiKded fbr th«
tood of others^ fts wel) as his own.
His profession was a pleading stady^
•B well as an impoftmit eifiplo>^tnent ;
snd b^ind the counting house^ in
which he sat^ was his mercantile li^
braxy. Here were kept books written
lolerf apon of relative to trade, or
dncriptive of the places, with which
be traded x here Were nwps of coun-
tries^ charts of se^, plans of towns \
md we may imagine how it was filled
from a single circumstance. On open-
iflg a trade with a house at Trieste,
|iis correspondent received, among
other orders, a generirf order tor every
book written upon that town, copies
nf 1^ the laws relatiiFe to its trade,
charts of the port, plans of houses, and
tiews of places in its neighbourhood.
This was practised withrespect to every
place; so that his correspondents upon
the publication of any new work or
plate or map relative to their town,
constantly sent him one. All these
things were ^rst examined by the
merchant, and then a selection was
made; part being deposited in the
toFiercantile and part in Iris own private
library. What was esteemed of no
knportmice Was consi^ed over to
Xht booksellers, printseUers, or the
jfocers. There was an advants^e in
Inifi practice, that frequently an ob-
icure phrase in a letter was made out
by a reference to some one of these
mks, and his clerks had an opportu-
nity of improvii^ themselves m then-
bosiness advantages of v/hich some
availed themselves , and others re-
jected ; for, said the latter, what has
4 merciiant to do with reading, that's



is curioui; however, fo peroehre, thai
they who pretended thus to wtiA
tiietr bi«iin«ss, did not gel on so well
\it the worki, dA thtfy who thought
they might at the same time mind
theii' busineft atid iti^ove their afl-*
derstaiiding.

Bat we are lA d^^ of forgettiiig
Abdollah, whilst we are recounting
the slngtilarlties of his new fi-iend«
The accident at London bridge had
given rise to a long disctission be*
tween them, in which the noerchant
dwelt with pleasure on tlie founchi-
tion of a society for the recovery of
drowned persons^ and the numbers
who through its means had been re^
stored to society. Abdollah wai
equally liberal tn his praises oathift
institution : but, says he, useful as
your society is for recovering, the
drowned, would it not be betted to
have t society to prevent persons from
being drowned > Here is a brklge
over a river, which 1 perceived tb b6
veiy smooth at a small distance k
little above and below it, and- yet per^
sons are drowned in going throngll
it. Should not then the Humane So«
ciety subscribe either to build a new
bridge^ or to post people and boati
above and below it, to warn pas*
sengers of their danger, or to save
them when it is incurred.

The merchant paused upon thil

Suestion, and the answer to it was
eferred, till they had made farther en-
quiries into the nature-of the bridge *
and it was agreed that they should
make an excursion the next day on
the water. The day was favourable*
A mild winter's morning, with a clear
sky, J>aint^4 every object in colours,
sufficiently bright for the African;
who was now convinced that the suit
might gladden, though it could scarce*
Iv communicate warmth by its beam j.
A twelve-oared barge received then^
at the Tower stairs, and the ladies
of tlie family, with one or two of the
clerks ; and they first rowed as neqr
as they could to the bridge, the strengtli
of the current not permitting a very*
near access. Here Abdollah was veiy
attentive to its structure, to the 'difc^
ferenc^ in the size of the arches, to
their shape, and lo the great fell of
water under them: he saw nothing
in the situation, which could justify



ti)r4^wy«rs^ and p»spiis> ^Z ^ysi» to a hvuiume min4 the loss of haaiaA

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3l«



Answers |o tht 'HiiMicid and Pfulasbpiudal Qttei*ums.



life : but the merchant left him to his
own ojjservationsj and afteraconfii-
4erable time spent near the bridge, in
which the ladies did not express any
fear at tl^ rolUag of the waves, or
the tossing of the barge, or any ennui
at tiidf stay these, or dissatis&ction
at the repeated questions of their Af-
rican fiiend, they went down the
river, moving from side to side to
examine every oljject, as it was point-
ed out by the merchant or caugnt the
attention of his friend. In this man-
ner their trip to Greenwich employed
two or three hours, and they were
jajided at the steps of the royal hospital.

Through tlie courts of this palace
ithey warned slowly into the park,
iivhcre tlley were conducted by the
nierchantto various eraioences,'Whera
they had the best views of the river
.anil the town, the merchant i^t for-
getting to {>oiat out to AbdoUah the
Observatory, and the uses for which
it was designed- On their return they
viewed the hall, the chapel, and se-
veral of the apartments of the hospital,
Ihe merchant contriving to pick up in
fBvery place the most worthy inmates
pi the nouse, who accompanied them
*o the barge, and there partook of a
cold collation. The conversation of
touisc ran upon the structure before
^hem, its uses, aod its inhabitants ^
and their guests retired well satisfied
with their entertainment, and each
^is bottle of wine on parting, and a
good basket of bread and meat. The
barge cut the waves with greater ra-
pidity on its .return. , AbdoUah was
gratified witii his excursion, and in
walking from the barge e^Iaims tQ
his friends : ' You buud palaces for
coiiunon sailors — ^let the banks of a
fine ri\«r be obstructed by every kind
of inconvenience and eyesore — build a
bridge that boats cannot pass under —
I. do not comprehend it V Stay then,
said the merchant, till another fine
clay, and we will try what an excur-
sion above bridge may do : this will
present to you a very difterent scene.

QiteH, Vl. Can the volunteers be
quaUfied to defend their country
against an invasion as well as the re-
gular soldiers ?

To answer this question, which is
of a>n«iderable importance in the pre-
K^nt state of the country, we should
sttrlc precisely, what is meant by the
V^nub Voluntpprs andSokiiers. Vicjpfa^^



we know have been obtained bvn*
troops, and the mere circumstaoce of
being ^called a soldier, does notBeces-
sarily imply that the troops under
thi^ name are qualified to eneouater
a well disciplined army. Who woqM
not laugh at the idea of oiir volunteen
being &at, by an equal number of the
Pope*s soldiers? And die troops cfPor-



I, though regularly
and r^;ularjy paid, are not siich ss
Qur commanders or the generak of
Buonaparte would choose £>r any
great exploits, in preference to the
Jiondon regim ents of volunteers, or
the volunteer tenantry of the DuJi^ of
Northumberland.

The name, then, of soldier is not
sufiicient to carry of itself veisfat
with it. Nor shouid it. For a soloier
may know little or nothing oi bis pro-
fession ; and, though he makes i
great shew on the day of pai^e, may
be of little real use in an actios.
What, th^n, is the ^^se meaning of
the term Soldier ? It means a persoD
a la solde at the pay of another. From
soldcy pay, comes soldier, a man paid
for fighting the battles of another.
Hiere is no dishonour in receiiine
pay for services performed : the rea
dishonour is ia withholding pay,
whether in money or lionoun irom
those who have performed real ser-
vices. The king is paid for his service;
the high ministers of state for tbdr
services j the judges for their services j
the soldier iot his services : £ut if a
soldier, on recerviog pay to fight the
battles of his country, turns his aim
against that country, tiien he becomes
a desptcahle cliaracter, in the same
manner as a high officer of state, who
receives ample pay for his services,
but not content with it, gambles with
the public money committed to ]m
care, loses his cliaracter, and sink^
into mental disgrace.

A volunteer is one who wijlingly
takes up arms to defend his couiotiy
witlwut pay, and of course \Ve must
make a distinction intiie body of men,
now happily fer us s& nun^erousin
this kingdom, which aoes under the
general naqie of the VohinleBrs. Of
this body tjiere are several who, un-
der various names« receive somethiog
from their country 5 aqd in many case*
so much is paid for daily services. Ot
course all these persons who receiy*
this pay, oie, t9 aU iol^U »d ^f

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Jnswtrt /o Me 0itcrkal and PhUoscphical Queslions. ,313 .



{Dies^ soUiers : they, receirei certain
pay fot fighting/ or preparing tliem-
selves to fight, the oattles. of their
coQDtiy. The others^ of which there
are msuiy^ who receive iK>thing'at all
irom the country^ but volunteer their
services in its aeience^ are the real
rohinteeis. No reflection is here
meant against those who receive pay,
whether they are called volunteers or
•oldjers ; for both deserve it, if they
qualify dieooselves for the service for
which that pay is bestowed.

Having thus ascertained the mean-
ing of our tenns, we will discuss tl>e
flocstion, whether volunteers .in the
fint instance properlv so called, ma^
be qualified to fight'tlie battles of their
couDtty, as well as the regular soldiers.
To know this, we must first look at
the men of both descriptions -, com^
pare ihem together as to strength,
agility, and powers of both body and
inina. In this one would thinlc that
the preference was rather in favour of
the volunteers, for they are xfien in-
discriminately taken firom all ranks of
lifej exc^t Uitf lowest, in all parts of
the kingdom. There is however this
difference between the volunteers we
3re now talking of and tlie soldiers^
that the former have other occupa-
tions to attend to, but the latter is or
may be kept closely to his business,
lliis is an art of very difficul t acquisi tion
apd would make a verv material dif-
ference ; but happily tnere is notliing
in the business ot a common soldier,
»hich may not , be learned witli as
much ease in six months as six years ;.
and, if tear of punishment may oe re-
quisite to stimulate him, the love of
honour and fear of disgrace will act as
powerhilly upon tlie volunteer.

Do we not see continually men of
gi^eat fortune amusiug themselves with
me game of cricket or at a iox chace ?
Are the evolutions of a regiment of
foot more laborioas than bowling qnd
mnnmg between the wickets at the
game of cricket, or will not a strong
fof exercise a hunter as much as the
Duke of York can any of his squa-
drons }. We do insist upon it then,
that volunteers may, from the love
merely of the amusement, learn the
tise ot arms, and perform every thing
?bat can be necessary in our country
against die enemy, as well as the best
^ment we now have in the service.
Uut, if it is allowed, that the men

Vol.IV^



may do this, an objection will anse,
tliat the officers who command them,
cannot be trained for this ottice. They
are taken from different employments,
and to command a regiment or a com-
nany requires skill as well as courage*
Now, it we were accustomed to seo
the officers in the re^lar army study-
ing anciept and modern tactics, car-
rying about with tl;em a military li-
brary, and discussing with each other
the various excellences of peculiar
modes of attack in ancient and mo-
dem times, we might reasonably con-
clude, that a great deal of time and
attention was requisite to qualify a
man for an ensigncy, or any commis-
sion above it. ^ But some how or an-
otlier the notion is not. uncommon,
that any man naay make an officer,
and as soon as the commission is
bought and the red clothes put on, he
can in a very short time learn every
tiling tliat will be required of him in
his new office.

Whether this latter position is true
to the extent to which it is carried,
we will not take upon ourselves to
determine. We will only assure those,
who are carried away with the notion,
that no officer, who maintains it, will
arise to any eminence in his profes-
sion. To oe a good officer requires a
sound judgment, considerable experi-
ence, or in defect of the latter, consi-
derable study. Now can we suppose
the volunteers to be more deficient in
tliese qualities than soldiers ? Many
of their officers have been in the
army s but; if no one had seen a bat-
tle. Doth the science and practice of
arms may be learned, and there is
surely stimulus enough among the
volunteers to apply their talents to per-
fect themselves m boih. We do not
see then any tiling in the name of vo-
lunteers, which snould hinder them,
from doing as good service to the
country as soldiers : they have had
time to prepare themselves ; they
know tlie nature of tlie enemy witn
whom they have to contend : tliey
know what is at stake. If any thing
has hitherto been neglected to quali^
them, and to raise tlie body to the
perfection requisite, it would be better
to point that out, and to begin the ne-
cessary improvemeius than to depre-
ciate those on whom our safety must
ultimately depend. For ourselves we
scruple not to declare, not os^y t^at

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31 4 Answmrs try iht Hisiork^ and Phff9^^icai Qt^akif^

we entertain the dbepe>it sense of Fathet than ?& \Mlhig lb«r tiM Ift

gratitude to the voltrmcers for tfie *n onitrefgifhr, and because they aft

eflbrts which thef hare afreaiJy made, dtabberf B; A. or M. A. or D. IX they

b\it thitt: we are convmced, that witfr- rattst fewcwth be erifed gdutlcttMft.

oat anj' soldiers at all, they may be I lilie voof aki pForert>^ a*4 sMI

made lully competent to the defence ntft for me ftifwe call afty itsm » «■-

^f die country, tlen«»\rh^ doevBOt pwy W* cims;

Ctuestions to be amw6te4 next afttl^ though he shouM get iiil»|tfrfia-

niontfa : — ment to prefeitr h» being arrested, I

Which are the chief epochs between ahall only think h«m en that aceouot

that of the battle of Mamthott and that a greater blackguard. Bf the iray> I

of the death of Socrates ? meafY only deot.% \rhkh are aecasl->

To what reflections do* they pvfc oned by eatravaganees, ami IKIC by

rise? mklerteme and eSaniity. Bot i» the

What were the chiciF occurreftees be- parpoae. Yoa have fyttit^ iMil a

tween the accession of the Brunswick bishops who^wasbi'Mgltfirp to pastry:

family to the throne^ and the act for I have ]by aoddent di^eavered another

lengthening the duration of pariiament? penon^ who does still greater toodor

To what refl^ection^ do they give to the sirt. Claude Lomnae, the oe»

risc^ tebnrted painter> whose ii-orte tfc

Does London afford fo iL rcfflectmg sought sSter by the most vreakly of

mind a greater mimber of proofs in fa- ^1 nations, arid if eojfedw* wwd

tourof civilization or the want of it? purchase several English biarDUgfa^.

Which is the greatest fault to make Claude Lorrdtne Iras tiFst aj^f rentiGed

a false quantity in writing or in reading to a pastrycook.

Latin verse ? Your readers perhopd trmy kzio#

-— of many similar instancea. It amuses

To Ikt Editor of the Vhiversal Mag. myself to observe, among ihe peifpie

SIR, around me, how very ditterentfy timi

YOLTl question, whether a- pastry- tiiDdifie* their fortunes from fhetf

cook can make a good eoloiier, has pianslaid down in their youth. CknKkl

afforded great satisfiiction to a num- f/orraine was brought up te b^ a

her of my acquaintance in this neigh- pastry-cook, and eiiwed with beh^



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 56 of 108)