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bourhood : for, though there is not the* finest landscape paiofef in tiie

d country gentleman around m», one world. Colonel fiirch studied at the

of whose ancestors within the last umversity, and vn» intended, I vm-

three venerations has not either stood derstand, for the bar : good sense ib*

behind the counter, swept out an at- structed him that the cmsines^ of s

ionicy*s office, or stood behind a^ car-, pastry-cook was more profitaftle^ and

tiace, every one at the mention of would in fact leave hrai more tinie

trade,naso suspendit aduncO,orin plain for his studies. But in j&ct how numy

J'in^^lish, turns up his nose at it. Now, men are now in buntiess, whe Kve af

though I am not engaged in trade ' their homes as eountry squires ? Ulut

jny?;eii', I cannot see any reason, why half the country gentlemen are turned

tfie leisure hours of men in trade, of shoicpeepers in even^ Kttle town isi die

■u-iiich fo juy knowle^^e tliey have kingdom, under tne appellatioQ ol

iiKiny, may not be as well turned to banTkers j and how^ many more are

uijetul knowledge as to frivolous brewers anid farmers > Vet I mual

amusements. But we are not all fit confess, that I do not very much sp-

for all things, non omnia possumus prove of tliis mixty-maxty «cco(mt ;

omnes, as I once learned at school, and, where a man has got an inde-

A man may not be lit to jiia*:e his pendence, cannot bufthmk that he

fortune m busiiiessi yet he may be fit might be more nseflil te hia country

^^^r^f^^'r things, aud vice versa j and by improving his mind, than by

indeed, how many men do we see strainnig every oerve to increase ht^

mounted rnto a pulpit,, who would fortune.

have been much better employed in I remain, «rc.

uieir youth m learning totiake one> Philo-Majwobos,



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JUwlruims qfan Ukr. 3 Ij

|.ucoMA7iOK8x>f AK^Dl.BR. cboQsIn^ thls 33 the most cheap and
Nd.2. glorious way for bestowhig of a

For the Universal Mkg* younger «on. By ^ese means, not

Z0OPE de Fega, the JShdks{)eare of only the more necessary parts of
Spain, i£am to have possessed tlie iearoicig \^^re infused into him, but
ttrntinynh of our i^^odein dramatists, even those of ornament, so that be^
00 the subject of confomiauce to ^ide his being an able Latinist, phi*
mibjic taste. He is reproadied by Josopher and divine, he was (wnich
Cerii'aati^ vith destroying the ruleg one might wonder at in a king) 4
of the drama* to court popular ap- curious musician: as two entire mas*
plaose. Lope, in fiwat verse* which ses composed by him, and often sung
he pnblislieji, owns the chaige. He m his chapel, did abundantly testify.^
«y»# " that Iw w^ aensible of the Tlie following mention of the errorf
nfiroaHiei which the critics of Italy of this pldlosophk and nmsicid king,
and Erance wouU thnwv upon him^ jvill be peculiariy interesting, whe^i
ix breaking through all rules, to k is remembered, that the mies un*

gease aa igooraut public ; hui siace derwent tlie critical approbation of
*y ^aid Jar ii,ikqf had art^JiS to the unfortunate Charfes, prior to their

t^ fJegned in Uinr <^7i wag. In |)ablication. ^'^ I am the more par*

&rtiJity of inventioja. Lope eKceeded JLicuhr in his description, since prin-
e^'eo iLeciaywrklxUof^iodemdays: ces' actions are not always drawn
ihe number of ms plays, i^ stated to from reasons of state, but sometime^
be I6Q0! Lope, who had been a even from inclination and humour,
T<3huiteer ou board tJtie " Ipvliicil^Je Tlicy hav e many ways to be wise^
Aimada," like Shakspcare bad the and seldom err while they keep their
aooour ofrM^cuiag the 3tage of hia estate and reputation. Nothing is so
country from a state of utter rude- easy as to rcign^ if the body of go-
new, in regard to «cenic machinery, vernment be wdt framed. Let tti%

Befote Kg tim<e, four gilt Jeathim counterpoises of re^^^ard and punish-
As$ac^ and as niany false beardgand meat go aright, the wheels of thi^
Jbetds ^ imr, lorxx^ed thfi wardrobe great clock seldom iail, This king
of the aotgri j whijb the whole para- Used both well, as long as hb mean^
ghegmUBoi the it^^ consisted m on and complexion suifTered him; though
old curtain, diawo across the tempo- at last passing these bounds on eithej-
jnary elevation of a few boards. The side, he cannot be denied to hav#
fnimciaai lang, without the a>siata£u:e tallen into divers irregularities.*'
4>f inatrunoeota. On tj^ie subject of treaties, the no«

The reign of Henry VIIL by Lord We author delivers sentiments which
Herbert of Cherbury, is a curioas have not been without proselytes.
perfomanoe. It was undertaken at Speaking of a treaty between Henry
the desire of King Cliaries L and and Francis, " It %vas/' says he " so
friniod in J640. Charles appears to Politicly handled by our. king, that
Aare bestowed sooie toiKihes 014 the nad hh» predecessors observed the
w^ork : " The parts Xhereof,^* ^>*s the rule he now held, the French writers
noble author, in his dedication to tlie could never have so much gloried in
soverefgn, *' as fast as I couid finish Uieir treaties. For as he capitulated
them were lustrated by your gracious to hold Calais for eight years next

Sne, and consummated by your ju- ensuing, he got thefyresent advantage,
cious animadversions.*' It must re- which as an etcrnat m/ixim in matter
doiind 4o the honour of Charles, -that &/' treaties 2 recommend to the genius
in a work thus closely inspected by (^ ovr ^untry, since merely by the
himself, a manly and candid estimate, practice thereof^ the French have
(s foroied of the ch^facter of t^ usurped and woi^ so much upon us $
lyraxinical Henry. as kno%ving it impossible mit that

fiespeaiug the accomplishmeats of betwixt neighbouring princes those
the sanguinary monarch, LordHei-» occasi<)as may be found or uiged,
bert says, " his education was accu*- which wHl help th**!!! to come off
rate : neing destined to the arch- whei^oever they are disposed. There



bishcipric of Canterbury, during the will be no danger thereof in retorting
Jife-time of his elder brotlier, i'rince this maxim : not that T approve a fa-
A^L..^ .L_. — 5. ..-»_ . .•..i^-_ _Mi^. !.- -i-'-iolving leagues, y&'^^

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/^ur, tb^t prude^^ lUcy^ cUity in dissolving leagues, vblcb

S s 2



3ja



Luculraiions of an Idler.



should be inviolably kept, especially
while the causes remain ; but . that
they being dissolved, we may avail
ourselves of tlie present occasion, not
omitting yet any circumstance to
which, in point of oath' and honour,
we are obliged.**

It niav be worthy of remark, that
this noble writer is said to be the first
Englishman who openly professed
deism.

Pope seems generally supposed to
have obtained the scheme ot nis Essay
on Man from Lord Bolingbroke.
Johnson ■ affirms, that Pope merely
harmonized tlie ideas of that able and
"witty nobleman. This statement,
however, I must deem erroneous.
The Essay on Man as a system of
ethics, is unobjectionable. One mnd
desideratum me devotee may lind ;
and that is a total silence on the doc-,
trines of revelation. All must allow
Pope to be far from a man' of levity.
His muse in her highest flight never
lifted him beyond the precincts of
judgment. Can we then suppose a
writer of his character capaole of
composing a poem of length and
weight, on fundamental principles
borrowed from the lectures of a
iriend ? and on principles with whose
scone and consequence he was en-
tirely unacquainted? ^ The 'Essay on
^fan was not die eflusion of an hour 5
it was the labour of montlis ; and the
erudition displayed in the work, evin-
ces the sincerity with which the
author applied to his task. Is it
Jikely that Pope, in all these periods
of application, could be so shallow
^s not to discover the tendency of the
^gunjents he adopted ?

But he wrote letters of acknow-
ledgment to Warburton, and compli-
mented him on understanding the
poem better even than the author? —
Granted.— But was not a love of fi-
nesse a leading feature in the charac-
' ter of the bard of Twickenham ? In
the ipost trivial occurrence was he
not sedulous to practise stratagem,
and accomplish his object by small
arts and trickery ?r— If I. and wrong,
Johnson has misleji me. *

It appears pi-obable that the poem
met v\ith so general an outcry from
the most consequential ofW^ope's
friends, that he was delighted with
finy sophistry which could shield him
/rom.the clainour. A champion of



no mean consideration he met .vhh
in Warburton j and the embryo bishop
of Gloucester was valued and remu-
nerated accordingly.

I am aware that some may deem
an investigation of Pope's principles
superfluous; and tliat others may
wish the pious misrepresentation <w
his opinions to remain- unshaken y bat
surely truth is precious in every shape ?
and to tlie liberal Editor of this pub-
lication, and his readers, I submit my
conjectures with confidence. * Pope
was educated under the roof of fer-
vent Roman Catholics. Johnson ob-
serves that the Roman religion is the
frequent home of unbelievers, since
all are likely to fly from doubt and
perplexity to the certainty held out
by an inmiaculate church: — ^the re-
verse may sometimes be the case;
and the ardent mind* emancipated
from the narrow channels of prgu*
dice and superstition, may seek re-
fuge in the opposite extreme: dis^
gusted with wondei;s, it may reject
probabilitiesj - •

The universal prayer of our poet
does not convey *the idea of a simple
and contented faith. Pope never raid
attention to the ceremonials of religi-
on. With what an appearanee o£ art •
does he observe, in nis reply to M.
Racine, who had charged nim pub-
licly with supporting the tenets of
Spinoza and liCibnitz, '^ that he shall
always esteem it an honour to submit
his private opinions, in imitation of
the archbishop of Cambray, to the
church of which he professed himSelf
a member!*'

When dying, he was asked if he
did not wish to close life in the feith
of his father and mother, and go
through those fortns judged essential
by the Roman church. His reply ar-
giied extreme indifterence: " liwm
of no consequence, but lliey conld d(}
no harm."

My cursory obsen'ations are merely
intended to suggest the improbability'
of Pope's understanding being of so
flimsy a texture, as to s\ufer liim to
write for months on a system, of the
nature of which, he was completely
uninformed. An examination of the
subject may not be uninteresting to
tlie readers of this "Miscellany, from
whose hands it may derive more elu-
cidation than from tlie pea of tJlQ
conjmon-placo annotator.



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Luculraiions of an Idler. S 1 7

One subject seems Inexliaustible : — sitions take a chafer, tear off a lat-gc
(he text ot Shakspeare, When Kent, limb, run a pin through the nerve.-?
in King Lear, terms the insolent and cartilages of the thigh, and attach
jtewanf "^ a neat slave,'' may he not it with a slip of paper to a stick,
allude to the contemptible employ- These unfeehng insects fly hvunrain";
raent of a cow-herdf^ Mr. Steevens round and round the stick unwearieo-
vould expound the epithet, ^sjinical, \y, imd . without any appearance of
predsti out it appears more likely, suffering, Reaumur one day cut off ,
that' Kent means to taunt the elated the fleshy and muscular horn of a '
ite\vard with the extreme meanness' caterpillar, which continued to feed
of bis origin. on as if no mutilation had taken place.

" The sense of death is most in aupre- ^^ »' possible to sunpo^ that being*
Ijgnsion • ^ tranquil, m the hands of childr<^n

« And the po^r beetle that we tread ^'"^ philosophers, should jindei^go any
upon • sensation of pain, when they are gob-

" Iq corporil suffciancc feels a pang as ^ed down in the ah: by the birds that

j-^l ' ' ° teed on them •• '

" As wlTa'a eiant dies." " - Rousseau has experienced the ut-

_. . , ^^ , , .- , most severity of censure for tpe free-

. This humane and beautifiU passage ^^^ ^f his Confessions. Some French
-K not quite correct m point of fact, writers, however, atfirm that unjust
aowrding to the conjectures of mo- liberties were taken with his post-
dera phdosophy. The reader will humous works 5 and that in particular
leadily excuse me for copymg the fol- IjI^ intentional blank spaces were filled
lowing hnes, as a commentary on ^ith the name of his inconstant be-
Sbakspcare's as^rtion,frora St.Pierre : nefactress Madame de IFarens, Rous-
'Nature, in devoting her tnb^ of seau once projected a life of Cosmo de
minor animals to death, takes from Medicis. He mad^ a rough sketch of
ftcm that which would render the his plan, but relinquished it, on find-
Wrradb of It cruel. . It is usually in jng, as he believed, that he had no ■
Je night, and m the hour ot sleep, tafents for writing history. It is pro-
that they sink under the fangs and bable, tliat Cosmo de Medicis would
teeth ot their destroyers. Twenty have shone in the hands of the phi-.
stcDkes sent home at once to the Josopher. Cosmo was at the head of
Murces of life, aflord no leisure to his illustrious house, and became the
reflect that they are going to lose it. sovereign of his fellow citizens, by
lliat fatal moment is unaccompanied rendering Uiem more happy. He
to them by any of the feelings which supported his authority by a generous
reodCT It so bitter to the majority of ^nd patenial care of every individual,
mankind; regret for the past, and prora speculations on the talents and
solintude about the future. Their virtues of this rare and estimable man.
nnanxions spirits vanish into the shades the glowing fanc}' of Rousseau would
ot night, m the midst of a life ot m- have elicited a thousand beauties,
nocence, and frequently during the Rousseau's motto was vitam impend
^ indulgence of the fond ^illusions of derevero.- a sentence that should -lie
' , • TT 1 . written legibly in the library of every .

' Unknown compensations may histprian.
, fertljer sweeten their last passage. I Father du Terfre expaUates agree-
oaU observe, at least, as a circum- ably on tlie word Savage. Sinking
stance deser\inff the most attentive of the (7ari/5 ; '* By the term savage,^
consideration, that the animal species ^ays he, " most people wall figure to
r vhose life is sacnhced to die support themselves a species of men, barbarous,
or others, such as insects, for instance, cruel, inhuman, destitute of reason,
* not appear endowed with any sen- deformed, tall as giants, hairy as bears :
wbUity. It the leg of a fly happen in a word, monsters rather'than rati-
to be torn away, he goes and comes onal beings. Whereas the men 1 am
«Mf he had lost nothing ; the anapu- shaking of, arc savages only in name,
jKion'of so considerable a hmb is j^^t as the plants and fruits whhh
wilowedbyno fainting, or convulsi- nature produces witliout culture in
on, or scream, or symptom. of pain forcsts^ and deserts are denonVinated
inwtcver. Children of cruel dispor ^iw^ though tliey possess all tkeir

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91S On Jnstwct.

virtues tn4 {u-opei'Hes i^ tb«ir native mar/ oc^nsisqoexKe, iboold oot imct
force and vigour J \vht(:h we frequently with all that serious and 4eUbendi
corrmH. b/ art, and cause to de^ene' tonteoiplation whjch tt so am^sn^
rate py transpIaoi:ing theni iQto our rits, alone impels me^ sinco ^ier
gardens. It is of importance to ob- bands decline the task, to afyx the
serve, that the savages in Uiese islands following disquisitloD for ygurappnK
gre the most contented, the most hap^ batioa, which if I shall be so happy a»
|>y, the ipost sociable, the hast vicious , to be favoured with, your giving u a
the least deformed, and t}ie kast tor«- place, in your useful, valuaw and ^
meqtpd by diseas^^ of any people in gant publication, it will very Iug%
the world. obliee on^t of your occasional conot

ponacnts^ and, perhaps j at least, sti«

ON INSTINCT. muiatesome person more capable to

Tq th^ Ediilor oj'tke Universal Mag, trace through the labyrintli of mpti-
siK, physical argumentation, to assist us in

BEINO a c^istaot reader of tha developing the merits of a question
Universal Magazine, I frequently whichTias beennotalittlclSoudedaM
turn over the past or preceding num- embarrassed by the party spirit offer;
bers of your new .series^ to consider tain dogmatists, and parCicmariybT the
amotig the n»any useful and ingenious Cartesian sectiariaas ; one of mtose
&cts and speculations which adoro (kkCtrifMesis«thattbewholeoflJiekQli
vpur Pi^es, such topics as seem to species, «r anicQal creation, ace mm
ha^e been, in a great measure^ uuno* mwrhineii and this th^maiiUamj^ieR
ticed by yovu other correspondents, their prc^ened princijuM, w^i^oi*
altlmugh relating to matters, in ti^eir oossanly kttd to such a ao^peatioD,
own nature^ well calculated to ej^^tt; however maaifestly abfiird« m iocft-
farther discussion i the subject, per* benent wkh comnoD aenat, sbcnU
haps, being so con;^licated or abstruse, experience an entire orerthroir, I7
as to discourage a cautious reasoner the admission oi Hhote prindpia
frgn) adopting and embraong either whicli necessarily involve the cdbCoij
the a^rm^tive or the negative side of opkuon.

the Question. Of this \»sxX\2x nature independeodv of the question it^
I fina a judicious essay in the Supple- felf, it will« 00 aoubt, be readily 000^
iQenit to tlie first vol. of ypur new se* ceded» in the first insCanoe, tint die
ri^> signed Tbrasymacbus, and which consideration, whether an Mwi^md
j)roposes as a subject roatte;r of further term, (I mean that of instinet, eind?
p)vesti^tion, the following question : ing ffxc several oiscurg itieis, mi
"X>oebiDstinct depend upon organiza- h^ together by a supposed syiUm)
tiou and the vital sensibility, and can qui^t not iti^f to be made the $^
|?hilosopliersjustJydeny to man, tlie jeotof a severe jpveftig)nitiQQ, belwe
snme instinct as t]ie brutes possess ?'* it received a fiirther saoctioa ; ier id
As tlie subject is, in itself, both curi*' ettU retaining a place in the vocabakrf
om and interesting, and also involves of rqodcm ^iloBophera, can never &
iiioie iinportaiU cQasequences tiiaa thought a trivial or improfitadUe aft-
one would at (ir^t incline to imagine, dertM^ing; andftirtber,ih«tifwead»
jjiasmuch as jt essentially atFect,-* seve- mit this, we cannot «top there, kt
ral jpoints both of moral and physical shall find oonhHves uncier an indlspen-
phifpjsophv, I have, for some tipe pable obligation, imposed by the
past, indulged the pleasing expectation atrictcet n&s <rf' right reasoiMfif , «s>
that I should find, in some succeeding likewise, urged on by that ipapfient
;iumber, the subject taken up and pur- aj*d<N)r whicn is $0 netural to the ha^
sued, with rational discussion and man wind, to search well, if we ct»-
Sound ar^iment, by persons of iar not, bynveaasof plain mefttewofftct,
higher abilities, both natural and ac- and more precise ideas, aoocmot aorae-
quired, than what I have the presump- what m^r^ jsa^isfectocUy, for the pbe-
tion to suppose myself gifted witli ; ttcunene wbioh> at first, aeeinedw<i^
but I niuiit acknowledge to my great maud the ednMasion of tiua o9C(»
pnrprise, I have hithertolieen constant- quality. Itisintliis light I aei di**
Jy disa^npoinied. The solicitude, thetfe- posed to consider tba^systeWltip por-
*ore, t.iai I feel, lest a subject leadiijg er or quality which we ooowaonJy «
|o, and connected with btl)t;rs. of pn- inatioyct i Aud iUsff^w^it is ttot i uo*

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6ft hsiinei: #10

fKttB and aa^gn the sagacity with re- connecting cause wbidi obliges the

If^ to phjsica) ^ood and evU, whidk xntellectoai organ to animadvert on the

» 8a eofi^icuous in the bnite erestk>n> e^-il infficted upon some of the extre*

dating them to pursoe the fir^it, and nuties. Thb efF<?ct is ko certain and

teaebiog them to decline the latter^ » speedy, that the Imt endming of the

s mtter whkh toaj be explained and injtiry^ and the conseqoent perceptioii

iCfiOttnleA for, bymeacisofthemore bytheintefiect, may oe called, in a

ttMtU'igMe icteas of cause and effect, manner, syncbftmfcal or coiitempo-

without ^together relinquishmg the raneous, and hence, that the inteUi^

qiwdtion M mscrutable, aDd thereby g^ent organ mxfst have an etemM aier-

talferin^ it tQ escape our ' researches, sion to whaterer may irritate and m-

ttnderthe disguised character of an terrupt its state of ease, tee must in-

6cc8)t quality. evitaoly admit to be one of those pri-

Were th^e any native sentiment or maiy laws of nature, which we can
MicBal charspcter impressed on ant- readily enough comprehend, but be-
ams, as a nnore accnrsrte and mfallible yond which we cannot satisfactorily
guide to th^ preserration, it 'would enquire; in fact, it is included in the
iiai}aestionabIy oe the product of those efernal fitness of tilings, like the ro «^e-
ffuw&tkl emotions wiirch ereiy ani- «» and thero jc«xov ofPlato, orlikethd
toai is notoriously susceptible ofj with ptDportions of lines and andes, or th^
leapn^t fa p{ea<»ure and fsM j and, no cofnparative magtiitudes otsqiiare and
.doubt, it was the great design of the spherical bodies, in geometry, which
ttai^otent Fkiamer of the universe, in to obtain our assent as to their un-
thc present constitution of things, doubted verity, need only to be per-
tbat tfiose sensations should, in fact, ceived and understood. It is the same
tOBwex this very purpose ; but the with that soothing state of the tem-
•trong aversion we feel to pain and the perameiit or physical coastitutioa
l^redcnninant appetite for pleasure, as which we call pieasuie, (or any de-*
excited by objects around us, are no- grees of mental and bodily pleasure
thing but a mere physical effect, ne- or pain which may be incidental to the
tessaBily resulting from the constitu- human frame.) Such characteristic
tion of nature, as originally establish- fiigus,therefore,asnature has impressed
ftd by hiai, whose means can never us with, indicating an aversion to pain
fill short of accomplishing their ends j and evili and a desire or appetency of
vkhout our haviug recourse to any ne- good or pleasure, it seems to me, on-
(ssiekj for a superadded impression. Xy serve to mislead us j it b sufficient
Those violent eitects on the body of to say tliat such are the necessary ef-
. an animal, which generate, what we fects produced on every being, ciipabl^
call pain, from a wounded nerve, or of sensitive perception." It is the de-
an higliiy irritated sensibility, are by termination, therefore, of the mfelli-
a pemianent law of nature, instanta- geqt part to avoid, if possible, endur-
neously attended to by the intellectu- uig the feeling of pain, oii receiving
al organs, said, of course, produce cor- some hurt ; but if it be objected that
respondent sensations there— and by this is an act of reflection, and tlie ef-
the same law of strongs of natural feet of experience, it may be answer-
■BCessity, incfine tlie sufferer to shun ed, that this, it is admitted, takes
ftistaining the like again, xvith the ut- place in time ; but do not we wish to
BMtet energy, . vehemence and ardour, designate instinct, as a powerful agent.

That the perception Of pleasure or which will, as it were, fprce us to act,
fain exists in the mteUectual part or we absolutejy know not either why or
•rgans, being conveyed thither by the wherefbre, for the purpose of more
nervous system, is a feet that has been effectually directing us, before that
repeatedly shewn from anatomical ex* experience can be obtained ? Now
parimeots, although it be likewise nature has expressly provided for dils
tnie, Aat pain is properly and origi- very purpose, by an indissoluble con-
telly felt m the part which really re- catenation of causes andeftects, carried
eaved the injury ; and as the nerve of on by the means of sensibility and irrita^
thai part is the first that received the bility, which the organs of^ every ani*
impression, it straightway conveys the mal, as long as they are and remain
time, by the canaT of tne .medullary fit to perform their peculiar, functions,
J^i to^ Che brak i^-^and this is th^ artist mfaHibly bear the accessory part

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320 Miisc of Put lie Money. *

in efTcctin^ .as wUl be furtlier illus- supposition of a real yibratory mo6if
trated in-tne course of tliis my argu- in the nerves, it admits of some ml
ment. The^ above, hdwever, may unplausible considerations in its fa*
sen-easa comi)etent answer, in the vour, that is to say, in the manner



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 57 of 108)