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way of assent, or in the afTirmauve, to wherein the Doctor himself explaini
tlie first jiart of the cjuestion, as stated it. Sir Isaac Newton in order toac-
byThrasymachus, VIZ. "Does instinct count for. some singular phenomexa

.defiend upon organization and tlic vi- in the world of nature, was fain to
tal sensibility t* admit of a certain subtle flnid, sotne-

To pen a psychological discussion, tliinfi; not unlike the materia suhulk
by any attempt to investigate tlic first of the Cartesian philosophers, and ta
principles of animal life, or what it is which he (Sir Isaac) jgave the name of
that u^jholds the wonderful combina- Ether ; which, if Twere to bayard
tit)n ot subjects and powers \\ hich con- a conjecture, may possibly or nroba-
•titute Uie rational or sensitive micro- bly be tantamoutit to tlie electric
cosm, and which preserves it in such fluid : — jind the admission of such 9
a degree of order as may be found ne- supposition would, indeed, simphfy

- cessary for^the perYormance of all its tlie subject, by diminishing the num-
natural functions, may answer the her of causes— not to mention that
piirposc of proceeding in a regular, lo- we arc sufHciently ascertained of the
^ical deduction, accord'uigto priority, powers and actual existence of the ]at»
■1 ascendiiig the scale of causes and ef- ter principle, whereas the existence,
fccts ; but, in reality, this would assist and operations of the former are merely
OS but very little as to our wincipal assunted in the theor)r and not recpg*
inquiry, wnidi is, to ascertain Liie mode nized in feet. This principle of
whereby informatujn is conveyed from ether. Dr. Hartley makes use of as aa
the body to the tliinking part, or seat agent in his system, and to quoin

•of intelligence^ the vis virta',caHJum his own words,' he "conceives tijal
innaium, or principle of vitality are when external objects are iojipresied
subjects which belong chiefly to me- on the sensory nerves, they excite x'h
dical and physiological enquiries, and brations in the ether residing in-tba
the spirit of aninlation as nprestMited pores of these ner\es, by pieans of
and described by Dr. Darwin, seems mutual actions interceding between
to me to be only a synoninious term, the object nerves and ether; and if
ior the ncnous energy, or the poucr the performance of senstloa, by vi-
and expression of tlie animal spirit -, braton* motions of the medullary
these scTve not to explain this union, particle^ be admitted, this fluid must
in the abstract, and only prove that oe' the 6nly means that can be con-
where we are in want of ideas, we are ceived for their rise and free propaga-
somclimes apt to strain at high sound- gation.**
ing \\ or Js, to supply tlicir place, if (To ie concludtd in our nt%t.)


T>T, Hartley first laid the ground To the Editor of the Umversal Mag, .
work of theiC and similar eiujuiries. Sir,

in the manner of an interpretation of WHEN a nation is invoh-ed in
tlie works of nature, as was originally a war, which the child who was born
sui^ecsted by tJie great Lord Bacoii, in at it.s commencement, may not live to
his ?\(Ji'wm Organum, in which track see terminated, and where that na-
the first numtd metaphysician has tion is loadedwitlia debt of six.liun-
been hinee followed by others j but as dred millions sterling, and one half of
Jje untbrtunately proceeded on the tliat sum was squandered in the
supposition of the vibration of tlie course of a few years, it is a duty in-
nenes, which, if literally so under- cumbent on those who direct the
stood, is evidently a nonentity, his afKiirs of the state, to consider whe-r
doctrine, for some time, impaired his ther that nation can bear a further
credit in the kurned \\ orld ; yet, in addition of three hundred millions
my opinion, if we chang;e the word more; and whetlier'tliey can be so
vilraiion for sluunlatvpn, the Doctor's proportioned, as to last t^U .the return
whole system v.ill be found clear, of peace.

^consistent, and de^^cnpti\-e of natiire. if this may be deemed a prudent
Let me add al^o^ that ewu on the maxims it is not to be expected^ thjd^

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Altue of Public Money.

It wiD be adopted 'by those \sfco so
■e\'ereJj reprobated their predecessors
in office, for saving annually a few
pdtrv millions, and endeavouring to
check that source of corruption, which
hath since appeared in part to the


or thirty thousand pounds. In defend*
Inff a venerable ruin.

It was not till money was granted-
by millions^ that they first found their
genius unfisttered) and Buonparte^s
army of England, consisting of foury

world. If t^ere was a farat dawn of or five thousand men, encamped on
hope, that a stop would be put to the the high ground near Calab, to coVer
sross abuse of public money, that the design of his Egyptian expedition;
oawn is now overcast with dense was the pretence for fortifying the
douds, and there is every thing to Castle-hill. Only iifty thousand
fnr from that unlimited prodigality pounds were first asked to begin this

which is spceadtng like a deluge, from
the east to the west.

In a small tour which I made on
the eoast this summer, with an intent
to make observations,
tioos. I found many persdi

importarit work, and in its progress
artificial mountains were raised, and
removed arain, and souterreans cut
in every <firection, and cuponniers
and ask ques- formed at every pass; to make an old
lOns with fortress, worn out by

»>y. ■«««


^xxifined incomes, (which they could for fourteen days, against any foroel

not improve) complaining, thit they which could be brought against it.

had seen all their little comforts taken When the money was expended, it

from them, one by one ; and that they was a question left undecided by mU

had now the melancholy prospect of litaiy men, whether the fortress could

expectii^, that the necessaries of life hold out forty-eight hours ? and as a

must follow them, to support a wild, point of such importance ou^t not

and extravagant plan of defence,
witliout the kast probability of pub*
lie utility.

I was informed that military en-
nneers were frequently seen racking gjni
their inventions, to find out a vacant tne

place near the shore, to erect bar-?
racks, cast up mounds, ramparts,
basdons, half-moons, horawork, ana
ravelins 4 and that they had in con-
t^mpIation, to demolish houses, to

to be left on a very doubtfriTuncer-*
taiiity, it was ^determined to make
the works impregnable*. This gave a
new spur to inventirai, and the en-:
jineer sought the aid of the carpenter,
mason, and the ihiner, to mount

cannon in the air upon bumb-proof'
arches; and to form mines in the
eartli, to destroy the too adventutoua
besie|;ers. While these works were
carrying on, some persons hiffh in

lake meadows, and gardens, and ruiu office concluded, that the British flag
gentlemen s estates, under the protec-r migbtbe hoisted on the keep j^ ana

tion of a bill, passed tlie last sessions
of psurliament, to have a'
iQodious road to their works { and all
this is to be done, at an uicalculable
expence to the public.

Tq particularize all the works
wliich are now carrying on in Kent,
would £11 a volunm of expensive
items ', and if the price of the mate^
rials, and the expence of the labour,

kept flying there in defiance of tha
conqueror of Italy, should he encamp
with another invmcible legion, under
the walls. But, alas ! new alarms ex-*
cited new apprehensions, and tlia
scientific eye soon discovered Vwq
more weak sides to this supposed im-'
pregnable fortress.

The heights on the south-west sidd
of the tdwn, have long been consi-

could be ascertained, it would caus^ dered by military engineers, as a ^
great d'uiconteur: but I shall confine vourable spot on which they can ex-

my remarks to what I have se^p, Iq
the cpmpass of two $bort miles.

Dover Castle, X understand* has
been in every war, during the last
century, the mart for the fliilitary
engineer ; but while money wa^
grants with a frugal hand, their art
was considerably cramped, and the'gr
g^ius was confined to what they
temied a reforming plan ; and that is,
iapthei: words^ squandering tw^ty

Vol. IV. •

ercise their art, as long as they can
procure money 3 and notwithstanding
this system of fortifying hath been
twice attempted, and as many times
stripped ; as the Quixote schemes oi
Uncle Toby, and corporal Trim)
they are now undertaken again with
a tenfold vigour. WorJifl are ^ready
marked out, near a mile in length, iu
the longest diameter, and prepara-
tions' are mftking to 9OV0t thmgrMod

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'322 ' . the Rrformtf*

M'ttheieginfc butidiogs; that the ord- ges in rocks, and the erecting of I

naiice. And the barrack b6ards, may ouildings and mounds ou their suitaoe, !

each of them, share the merit in the sliould t)e continued much longer,

preparations whidi iite intended to nearly all the ground in the neighbour- I

check the progress of our inveterate hood of the town of Dover will be |

enemy, ifbu^iila should ever reach bought for the crown with our own

our shore. money 3 and the little which is kft

The workx which arc begun, and ^kiU bie ruined to make spacious roili-

the plans which arc forming, may, in tary wards from one fortificatioQ to

the course of eight or ten years, as- another ; for it is said, that the iHf

sume a formidable appearance, if juring of an estate is not to be con«- ,

money can be found to cany them on dered, if an angle can be taken off.

with spirit ) and they will defend two and a fine curving sweep made instql

Tallies leadii^ fiom Folkstone to of it.
Xkn^er } but it the enemy should pre* I am yours,

fer marching into the country^ only A Travellie. ;

about a mile to the westward, all the .

curtan^, ramparts^ and bastions would the refokmek^ no. iv.

De useless. ^ Quicqui dagunt homines, votum,timot

1 have been informed that there is Da t-^uptas

an exteuMve plan in embryo for for- Gaudia' discuwuJ, nostri est hn^^

tifying the hill on the eastern side of . belli.

the castle j but it is generally tliought vi^rr^^ , ,

that much money may be saved,Uid .rr '^^^^ somewhere obonres.

foUy prevented, \>y lowering it, and i^l ^ ^"°^^ "P^'^^X "P^" raemor> J

casfing the earth into Uie sea. ^?i a* man is endot^-ed, by natiro,

. Some of the works, as long as they ^^''^ much stronger incitements to

nemain, will be a disgrace t^ the na- «ensualgnitifieation, and a greater pro-

tioo, if e^-er they should be seen by P^nsity to voluptuous.indn6eiic»,lhffl

« Frenchman. The ditch betweeb ^°^ "^^7 aaimal, so is he likewrrst

the sea and the town is one of them ; P?«5essed of a superior kind of m-

it may be about sixteen feet ^^ide ?5"??'^. ^&^^* anintaiUve power

«xd seven deep, and it is planked ^f/jRcnmi ration, which will allcnr

and caulked, aid turned on ^h sid^ ^"? ^^^^^ hita, whenever opportu.

like a ship, when it Nvas known, at the n*^'^' present themselves, to vay^

time it wSs doing, to every fisherman, ,™^fy' ^^^. °^ ^^^^' *« .°^^^ ^

that the water wxmld filter from the |"x«itous enjoyment, so as at once

bottom through the back at every *J »ns<^ctanji annuse himself, and to

wring tide wiarm and dehght others. In the

V This difficulty would have baffled *>eg"ininR of the wdrid, we may well

the genius of an ordinary person 5 but ^^P^^ (and hoth sacred and profeae

scientific- inen discover r|si)urces at a 21^^^ countenance the opinion) that

considerable distance firom their work. ™«^ii?man body was produced and fl«i.

Vhich are not thought of by the bulk "^^ "^ ^ ^^^ ^^ vigorous and 4

©f mankind. They know, that if wa- ^!^^ ^^*^' thaii at present, when

ter can be made to nm into diis shal- intemperance and disease have given

bw ditch faster than it can run out, it *^^'^ V^ ^"^ "^'1^ *^® **^"™^ °^

miiy be filled. To convince the world Popn|abon unwholesome and cootj-

cxf the truth of this- curlpus exped- "^^^^^' . ^^ this downward nr^ras

fq^ent, they have buUt an aquedu^ to !?f*i™/i?'l' infection, atid acbJlity,

convey the water fix)mtherivervbut ^^.^"^/hat the mmd of man toj

aome who ar^' stiff in their opinions. «^n*"^^ed its diare and depee of

ftUI think that it will require some ^^J^^j^'"*"-' !o P^pel and aa^ererate-

ipeehanical contri>-ani?e, or the inun- ^^^^t the boasted powers of nmp-

dations of the valley, toVaise the wat«r ^?;*>on» tlJ«^ prmapal and peCttlisr

above its present level; and after. the P™® J*°^' ornament of the Jiuaija

niauy thousands which have been "*^' have oflicwted as pandei^ m tht

ttjuiuideredon^this scheme, the ditch, Sf^u'^lT*. ^<^,T /^ u^ Tl''
it filled^ would not retard an enemy >^''**. ^-^'^^^ Y^^^j^ *?''^ been look-
five miimtes ^ ^*J ed upon ^is ideal and chHuencaly hara syitMuoi' excavating pas^ become reaJly such, from the gradurf
• -^ . * »^»?-r mcpe^^jjg Qi opulence aud o£ awjpn^

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The Rrfirmtr.


Wd ix)a7eniences> needs no great dreadwhich all men have bfat^thinfl^

ft«oglh of mind^ or vigour of genim^
or fitreCch oi* faucy^ to unravel and dis-

I have been led to pursue this train
of reflection, by reading over lately

that looks like annihilation, than there
are amongst what we call the great,
or amongst characters of a political
description, whose very nice anddeli**
cate teelings, or superior sentiments.

sofoe paragraplis of our diurnal news if such they are, have perliaps been
papers, and observing in them, that blunted by repeated extrinsic attacks ;

our oatioaal character, so for as it xe
btes to the suiddomania. Is a^in as-
sAning its customary bias and incura-

or who, perhaps, enjoy too many of
the good things of this life, to abandoa-
thenj without a high degree of regret

ble prevalence — ^and 'indeed I mav say, and unwillingness. At least, methinks,.

is shooting forth, with eii<h'easea vio- there exists no Catt) in the {>resent day

— and " Collins lives^ though Qvsar

does seixe upon the republic ! ,

Were we for a moment lo picture

leDoe and ardour, as the gloomy month
of November approaches. Does it
not aopear very irrational in the his*

tory ot mankind, that the inflicting of to ourselves in idea, some unfortunate,
this exti'eme violence upon all the humalh being, bereft of all' domestic
leosibilities of our nature, should comforts, and laden with e\'ery misery,
exist almost exclusively among the except such as may depend on corpo-
»_-. . . J. • » r. .. real pains; disappointed in all his at-

tempts to better his condition, how

Pfnitus toto dhisos orhe Britannos,
ki so much that — siste spectator et'
ftspke-^t is a well known and la-
mentable fiict, tliat there are more
l^oeot infringements of the sixth
ooounaodment and of that law, which
Job bad imposed upon himself, '' All
the days oi my appointed time, will

ever probable lie had deemed them ;
harrassed by want and famine—and

when the keener and niord ardent
sensations of his animal appetites had
been subdued, struggling Wd to rise
superior to the recollection of hi^
J wait,' till ni|f change come**— tlian in quondam tender habits, of the softer
the whole 01 the rest of £urope, put affections — were we further to imagine

aether in the aggr^ate, or taken such a person tinctured with a certain
iecthely} It is reasonable to think degree of pride, which renders it.
that objects of wretchedness, and seenaingly impossible, or at least very
cases of compassion, are more nume* difficult tor him, brought up as he has
mus npon the continent than in this been, to stoop to any thing tliat looks
oor climate, where splendour and hos* like a menial situation, such a person
IVtality, and* charitable institutions might possibly be tempted to think it-
abound, and where such immense ;io crime to hasten a dissolution which
nuns {pie annually given towards the he saw hourly and inevitably approach^
soppoitof the poor; but so it happens, ing; and ns reason would, in all hke*
ancf so it is, that where corix>real liliood, conjure up numberless so-
wants and necessities are the soonest phisms to impose upon his despair^
relieved and relieyable, there it is we may consider his irritability as
that the mind has most leisure to very unlike the deliberate, affected

coolness of Rol)eck, who, alter he had
written a volunuijous treatise on Sui-
cide, immediately set b« , house in
order, and killed himself with his own
hands.— The arguments of this Li5t in*'
conisiderate man, hinge upon a stjppo-
sition, that he was placed upon tni»
globe, for no other purpose, end, or
example whatever, out 11 is own grati-
fication. It will readily be admitted,
that no being endowea with lite and
It appears to me, (but I will not sensibility was ever placed upon the
positivefy aver it for a feet) that there stage of this world, merely tor the

brood over and ponder on suppositi-
tious misery, and to cast a gloomy sha-
dow over slight or imaginary mis-
fertunes. — In France, a new and sur-
prising instance of this species of
insanity has lately occurred, but which
has been record^ there as a pheno-
menon altogether . Knir/Ke, viz. that
a child of i'2 years of age, had deli-
berately turned felo de se, and put 4
violent end to its existence.

are more of tbe middling and lower
<^asses of life amongst us, that put
this involuntary shod upoa tlie sys-
^i and thus ^armottot the natural

purpose of being tormented-— but, on
tlie other hand, it should be remem-
bered, that if namre inflicts diseases
upon UB, we do not err if we fpc^k t^

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counteract their fbrccj by procaring not susceptible of aheration. GM/

the assistanceof medicine; — although^ disquietude, regret, and despair, are

if it be true that, '* Whatever is, is short-lived evils, which never crigi-

light," it is nnqueationably by the or- nally take root in the mind; and ex-

der of God, or by natnre*s appoint* perience always falsifies that bitter

ment tliat we are so itifflicted. it ddes reflection, which makes anreflectipg

;iot follow, therefore, that we have mortals imagine that their miseries

only a right to stay here^ or to prolong will ha\'e no end. It seems to ne,

our existence it this world, so long that a longer life would reform roao-

only as we find all things agreeable— kind, ana many ages of youth would

or tliat we are at liberty to quit or teach us that nothing is preferable to

resign our station, Avhen every charm virtue.

that before rendered it tolerable, is *' Mental afflictions, be they ever

fled, and when life itself becomes not so acute, always cany their renied^

only irksome to the community at along with them. In fact, what is it

ieige, but even an abhorrence to our- makes any evil intolerable ? Nodiing

selves. but. its duration. The operatioBs of

: To sacrifice any part of our body for surgery, are generally much mote

the preservation of the rest, would painfiu than the disorder they core:

not be thought absurd ; —neither would out the pain occasioned by the latter,

it be looked upon as folly, to sacrifice isiasting, while that of the opentioo
that body itself for the preservation of is only momentary, and theresbre «e

the soul, which is the more valuable judge it preferal^. What occasion

part, and the safety of which con- is there, therdbre, for any extiaordi*
^titutes the only hope that we have of naiy q)eration to remove troubles

enjoying happiness hereafter. which will of course become, by their

1 shall conclude this paper, by lay- duration, the only circumstance which
kig before my readers a passage pf could render them insupportable? '•

Souaaeau, which appears to me« to it reasonabk; to apply siich daspenaa

Ornish a very plain and efiicieni an- remedies to evils which expire of

awer, easily coiAiting all the* senti- themselves ? To a man who values

ments which an advocate ifr suicide himself on his fortitude, and wbo

miffht be supposed to enterCin and to estimates years at their r^ value, of

ahelter himself under, on such an 6c- two ways by which he may extricate

casion as we have been introducing, himself firom the same troubles, which

' * * Did Gito kiU himself for the evils will appear preferable*-death or time ?

which he suffered in his own person ? Let us liave patience, and we shall be

We endure misery 3 it is in our power cured. What can we desire more?"

to avoid suffering. This is inverting — —

the basis of the question ; for the sub- bxthacts from a litbrabt cok*

ject is not whether we actually do or mok-place book>

do not suffer, but whether lite be a Genuine Copv of a Letter wfiiten w

positive evil. Wfe naturally endeavour ike Year 105?, by the Duke ^

to extricate ourselves from pain, afflic- Lauderdale^ to one of his Friends,

tion, and miser)'. But let us first sib,

decide,whether,'for that purpose, it is IT is sad that the Sadducean, or
absolutdy necessary to die r Let us rather atheistical denyiiig of spirits,
fi>r a moment examine the nature, and their apparitions, ancTpossessions
drif^, and tendencjr of mental affiic- of persons, should so fiir prevail, as I
tions, as in opposition to corporeal find it does at present 9 but why
evils ; the two substances being of a should we wonder at it, in such an
heterogeneous nature. Tlie latter be. age of infidelity as thi.9 ? since those
come more inveterate the longer they who will not believe Moses and the
continue, and at length will be sure Prophets, we know, will not be con-
utterly to destroy this mortal machine, vinced, though one should rise from
Tlie former, on the contrary, being the dead. * But for me, may hea\en
only External and transitory raodifica- ever defend me fix)m such hardness of
taons of ah immortal and uncom- heart} and indeed, I count it no small
poimded essence, will become insen - mercy t(^ me, that I have had s^al
stbly effaced, and thereby leave the proof, and even ocular dononstratioQ
Wind in its origiuttl form, which ia ef the truth ofn real and certain pe»<

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JExIfactsJrmn a Liiermy ContmM-pfUce BM.


iof}J|)ints> which I propose a
lelatioii ofj as the business of this

There was some years since, iu the
town of Dnnce, in tiie Mersj a poor
and igaorant womani who was ee-
neral^ believed to be possessed oy
an evil spirit 5 I myself often saw her,
and never doubted it ; and 1 well re-
member that the minister of die place,
a learned, an ingenious, and a godly
man, made no scniplec^ affirming the
same to all persons 3 and himself
otien visited her and readily attended
strangers who were desirous of the
same satisfaction »

This piclus' gentleman even went
fo fiu: as to apply to the king's privy
coanctl, to wnom he also brought tlie
written attestations of twenty neigh-
hoorii^ ministers to the truth of the
&ct, for a warrant to keep days of
hamiliation for her; tlie powers of
certain bishops, however, hindering,
at that time, any such fast to be kept,
prevented this godly intention.

These nersons, moreover, were not
to be made to believe that this was a
feal jMsARsffiafi^. I wonder not, indeed,
at these jgentlemens' disbelief of pos-
sfsmns m general, if they have seen
what I myself have, of the baseness
and ro^eiy of the church oFRonie, in
their tricks of this sort, in order to
make a merit or miracle in dispos-
sessing; but think tliey might have
given a fuller credit to tliis, where
there were attestations of so many
godly persons to the truth of a fact,
sad no intent of a shani dispossessing
or any other deceit.

As to the pretended French miracles
of thissfjrt, iwas myself, I remember,
at Loadan, at the time when there
were a thousand strange stories re-
ported and books written about tl>e
fossession of tiie Loudon nuns; and
Wmg desirous to be an eye-witness
oflhe truth, I went to see them, not
docbting but that it was possible for
the deru to possess a nun, as well as
any other person. But, alas ! 1 was
ttnuweiy msi^pointed ; for this was
no other than a trick, nor did I see
any thin^ there, but a company of
wanton wenclies pretending to be
fftssessed, singing many bawdy songs
10 French, aud playing a thousand
odd indecent tricks, in which how-
ever, .thoagh they had been well

taught, they were nothing to compare
to our tumblers and rope tlancers ;
and one of them, with tlie letters
hand, which, they told us, were writ-

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